TEKS Correlations

Grades 4-7

Science

2. Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. The student is expected to:

(A) plan and implement descriptive and simple experimental investigations including asking well-defined questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting and using equipment and technology; (B) collect information by observing and measuring;

4. Scientific processes. The student knows how to use a variety of tools and methods to conduct science inquiry. The student is expected to:

(B) demonstrate that repeated investigations may increase the reliability of results.

Grade 6: 6. Science concepts. The student knows that there is a relationship between force and motion. The student is expected to:

(A) identify and describe the changes in position, direction of motion, and speed of an object when acted upon by force; (B) demonstrate that changes in motion can be measured and graphically represented.

Social Studies

Grade 4: (4.20) Culture. The student understands the contributions of people of various racial, ethnic, and religious groups to Texas. The student is expected to:

(B) identify customs, celebrations, and traditions of various culture groups in Texas.

(4.21) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of science and technology on life in Texas. The student is expected to:

(B) describe how scientific discoveries and technological innovations have benefited individuals, businesses, and society in Texas.

Grade 5:
(5.10) Economics. The student understands the basic economic patterns of early societies in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) explain the economic patterns of various early Native-American groups in the United States.

(5.14) Economics. The student understands patterns of work and economic activities in the United States. The student is expected to:

(A) analyze how people in different parts of the United States earn a living, past and present.

Grade 6: (6.7) Geography. The student understands the impact of interactions between people and the physical environment on the development of places and regions. The student is expected to:

(C) describe ways in which technology influences human capacity to modify the physical environment.

Grade 7: (7.20) Science, technology, and society. The student understands the impact of scientific discoveries and technological innovations on the political, economic, and social development of Texas. The student is expected to:

(A) compare types and uses of technology, past and present.

 
 

Practical Tools - Atlatls

Goal: to introduce students to early technologies and the need for knowledge and skill in use of the technology and knowledge of the environment in order to successfully use the tools.

Objective: students will determine how to calculate velocity using a spear and atlatl; students will determine the difference in spear velocity using a hand throw versus an atlatl throw.

Materials Needed:
-
spear
- atlatl
- football field (or large outdoor opening)
- tape measure
- stopwatch
- pencils
- paper

An Atlatl can be made by shaping a straight piece of hardwood that is the length of your arm. The handle should be about 3-5 inches long. The head should be about 2-5 inches long. The remainder of the atlatl is composed of the shaft. The head of the atlatl must have a hook imbedded into it or a depression where the spear can be placed. (See website www.primitiveways.com/pt-spearthrower.html for atlatl construction tips.)

To make a spear take a straight piece of bamboo that is between 4 - 7 feet in length depending of your height (if your are taller a longer spear is better suited, if you are smaller a shorter spear is suited). Cut both ends square. Attach three feathers to one end (use a dart as a reference to attach the feathers). The end of the spear that has the attached feathers should also have a hole drilled, so that the hook can fit in it. The hook should be about 2 inches in length, with about 1 inch imbedded into the atlatl head and 1/2 - 1 inch showing. The hook can be made of wood, antler, or bone. A dowel rod is also suitable.

Activity Description:

  • Make sure that all students and other people are clear from the throwing area.
  • Prepare to throw the spear using a bare-handed throw.
  • As the spear leaves the hand of the thrower, start the stopwatch.
  • When the spear lands, stop the stopwatch and record the flight time.
  • Measure the distance of where the spear landed from where the thrower started and record the distance.
  • Velocity has a vector component, so note the direction of the throw.
    • Example: Using a bare-handed style, the spear traveled northward at a velocity of 25 feet for 5 seconds.
      Calculations (into miles per hour):
      1) 25 feet into miles. 5280 feet = 1 mile 25 / 5280 = 0.0047 miles
      2) 5 seconds into hours. 3600 seconds =1 hour 5 / 3600 = 0.0014 hours
      3) for miles per hour. 0.0047 / 0.0014 = 3.36 miles per hour traveling northward.
  • Repeat the previous 6 steps, however, this time use the atlatl to throw the spear.
  • Compare the results and determine if the atlatl increased the velocity of the throw.