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Related Articles and Other References

General References

Symposium: Impact of Implants on Performance and Carcass Value of Beef Cattle. 1997. F. N. Owens (Ed.), Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. P-957, Stillwater, OK. (This outstanding symposium includes 27 articles by experts in the field of growth-promoting implants.)

Guiroy, P. J., L. O. Tedeschi, D. G. Fox, and J. P. Hutcheson.  2002.  The effects of implant strategy on finished body weight of beef cattle.  J. Anim. Sci.  80:1791-1800.

Nichols, W. T., M. L. Galyean, D. U. Thomson, and J. P. Hutcheson.  2002.  Review: Effect of Steroid Implants on the Tenderness of Beef.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  18:202-210.

Mode of Action References

White M. E., B. J. Johnson, M. R. Hathaway, and W. R. Dayton.  2003.  Growth factor messenger RNA levels in muscle and liver of steroid-implanted and nonimplanted steers.  J. Anim Sci.  81:965-972.

Dunn J. D., B. J. Johnson, J. P. Kayser, A. T. Waylan, E. K. Sissom, and J. S. Drouillard.  2003.  Effects of flax supplementation and a combined trenbolone acetate and estradiol implant on circulating insulin-like growth factor-I messenger RNA levels in beef cattle.  J. Anim. Sci  81:3028-3034.

Breier, B. H., P. D. Gluckman, and J. J. Bass. 1988. The somatotrophic axis in young steers: Influence of nutritional status and oestradiol-17b on hepatic high- and low-affinity somatotrophic binding sites. J. Endocrinology 118:169.

Breier, B. H., P. D. Gluckman, and J. J. Bass. 1988. Influence of nutritional status and oestradiol-17b on plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I and -II and the response to exogenous growth hormone in young steers. J. Endocrinology 118:243.

Enright, W. J., J. F. Quirke, P. D. Gluckman, B. H. Greier, L. G. Kennedy, I. C. Hart, J. R. Roche, A. Coert, and P. Allen. 1990. Effects of long-term administration of pituitary-derived bovine growth hormone and estradiol on growth of steers. J. Anim. Sci. 68:2345.

Gopinath, R., and W. D. Kitts. 1984. Growth hormone secretion and clearance rates in growing beef steers implanted with estrogenic anabolic compounds. Growth 48:499.

Gopinath, R., and W. D. Kitts. 1984. Plasma thyroid hormone concentrations in growing beef steers implanted with estrogenic anabolic growth promotants. Growth 48:515.

Grigsby, M. E., and A. Trenkle. 1986. Plasma growth hormone, insulin, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormone in large, medium and small breeds of steers with and without an estradiol implant. Dom. Anim. Endocrinology 3:261.

Hayden, J. M., W. G. Bergen, and R. A. Merkel. 1992. Skeletal muscle protein metabolism and serum growth hormone, insulin, and cortisol concentrations in growing steers implanted with estradiol-17b , trenbolone acetate, or estradiol-17b plus trenbolone acetate. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2109.

Hongerholt, D. D., B. A. Crooker, J. E Wheaton, K. M. Carlson, and D. M. Jorgenson. 1992. Effects of a growth hormone-releasing factor analogue and an estradiol-trenbolone acetate implant on somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor I, and metabolite profiles in growing Hereford steers. J. Anim. Sci. 70:1439.

Hunt, D. W., D. M. Henricks, G. C. Skelley, and L. M. Grimes. 1991. Use of trenbolone acetate and estradiol in intact and castrate male cattle. Effect on growth, serum hormones, and carcass characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 69:2452.

Johnson, B. J., M. R. Hathaway, P. T. Anderson, J. C. Meiske, and W. R. Dayton. 1996. Stimulation of circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) due to administration of a combined trenbolone acetate and estradiol implant in feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 74:372.

Meyer, H. H. D., and M. Rapp. 1985. Estrogen receptors in skeletal muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 60:294.

Rumsey, T. S., T. H. Elsasser, and S. Kahl. 1996. Roasted soybeans and an estrogenic growth promoter affect growth hormone status and performance of beef steers. J. Nutr. 126:2880.

Sauerwein, H., and H. H. D. Meyer. 1989. Androgen and estrogen receptors in bovine skeletal muscle: Relation to steroid-induced allometric muscle growth. J. Anim. Sci. 67:206.

Carrier, Release Rate, and Blood Level References

Bartle, S. J., R. L. Preston, R. E. Brown, and R. J. Grant. 1992, Trenbolone acette/estradiol combinations in feedlot steers: Dose-response and implant carrier effects. J. Anim. Sci. 70:1326.

Henricks, D. M., R. L. Edwards, K. A. Champe, T. W. Gettys, G. C. Skelley, Jr., and T. Giminez. 1982. Trenbolone, estradiol-17b and estrone levels in plasma and tissues and live weight gains of heifers implanted with trenbolone acetate. J. Anim. Sci. 55:1048.

Ritchie, H. D., S. R. Rust, and D. L. Nielsen. 1990. Payout rate of estradiol benzoate and progesterone from Synovex-C implants. Michigan Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Rep. 491, pp 76-77.

Rumsey, T. S., A. C. Hammond, and J. P. McMurtry. 1992. Response to reimplanting beef steers with estradiol benzoate and progesterone: Performance, implant absorption pattern, and thyroxine status. J. Anim. Sci. 70:995.

Reproductive Effects References

Bolze, R. P, and L. R. Corah. 1988. Effects of a single zeranol implant on conception rates and dystocia in primiparous beef heifers. Prof. Anim. Sci. 4:19.

Cohen, R. D. H., E. D. Janzen, and H. H. Nicholson. 1987. Effect of repeated implantation with zeranol from birth or weaning on growth and reproduction in beef heifers. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 67:37.

Deutscher, G. H., L. L. Zerfars, and D. C. Clanton. 1986. Time of zeranol implantation on growth, reproduction, and calving of beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 62:875.

Pritchard, D. L., T. T. Marshall, D. D. Hargrove, and T A. Olson. 1989. Effects of creep feeding, zeranol implants and breed type on beef production. II Reproduction and fat deposition in heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 67:617.

Staigmiller, R. B., R. A. Bellows, and R. E. Short. 1983. Growth and reproductive traits in beef heifers implanted with zeranol. J. Anim. Sci. 57:527.

Animal Behavior References

Brower, G. R., and G. H. Kiracofe. 1978. Factors associated with the buller-steer syndrome. J. Anim. Sci. 46:26.

Dykeman, D. A., L. S. Katz, and R. H. Foote. 1982. Behavioral characteristics of beef steers administered estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. J. Anim. Sci. 55:1303.

Irwin, M. R., D. R. Melendy, M. S. Amoss, and D. P. Hutcheson. 1979. Roles of predisposing factors and gonadal hormones in the buller syndrome of feedlot steers. J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc. 174:367.

Nutrient-Implant Interaction References

Schoonmaker J. P., M. J. Cecava, D. B. Faulkner, F. L. Fluharty, H. N. Zerby, and S. C. Loerch.  2003.  Effect of source of energy and rate of growth on performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and serum glucose and insulin of early-weaned steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:843-855.

Anderson P. T., and R. L. Botts. 1995. Effects of steroid implants on feed intake. In: Symposium: Intake by Feedlot Cattle, pp 97-104, Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta., P-942.

DiCostanzo, A., and C. M. Zehnder. 1999. Estimation of protein requirements of feedlot steers. Prof. Anim. Sci. 15:116.

Galyean, M. L. 1996. Protein levels in beef cattle finishing diets: Industry application, university research, and systems results. J. Anim. Sci. 74:2860.

Hunter, R. A., and J. E. Vercoe. 1987. Reduction of energy requirements of steers fed on low-quality roughage diets using trenbolone acetate. Br. J. Nutr. 58:477.

Lemieux, P. G., F. M. Byers, and G. T. Schelling. 1988. Anabolic effects on rate, composition and energetic efficiency of growth in cattle fed forage and grain diets. J. Anim. Sci. 66:1824.

Lemieux, P. G., F. M. Byers, and G. T. Schelling. 1990. Relationship of anabolic status and phase and rate of growth to priorities for protein and fat deposition in steers. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1702.

Lobley, G. E., A. Connell, G. S. Mollison, A. Brewer, C. I. Harris, and V. Buchan. 1985. The effects of a combined implant of trenbolone acetate and oestradiol-17b on protein and energy metabolism in growing beef steers. B. J. Nutr. 54:681.

Owens, F. N., D. R. Gill, D. S. Secrist, and S. W. Coleman. 1995. Review of some aspects of growth and development in feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3152.

NRC. 1996. Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle (7th Ed.). National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Solis, J. C., F. M. Byers, G. T. Schelling, and L. W. Greene. 1989. Anabolic implant and frame size effects on growth regulation, nutrient repartitioning and energetic efficiency of feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. 67:2792.

Carcass Quality and Cutout References

Barham B. L., J. C. Brooks, J. R. Blanton, Jr., A. D. Herring, M. A. Carr,  C. R. Kerth, and M. F. Miller.  2003.  Effects of growth implants on consumer perceptions of meat tenderness in beef steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  81: 3052-3056.

Kerth C. R., J. L. Montgomery, K. J. Morrow, M. L. Galyean, and M. F. Miller.  2003.  Protein turnover and sensory traits of longissimus muscle from implanted and nonimplanted heifers.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:1728-1735.

Reiling B. A., and D. D. Johnson.  2003.  Effects of implant regimens (trenbolone acetate-estradiol administered alone or in combination with zeranol) and vitamin D3 on fresh beef color and quality.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:135-142.

Apple, J. K., M. E. Dikeman, D. D. Simms, and G. Kuhl. 1991. Effects of synthetic hormone implants, singularly or in combinations, on performance, carcass traits, and longissimus muscle palatability of Holstein steers. J. Anim. Sci. 69:4437.

Duckett, S. K. D. G. Wagner, F. N. Owens, H. G. Dolezal, and D. R. Gill. 1996. Effects of estrogenic and androgenic implants on performance, carcass traits, and meat tenderness in feedlot steers: A review. Prof. Anim. Sci. 12:205.

Garber, M. J., R. A. Roeder, J. J. Combs, L. Eldridge, J. C. Miller, D. D. Hinman, and J. J. Ney. 1990. Efficacy of vaginal spaying and anabolic implants on growth and carcass characteristics in beef heifers. J. Anim. Sci. 68:1469.

Gerken, C. L., J. D. Tatum, J. B. Morgan, and G. C. smith. 1995. Use of genetically identical (cloned) steers to determine the effects of estrogenic and androgenic implants on beef quality and palatability characteristics. J. Anim. Sci. 73:3317.

Hutcheson, D. P., J. P. Rains, and J. W. Paul. 1993. The effects of different implant and feed additive strategies on performance and carcass characteristics in finishing heifers. A review. Prof. Anim. Sci. 9:132.

Johnson, B. J., P. T. Anderson, J. C. Meiske, and W. R. Dayton. 1996. Effect of a combined trenbolone acetate and estradiol implant on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass composition of feedlot steers. J. Anim. Sci. 74:363.

Loy, D D., H. W. Harpster, and E. H. Cash. 1988. Rate, composition, and efficiency of growth in feedlot steers reimplanted with growth stimulants. J. Anim. Sci. 66:2668.

Perry, T. C., D. G. Fox, and D. H. Beermann. 1991. Effect of an implant of trenbolone acetate and estradiol on growth, feed efficiency, and carcass composition of Holstein and beef steers. J. Anim. Sci. 69:4696.

Samber, J. A., J. D. Tatum, M. I. Wray, W. T. Nichols, J. B. Morgan, and G. C. Smith. 1996. Implant program effects on performance and carcass quality of finishing steer calves fed for 212 days. J. Anim. Sci. 74:1470.

Thornsberry, R. M. 1993. The effect of zeranol and trenbolone acetate and estradiol and trenbolone acetate on carcass and performance parameters of finishing steers. Agri-Practice. 14(5):29.

Wood, J. D., A. V. Fisher, and O. P. Whelehan. 1986. The effects of a combined androgenic-oestrogenic anabolic agent in steers and bulls. 2. Muscle weight distribution, partitioning of body fat, and carcass value. Anim. Prod. 42:213.

Carryover and Lifetime Effects Implant References

Scheffler J. M., D. D. Buskirk, S. R. Rust, J. D. Cowley, and M. E. Doumit.  2003.  Effect of repeated administration of combination trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants on growth, carcass traits, and beef quality of long-fed Holstein steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:2395-2400.

Gill, D. R., H. R. Spires, F. E. Bates, B. L. Peverly, and K. S. Lusby. 1986. Response of fall-born calves to progesterone-estradiol benzoate implants nad reimplants. J. Anim. Sci. 62:37.

Hardt, P. F., L. W. Greene, and D. K. Lunt. 1995. Alterations in metacarpal characteristics in steers and heifers sequentially implanted with Synovex“ from 45 days of birth. J. Anim. Sci. 73:55-62.

Mader, T. L., D. C. Clanton, J. K. Ward, D. E. Pankaskie, and G. H. Deutscher. 1985. Effect of pre- and post-weaning zeranol implant on steer calf performance. J. Anim. Sci. 61:546.

Mader, T. L., J. M. Dahlquist, M. H. Sindt, R. A. Stock, and T. J. Klopfenstein. 1994. Effect of sequential implanting with Synovex on steer and heifer performance. J. Anim. Sci. 72:1095.

Mader, T. L. 1994. Effect of implant sequence and dose on feedlot cattle performance. J. Anim. Sci. 72:277.

McReynolds, W. W., C. T. Gaskins, S. Clark, and R. L. Preston. 1979. Ralogro and Synovex-S for steers during the nursing, growing and finishing periods. Proc. West. Sec. Amer. Soc. Anim. Sci. 30:45.

Simms, D. D., T. B. Goehring, R. T. Brandt, Jr., G. L. Huhl, J. J. Higgins, S. B. Laudert, and R. W. Lee. 1988. Effect of sequential implanting with zeranol on steer lifetime performance. J. Anim. Sci. 66:2736.

Implant Safety and Tissue Residue References

Wilson V. S, C. Lambright, J. Ostby, and L. E. Gray, Jr.  2002.  In vitro and in vivo effects of 17beta-trenbolone:  a feedlot effluent contaminant.  Toxicol. Sci.   70:202-211.

Ankley G.T., K. M. Jensen, E. A. Makynen, M. D. Kahl, J. J. Korte, M. W. Hornung, T. R. Henry, J. S. Denny, R. L. Leino, V. S. Wilson, M. C. Cardon, P. C. Hartig, and L. E. Gray.  2003.  Effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17-beta-trenbolone on fecundity and reproductive endocrinology of the fathead minnow.  Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 22:1350-1360.

MacNeil J. D., J. Reid, C. D. Neiser, and A. C. Fesser.  2003.  Single-laboratory validation of a modified liquid chromatographic method with UV detection for determination of trenbolone residues in bovine liver and muscle.  J. AOAC Int.  86:916-924.

Heitzman, R. J., and D. J. Harwood. 1977. Residue levels of trenbolone and estradiol-17b in plasma and tissues of steers implanted with anabolic steroid preparations. Br. Vet. J. 133.564.

Preston, R. L. 1975. Biological responses to estrogen additives in meat producing cattle and lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 41:1414.

Preston, R. L., E. Cheng, C. D. Story, P. Homeyer, J. Pauls, and W. Burroughs. 1956. The influence of oral administration of diethylstilbestrol upon estrogenic residues in the tissues of beef cattle. J. Anim. Sci. 15:3.

Stobb, M., F. N. Andrews, M. X. Zarrow, and W. M. Beeson. 1954. Estrogenic activity of the meat of cattle, sheep, and poultry following treatment with synthetic estrogens and progesterone. J. Anim. Sci. 13:138.


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