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Related Articles and Other References

 
Animal Performance and General References 

Symposium:  Impact of Implants on Performance and Carcass Value of Beef Cattle. 1997. F. N. Owens (Ed.), Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Sta. P-957, Stillwater, OK. (This outstanding symposium includes 27 articles by experts in the field of growth-promoting implants.)

Aiken, G. E., M. L. Looper, S. F. Tabler, D. K. Brauer, J. R. Strickland and F. N. Schrick.  2006.  Influence of stocking rate and steroidal implants on growth rate of steers grazing toxic tall fescue and subsequent physiological responses.  J. Anim. Sci.  84:1626-1632. 

Aiken, G. E., L. K. McClanahan, B. H. Kirch, and F. N. Schrick.  2008.  Performance and physiology of steers following grazing of toxic tall fescue as influenced by feeding soybean hulls on pasture and postgraze steroid implantation.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  24:392-398. 

Barham, B., P. Beck, J. Apple, W. Whitworth, M. Miller, and S. Gadberry.  2012.  Effect of age entering feedlot and implant regimen on beef cattle performance, carcass characteristics, and sensory evaluation.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  28:20-31. 

Beck, P., B. Barham, J. Apple, W. Whitworth, M. Miller, and S. Gadberry.  2012.  Effect of age entering feedlot and implant regimen on finishing system profitability.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  28:32-40. 

Beck, P., T. Hess, D. Hubbell, G. D. Hufstedler, B. Fieser, and J. Caldwell.  Additive effects of growth promoting technologies on performance of grazing steers and economics of the wheat pasture enterprise .  J. Anim. Sci.  92:1219-1227. 

Berthiaume, R., I. Mandell, L. Faucitano, and C. Lafrenière.  2006.  Comparison of alternative beef production systems based on forage finishing or grain-forage diets with or without growth promotants:  1.  Feedlot performance, carcass quality, and production costs.  J. Anim. Sci.  84:2168-2177. 

Bruns, K. W., R. H. Pritchard, and D. L. Boggs.  2005.  The effect of stage of growth and implant exposure on performance and carcass composition in steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  83:108-116. 

Capper, J. L., and D. J. Hayes.  2012.  The environmental and economic impact of removing growth-enhancing technologies from U.S. beef production.  J. Anim. Sci.  90:3527-3537.

Cleale, R. M., D. Amodie, D. T. Bechtol, J. S. Drouillard, J. D. Edmonds, M. Edmonds, B. D. Hunsaker, L. A. Kraft, T. E. Lawrence, R. D. Rulli, and A. R. Waite.  2013.   Effects of estradiol benzoate and trenbolone acetate, alone or in combination at dose levels present in Synovex Choice, on performance by feedlot heifers.  J. Anim. Sci.  91:970-977.

Cleale, R. M., D. T. Bechtol, J. S. Drouillard, J. D. Edmonds, M. Edmonds, B. D. Hunsaker, L. A. Kraft, T. E. Lawrence, S. Brewbaker, and A. R. Waite.  2012.  Synovex Plus implants coated with a polymeric, porous film improve performance of beef steers and heifers fed in confinement for up to 200 days.  J. Anim. Sci.  90:5056-5066.

Cleale, R. M., J. D. Edmonds, M. Edmonds, B. D. Hunsaker, L. A. Kraft, L. L. Smith, and T. A. Yazwinski.  2015.  Growth promoting hormonal implant pellets coated with a polymeric, porous film promote weight gain by grazing beef heifers and steers for up to 200 days.  J. Anim. Sci.  93:1933-1941.

Folmer, J. D., T. B. Farran, G. E. Erickson, T. J. Klopfenstein, C. D. Reinhardt, B. D. Dicke, J. S. Drouillard, M. N. Streeter, and J. T. Vasconcelos.  2009.  Evaluation of Revalor-IH and Revalor-IS as initial implants compared with traditional initial implants for finishing heifers and steers.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  25:580-585.

Griffin, W. A., D. C. Adams, and R. N. Funston.  2009.  The effect of delaying initial feedlot implant on body weight, average daily gain, and carcass characteristics of calf-fed steers.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  25:145-149.

Guiroy, P. J., L. O. Tedeschi, D. G. Fox, and J. P. Hutcheson.  2002.  The effects of implant strategy on finished body weight of beef cattle.  J. Anim. Sci.  80:1791-1800.

Johnson, B. J., F. R. B. Ribeiro and J. L. Beckett.  2013.  Application of growth technologies in enhancing food security and sustainability.  Anim. Front.  3:8-13.

King, D. A., S. D. Shackelford, T. G. McDaneld, L. A. Kuehn, C. M. Kemp, T. P. L. Smith, T. L. Wheeler, and M. Koohmaraie.  2012.  Associations of genetic markers in cattle receiving differing implant protocols.  J. Anim. Sci.  90:2410-2423.

Kreikemeier, W. M., and T. L. Mader.  2004.  Effects of growth-promoting agents and season on yearling feedlot heifer performance.  J. Anim. Sci.  82:2481-2488.

Mader, T. L., and W. M. Kreikemeier.  2006.  Effects of growth-promoting agents and season on blood metabolites and body temperature in heifers.  J. Anim. Sci.  84:1030-1037.

Maxwell, C. L., B. C. Bernhard, C. F. O’Neill, B. K. Wilson, C. G. Hixon, C. L. Haviland, A. N. Grimes, M. S. Calvo-Lorenzo, D. L. VanOverbeke, G. G. Mafi, C. J. Richards, D. L. Step, B. P. Holland, and C. R. Krehbiel.  2015.  The effects of technology use in feedlot production systems on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics.  J. Anim. Sci.  93:1340-1349.

Maxwell, C. L., C. R. Krehbiel, B. K. Wilson, B. T. Johnson, B. C. Bernhard, C. F. O’Neill, D. L. VanOverbeke, G. G. Mafi, D. L. Step, and C. J. Richards.  2014.  Effects of beef production system on animal performance and carcass characteristics.  J. Anim. Sci.  92:5727-5738.

McClanahan, L. K., G. E. Aiken, and C. T. Dougherty.  2008.  Case Study:  Influence of rough hair coats and steroid implants on the performance and physiology of steers grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue in the summer.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  24:269-276.

McLaughlin, C. L., D. T. Bechtol, T. E. Lawrence, K. Lechtenberg, W. M. Moseley, F. L. Prouty, B. H. Vanimisetti, and A. R. Waite.  2013.  Comparison of the effects of long-acting Synovex One with Revalor-XS and Synovex Plus on growth performance and carcass quality in steers.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  29:147-156.

McLaughlin, C. L., E. Larson, G. I. Crawford, R. S. Swingle, B. E. Depenbusch, B. Hunsaker, B. H. Vanimisetti, and F. L. Prouty.  2013.  Comparison of a reimplant program using Synovex Choice and Synovex Plus versus Revalor-XS in feedlot steers.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  29:219-227.

McMurphy, C. P., S. K. Linneen, G. L. Mourer, B. P. Holland, G. W. Horn, and D. L. Lalman.  2013.  Effects of stocker-phase grazing system and implantation on performance and carcass characteristics of fall-born steers.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  29:27-32.

Moseley, W. M., D. M. Meeuwse, J. F. Boucher, K. J. Dame, and J. W. Lauderdale.  2003.  A dose-response study of melengestrol acetate on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of beef steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:2699-2703.

Munson, R. D., D. U. Thomson, and C. D. Reinhardt.  2012.  Effects of delayed steroid implanting on health, performance, and carcass quality in high health risk, auction market-sourced feedlot steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  90:4037-4041.

Neumeier, C. J., and F. M. Mitloehner.  2013.  Cattle biotechnologies reduce environmental impact and help feed a growing planet.  Anim. Front.  3:36-41.

Nichols, C. A., G. E. Erickson, J. T. Vasconcelos, M. N. Streeter, B. D. Dicke, D. J. Jordon, R. J. Cooper, T. L. Scott, and T. J. Klopfenstein.  2014.  Comparison of Revalor XS, a new single-dose implant, to a Revalor IS and Revalor S implant strategy in finishing steers.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  30:51-55.

Poe, K. D., P. A. Beck, J. T. Richeson, M. S. Gadberry, E. B. Kegley, T. W. Hess, and D. S. Hubbell.  2013.  Effects of respiratory vaccination timing and growth-promoting implant on health, performance, and immunity of high-risk, newly received stocker cattle.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  29:413-419.

Prouty, F., and E. Larson.  2010.  Comparison of reimplantation strategies using Synovex Choice and Synovex Plus with Revalor-XS in Feedlot Steers.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  26:76-81.

Reinhardt, C. D., and J. J. Wagner.  High-dose anabolic implants are not all the same for growth and carcass traits of feedlot steers:  A meta-analysis .  2014.  J. Anim. Sci.  92:4711-4718.

Richeson, J. T., P. A. Beck, H. D. Hughes, D. S. Hubbell, M. S. Gadberry, E. B. Kegley, J. G. Powell, and F. L. Prouty.  2015.  Effect of growth implant regimen on health, performance, and immunity of high-risk, newly received stocker cattle.  J. Anim. Sci.  doi:10.2527/jas2014-8835.

Sides, G. E., J. T. Vasconcelos, R. C. Borg, O. A. Turgeon, W. C. Koers, M. S. Davis, K. Vander Pol, D. J. Weigel, and C. M. Tucker.  2009.  A comparison of melengestrol acetate fed at two dose levels to feedlot heifers.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  25:731-736.

Sides, G. E., R. S. Swingle, J. T. Vasconcelos, R. C. Borg, and W. M. Moseley.  2009.  Effect of feeding melengestrol acetate, monensin, and tylosin on performance, carcass measurements, and liver abscesses of feedlot heifers.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  25:459-464.

Stackhouse, K. R., C. A. Rotz, J. W. Oltjen, and F. M. Mitloehner.  2012.  Growth-promoting technologies decrease the carbon footprint, ammonia emissions, and costs of California beef production systems.  J. Anim. Sci.  90:4656-4665.

Stackhouse-Lawson, K. R., M. S. Calvo, S. E. Place, T. L. Armitage, Y. Pan, Y. Zhao, and F. M. Mitloehner.  2013.  Growth promoting technologies reduce greenhouse gas, alcohol, and ammonia emissions from feedlot cattle.  J. Anim. Sci.  91:5438-5447.

Wileman, B. W.  D. U. Thomson, C. D. Reinhardt, and D. G. Renter.  2009.  Analysis of modern technologies commonly used in beef cattle production:  Conventional beef production versus nonconventional production using meta-analysis.  J. Anim. Sci.  87:3418-3426.

Mode of Action References

Breier, B. H., P. D. Gluckman, and J. J. Bass. 1988. The somatotrophic axis in young steers:  Influence of nutritional status and oestradiol-17β on hepatic high- and low-affinity somatotrophic binding sites. J. Endocrinol.  118:169-177.

Breier, B. H., P. D. Gluckman, and J. J. Bass.  1988.  Influence of nutritional status and oestradiol-17β on plasma growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors-I and -II and the response to exogenous growth hormone in young steers.  J. Endocrinol. 118:243-250.

Chung, K. J., T. J. Baxa, S. L. Parr, L. D. Luqué, and B. J. Johnson.  2012.  Administration of estradiol, trenbolone acetate, and trenbolone acetate/estradiol implants alters adipogenic and myogenic gene expression in bovine skeletal muscle.  J. Anim. Sci.  90:1421-1427.

Chung, K. Y, and B. J. Johnson.  2009.  Melengestrol acetate enhances adipogenic gene expression in cultured muscle-derived cells.  J. Anim. Sci.  87:3897-3904.

Chung, K. Y., and B. J. Johnson.  2008.  Application of cellular mechanisms to growth and development of food producing animals.  J. Anim. Sci. 86(E. Suppl):E226-E235.

Dayton, W. R., and M. E. White.  2008.  Cellular and molecular regulation of muscle growth and development in meat animals.  J. Anim. Sci.  86(E.Suppl.):E217-E225.

Dayton, W. R., and M. E. White.  2014.  MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM – Role of satellite cells in anabolic steroid-induced muscle growth in feedlot steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  92:30-38.

Dodson, M. V., R. E. Allen, M. Du, W. G. Bergen, S. G. Velleman, S. P. Poulos, M. Fernyhough-Culver, M. B. Wheeler, S. K. Duckett, M. R. I. Young, B. H. Voy, Z. Jiang, and G. J. Hausman.  2015.  INVITED REVIEW: Evolution of meat animal growth research during the past 50 years:  Adipose and muscle stem cells.  J. Anim. Sci.  93:457-481.

Dunn, J. D., B. J. Johnson, J. P. Kayser, A. T. Waylan, E. K. Sissom, and J. S. Drouillard.  2003.  Effects of flax supplementation and a combined trenbolone acetate and estradiol implant on circulating insulin-like growth factor-I messenger RNA levels in beef cattle.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:3028-3034.

Enright, W. J., J. F. Quirke, P. D. Gluckman, B. H. Greier, L. G. Kennedy, I. C. Hart, J. R. Roche, A. Coert, and P. Allen.  1990.  Effects of long-term administration of pituitary-derived bovine growth hormone and estradiol on growth of steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  68:2345-2356.

Gonzalez, J. M., J. N. Carter, D. D. Johnson, S. E. Ouellette, and S. E. Johnson.  2007.  Effect of ractopamine-hydrochloride and trenbolone acetate on longissimus muscle fiber area, diameter, and satellite cell numbers in cull beef cows.  J. Anim. Sci.  85:1893-1901.

Gopinath, R., and W. D. Kitts.  1984. Growth hormone secretion and clearance rates in growing beef steers implanted with estrogenic anabolic compounds.  Growth  48:499-514.

Gopinath, R., and W. D. Kitts.  1984.  Plasma thyroid hormone concentrations in growing beef steers implanted with estrogenic anabolic growth promotants.  Growth  48:515526.

Grigsby, M. E., and A. Trenkle.  1986.  Plasma growth hormone, insulin, glucocorticoids and thyroid hormone in large, medium and small breeds of steers with and without an estradiol implant.  Dom. Anim. Endocrinol.  3:261-267.

Hayden, J. M., W. G. Bergen, and R. A. Merkel.  1992.  Skeletal muscle protein metabolism and serum growth hormone, insulin, and cortisol concentrations in growing steers implanted with estradiol-17β, trenbolone acetate, or estradiol-17β plus trenbolone acetate. J. Anim. Sci.  70:2109-2119.

Hongerholt, D. D., B. A. Crooker, J. E Wheaton, K. M. Carlson, and D. M. Jorgenson. 1992. Effects of a growth hormone-releasing factor analogue and an estradiol-trenbolone acetate implant on somatotropin, insulin-like growth factor I, and metabolite profiles in growing Hereford steers. J. Anim. Sci.  70:14391448.

Hunt, D. W., D. M. Henricks, G. C. Skelley, and L. M. Grimes.  1991.  Use of trenbolone acetate and estradiol in intact and castrate male cattle. Effect on growth, serum hormones, and carcass characteristics.  J. Anim. Sci.  69:2452-2462.

Johnson, B. J., M. R. Hathaway, P. T. Anderson, J. C. Meiske, and W. R. Dayton.  1996.  Stimulation of circulating insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-1) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) due to administration of a combined trenbolone acetate and estradiol implant in feedlot cattle. J. Anim. Sci.  74:372-379.

Meyer, H. H. D., and M. Rapp.  1985.  Estrogen receptors in skeletal muscle.  J. Anim. Sci.  60:294-300. 

Pampusch, M. S., B. J. Johnson, M. E. White, M. R. Hathaway, J. D. Dunn, A. T. Waylan, and W. R. Dayton.  2003.  Time course of changes in growth factor mRNA levels in muscle of steroid-implanted and nonimplanted steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:2733-2740.

Rumsey, T. S., T. H. Elsasser, and S. Kahl.  1996.  Roasted soybeans and an estrogenic growth promoter affect growth hormone status and performance of beef steers.  J. Nutr.  126:2880-2887.

Sauerwein, H., and H. H. D. Meyer.  1989.  Androgen and estrogen receptors in bovine skeletal muscle:  Relation to steroid-induced allometric muscle growth.  J. Anim. Sci.  67:206-212.

Sissom, E. K., C. D. Reinhardt, and B. J. Johnson.  2006.  Melengestrol acetate alters muscle cell proliferation in heifers and steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  84:2950-2958.

Smith, K. R., S. K. Duckett, M. J. Azain, R. N. Sonon, and T. D. Pringle.  2007.  The effect of anabolic implants on intramuscular lipid deposition in finished beef cattle.  J. Anim. Sci.  85:430-440.

Waylan, A. T., J. D. Dunn, B. J. Johnson, J. P. Kayser, and E. K. Sissom.  2004.  Effect of flax supplementation and growth promotants on lipoprotein lipase and glycogenin messenger RNA concentrations in finishing cattle.  J. Anim. Sci.  82:1868-1875.

White, M. E., B. J. Johnson, M. R. Hathaway, and W. R. Dayton.  2003.  Growth factor messenger RNA levels in muscle and liver of steroid-implanted and nonimplanted steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:965-972.

Carrier, Release Rate, and Blood Level References

Bartle, S. J., R. L. Preston, R. E. Brown, and R. J. Grant.  1992.  Trenbolone acetate/estradiol combinations in feedlot steers:  Dose-response and implant carrier effects. J. Anim. Sci.  70:1326-1332.

Henricks, D. M., R. L. Edwards, K. A. Champe, T. W. Gettys, G. C. Skelley, Jr., and T. Giminez.  1982.  Trenbolone, estradiol-17b and estrone levels in plasma and tissues and live weight gains of heifers implanted with trenbolone acetate.  J. Anim. Sci.  55:1048-1056.

Parr, S. L., K. Y. Chung, J. P. Hutcheson, W. T. Nichols, D. A. Yates, M. N. Streeter, R. S. Swingle, M. L. Galyean, and B. J. Johnson.  2011.  Dose and release pattern of anabolic implants affects growth of finishing beef steers across days on feed.  J. Anim. Sci.  89:863-873.

Ritchie, H. D., S. R. Rust, and D. L. Nielsen.  1990.  Payout rate of estradiol benzoate and progesterone from Synovex-C implants.  pp 76-77, Michigan Agric. Exp. Stn. Res. Rep. 491.

Rumsey, T. S., A. C. Hammond, and J. P. McMurtry.  1992.  Response to reimplanting beef steers with estradiol benzoate and progesterone:  Performance, implant absorption pattern, and thyroxine status.  J. Anim. Sci.  70:995-1001.

Reproductive Effects References

Bolze, R. P, and L. R. Corah.  1988.  Effects of a single zeranol implant on conception rates and dystocia in primiparous beef heifers.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  4:19-23.

Cohen, R. D. H., E. D. Janzen, and H. H. Nicholson.  1987.  Effect of repeated implantation with zeranol from birth or weaning on growth and reproduction in beef heifers.  Can. J. Anim. Sci.  67:37-42.

Deutscher, G. H., L. L. Zerfars, and D. C. Clanton.  1986.  Time of zeranol implantation on growth, reproduction, and calving of beef heifers.  J. Anim. Sci.  62:875-886.

Pritchard, D. L., T. T. Marshall, D. D. Hargrove, and T A. Olson.  1989.  Effects of creep feeding, zeranol implants and breed type on beef production. II Reproduction and fat deposition in heifers.  J. Anim. Sci.  67:617-623.

Staigmiller, R. B., R. A. Bellows, and R. E. Short.  1983.  Growth and reproductive traits in beef heifers implanted with zeranol.  J. Anim. Sci.  57:527-534.

Animal Behavior References

Brower, G. R., and G. H. Kiracofe.  1978.  Factors associated with the buller-steer syndrome.  J. Anim. Sci.  46:26-31.

Dykeman, D. A., L. S. Katz, and R. H. Foote.  1982.  Behavioral characteristics of beef steers administered estradiol, testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.  J. Anim. Sci.  55:1303-1309.

Irwin, M. R., D. R. Melendy, M. S. Amoss, and D. P. Hutcheson.  1979.  Roles of predisposing factors and gonadal hormones in the buller syndrome of feedlot steers.  J. Amer. Vet. Med. Assoc.  174:367-370.

Nutrient- and Beta-Agonist Implant Interaction References

Anderson P. T., and R. L. Botts.  1995.  Effects of steroid implants on feed intake. In: Symposium: Intake by Feedlot Cattle.  pp 97-104, Oklahoma Agric. Exp. Stn., P-942.

Bass, P. D., J. L. Beckett, and R. J. Delmore, Jr.  2009.  Case Study:  Effects of ractopamine in combination with various hormone implant regimens on growth and carcass attributes in calf-fed Holstein steers.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  25:195-201.

Baxa, T. J., J. P. Hutcheson, M. F. Miller, J. C. Brooks, W. T. Nichols, M. N. Streeter, D. A. Yates, and B. J. Johnson.  Additive effects of a steroidal implant and zilpaterol hydrochloride on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and skeletal muscle messenger ribonucleic acid abundance in finishing steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  88:330-337.

Bryant, T. C., T. E. Engle, M. L. Galyean, J. J. Wagner, J. D. Tatum, R. V. Anthony, and S. B Laudert.  2010.  Effects of ractopamine and trenbolone acetate implants with or without estradiol on growth performance, carcass characteristics, adipogenic enzyme activity, and blood metabolites in feedlot steers and heifers.  J. Anim. Sci.  88:4102-4119.

DiCostanzo, A., and C. M. Zehnder.  1999.  Estimation of protein requirements of feedlot steers.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  15:116-123.

Galyean, M. L. 1996.  Protein levels in beef cattle finishing diets:  Industry application, university research, and systems results.  J. Anim. Sci.  74:2860-2870.

Griffin, W. A., G. E. Erickson, B. D. Dicke, T. J. Klopfenstein, R. J. Cooper, D. J. Jordon, R. S. Swingle, W. M. Moseley, G. E. Sides, and D. J. Weigel.  2009.  Effects of ractopamine (Optaflexx) fed in combination with melengestrol acetate on feedlot heifer performance.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  25:33-40.

Hunter, R. A., and J. E. Vercoe.  1987.  Reduction of energy requirements of steers fed on low-quality roughage diets using trenbolone acetate.  Br. J. Nutr.  58:477-483.

Lemieux, P. G., F. M. Byers, and G. T. Schelling.  1988.  Anabolic effects on rate, composition and energetic efficiency of growth in cattle fed forage and grain diets.  J. Anim. Sci.  66:1824-1836.

Lemieux, P. G., F. M. Byers, and G. T. Schelling.  1990.  Relationship of anabolic status and phase and rate of growth to priorities for protein and fat deposition in steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  68:1702-1710.

Lobley, G. E., A. Connell, G. S. Mollison, A. Brewer, C. I. Harris, and V. Buchan.  1985.  The effects of a combined implant of trenbolone acetate and oestradiol-17β on protein and energy metabolism in growing beef steers.  Brit. J. Nutr.  54:681-694.

McMurphy, C. P., E. D. Sharman, D. A. Cox, M. E. Payton, G. W. Horn, and D. L. Lalman.  2011.  Effects of implant type and protein source on growth of steers grazing summer pasture.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  27:402-409.

Neill, S., J. A. Unruh, T. T. Marston, J. R. Jaeger, M. C. Hunt, and J. J. Higgins.  2009.  Effects of implanting and feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride on performance, carcass characteristics, and subprimal beef yields of fed cows.  J. Anim. Sci.  87:704-710.

NRC.  1996.  Nutrient Requirements of Beef Cattle.  7th ed.  National Academy Press, Washington, DC.

Owens, F. N., D. R. Gill, D. S. Secrist, and S. W. Coleman.  1995.  Review of some aspects of growth and development in feedlot cattle.  J. Anim. Sci.  73:3152-3172.

Parr, S. L., K. Y. Chung, M. L. Galyean, J. P. Hutcheson, N. DiLorenzo, K. E. Hales, M. L. May, M. J. Quinn, D. R. Smith, and B. J. Johnson.  2011.  Performance of finishing beef steers in response to anabolic implant and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation.  J. Anim. Sci.  89:560-570.

Parr, S. L., T. R. Brown, F. R. B. Ribeiro, K. Y. Chung, J. P. Hutcheson, B. R. Blackwell, P. N. Smith, and B. J. Johnson.  2014.  Biological responses of beef steers to steroidal implants and zilpaterol hydrochloride .  J. Anim. Sci.  92:3348-3363.

Schoonmaker J. P., M. J. Cecava, D. B. Faulkner, F. L. Fluharty, H. N. Zerby, and S. C. Loerch.  2003.  Effect of source of energy and rate of growth on performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, and serum glucose and insulin of early-weaned steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:843-855.

Sissom, E. K., C. D. Reinhardt, J. P. Hutcheson, W. T. Nichols, D. A. Yates, R. S. Swingle, and B. J. Johnson.  2007.  Response to ractopamine-HCl in heifers is altered by implant strategy across days on feed.  J. Anim. Sci.  85:2125-2132.

Solis, J. C., F. M. Byers, G. T. Schelling, and L. W. Greene.  1989.  Anabolic implant and frame size effects on growth regulation, nutrient repartitioning and energetic efficiency of feedlot steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  67:2792-2801.

Williamson, J. A., R. R. Reuter, J. A. Apple, C. B. Stewart, H. C. Gray, and P. A. Beck.  2014.  Growth-promoting implants and nutrient restriction before feeding:  Effect on finishing performance, carcass composition, carcass quality, and consumer acceptability of beef.  Prof. Anim. Sci. 2014 30:485-496.

Woerner, D. R., J. D. Tatum, T. E. Engle, K. E. Belk, and D. W. Couch.  2011.  Effects of sequential implanting and ractopamine hydrochloride supplementation on carcass characteristics and longissimus muscle tenderness of calf-fed steers and heifers.  J. Anim. Sci.  89:201-209.

Carcass Quality and Cutout References

Apple, J. K., M. E. Dikeman, D. D. Simms, and G. Kuhl.  1991.  Effects of synthetic hormone implants, singularly or in combinations, on performance, carcass traits, and longissimus muscle palatability of Holstein steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  69:4437-4448.

Barham B. L., J. C. Brooks, J. R. Blanton, Jr., A. D. Herring, M. A. Carr,  C. R. Kerth, and M. F. Miller.  2003.  Effects of growth implants on consumer perceptions of meat tenderness in beef steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  81: 3052-3056. 

Boles, J. A., D. L. Boss, K. I. Neary, K. C. Davis, and M. W. Tess.  2009.  Growth implants reduced tenderness of steaks from steers and heifers with different genetic potentials for growth and marbling.  J. Anim. Sci.  87:269-274.

Duckett, S. K., and S. L. Pratt.  2014.  MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM—Anabolic implants and meat quality.  J. Anim. Sci.  92:3-9.

Duckett, S. K. D. G. Wagner, F. N. Owens, H. G. Dolezal, and D. R. Gill.  1996.  Effects of estrogenic and androgenic implants on performance, carcass traits, and meat tenderness in feedlot steers:  A review.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  12:205-214.

Faucitano, L., P. Y. Chouinard, J. Fortin, I. B. Mandell, C. Lafrenière, C. L. Girard, and R. Berthiaume.  2008.  Comparison of alternative beef production systems based on forage finishing or grain-forage diets with or without growth promotants:  2. Meat quality, fatty acid composition, and overall palatability.  J. Anim. Sci.  86:1678-1689.

Garber, M. J., R. A. Roeder, J. J. Combs, L. Eldridge, J. C. Miller, D. D. Hinman, and J. J. Ney.  1990.  Efficacy of vaginal spaying and anabolic implants on growth and carcass characteristics in beef heifers.  J. Anim. Sci.  68:1469-1475.

Garmyn, A. J., and M. F. Miller.  2014.  MEAT SCIENCE AND MUSCLE BIOLOGY SYMPOSIUM – Implant and beta agonist impacts on beef palatability.  J. Anim. Sci.  92:10-20.

Garmyn, A. J., S. M. Knobel, K. S. Spivey, L. F. Hightower, J. C. Brooks, B. J. Johnson, S. L. Parr, R. J. Rathmann, J. D. Starkey, D. A. Yates, J. M. Hodgen, J. P. Hutcheson, and M. F. Miller.  2011.  Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force measurements of 3 beef muscles in response to various aging periods after trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants and zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation of finishing beef steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  89:3783-3791.

Gerken, C. L., J. D. Tatum, J. B. Morgan, and G. C. smith.  1995.  Use of genetically identical (cloned) steers to determine the effects of estrogenic and androgenic implants on beef quality and palatability characteristics.  J. Anim. Sci.  73:3317-3324.

Gruber, S. L., J. D. Tatum, T. E. Engle, P. L. Chapman, R. M. Enns, K. E. Belk, and G. C. Smith.  2011.  Effects of genetic markers and implant strategy on longissimus and gluteus muscle tenderness of calf-fed steers and heifers.  J. Anim. Sci.  89:1401-1411.

Hutcheson, D. P., J. P. Rains, and J. W. Paul.  1993.  The effects of different implant and feed additive strategies on performance and carcass characteristics in finishing heifers.  A review.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  9:132-137.

Igo, J. L., J. C. Brooks, B. J. Johnson, J. Starkey, R. J. Rathmann, A. J. Garmyn, W. T. Nichols, J. P. Hutcheson and M. F. Miller.  2011.  Characterization of estrogen-trenbolone acetate implants on tenderness and consumer acceptability of beef under the effect of 2 aging times.  J. Anim. Sci.  89:792-797.

Johnson, B. J., P. T. Anderson, J. C. Meiske, and W. R. Dayton.  1996.  Effect of a combined trenbolone acetate and estradiol implant on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass composition of feedlot steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  74:363-371.

Kellermeier, J. D., A. W. Tittor, J. C. Brooks, M. L. Galyean, D. A. Yates, J. P. Hutcheson, W. T. Nichols, M. N. Streeter, B. J. Johnson, and M. F. Miller.  2009.  Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride with or without an estrogen-trenbolone acetate terminal implant on carcass traits, retail cutout, tenderness, and muscle fiber diameter in finishing steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  87:3702-3711.

Kerth C. R., J. L. Montgomery, K. J. Morrow, M. L. Galyean, and M. F. Miller.  2003.  Protein turnover and sensory traits of longissimus muscle from implanted and nonimplanted heifers.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:1728-1735.

Loy, D. D., H. W. Harpster, and E. H. Cash.  1988.  Rate, composition, and efficiency of growth in feedlot steers reimplanted with growth stimulants.  J. Anim. Sci.  66:2668-2677.

Nichols, W. T., M. L. Galyean, D. U. Thomson, and J. P. Hutcheson.  2002.  Review: Effect of steroid implants on the tenderness of beef.  Prof. Anim. Sci.  18:202-210.

Perry, T. C., D. G. Fox, and D. H. Beermann.  1991.  Effect of an implant of trenbolone acetate and estradiol on growth, feed efficiency, and carcass composition of Holstein and beef steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  69:4696-4702.

Platter, W. J., J. D. Tatum, K. E. Belk, J. A. Scanga, and G. C. Smith.  2003.  Effects of repetitive use of hormonal implants on beef carcass quality, tenderness, and consumer ratings of beef palatability.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:984-996.

Reiling B. A., and D. D. Johnson.  2003.  Effects of implant regimens (trenbolone acetate-estradiol administered alone or in combination with zeranol) and vitamin D3 on fresh beef color and quality.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:135-142.

Samber, J. A., J. D. Tatum, M. I. Wray, W. T. Nichols, J. B. Morgan, and G. C. Smith.  1996.  Implant program effects on performance and carcass quality of finishing steer calves fed for 212 days.  J. Anim. Sci.  74:1470-1476.

Schneider, B. A., J. D. Tatum, T. E. Engle, and T. C. Bryant.  2007.  Effects of heifer finishing implants on beef carcass traits and longissimus tenderness.  J. Anim. Sci.  85:2019-2030.

Thornsberry, R. M.  1993.  The effect of zeranol and trenbolone acetate and estradiol and trenbolone acetate on carcass and performance parameters of finishing steers.  Agri-Practice.  14(5):29-32.

Wood, J. D., A. V. Fisher, and O. P. Whelehan.  1986.  The effects of a combined androgenic-oestrogenic anabolic agent in steers and bulls. 2. Muscle weight distribution, partitioning of body fat, and carcass value.  Anim. Prod.  42:213-222.

Carryover and Lifetime Effects Implant References

Gill, D. R., H. R. Spires, F. E. Bates, B. L. Peverly, and K. S. Lusby.  1986.  Response of fall-born calves to progesterone-estradiol benzoate implants and reimplants.  J. Anim.  Sci. 62:37-41.

Hardt, P. F., L. W. Greene, and D. K. Lunt.  1995.  Alterations in metacarpal characteristics in steers and heifers sequentially implanted with Synovex from 45 days of birth.  J. Anim. Sci.  73:55-62.

Mader, T. L.  1994.  Effect of implant sequence and dose on feedlot cattle performance. J. Anim. Sci.  72:277-282.

Mader, T. L., D. C. Clanton, J. K. Ward, D. E. Pankaskie, and G. H. Deutscher.  1985.  Effect of pre- and post-weaning zeranol implant on steer calf performance.  J. Anim. Sci.  61:546-551.

Mader, T. L., J. M. Dahlquist, M. H. Sindt, R. A. Stock, and T. J. Klopfenstein.  1994.  Effect of sequential implanting with Synovex on steer and heifer performance.  J. Anim. Sci.  72:1095-1100.

McReynolds, W. W., C. T. Gaskins, S. Clark, and R. L. Preston.  1979.  Ralgro and Synovex-S for steers during the nursing, growing and finishing periods. Proc. West. Sec. Amer. Soc. Anim. Sci.  30:45-48.

Scheffler J. M., D. D. Buskirk, S. R. Rust, J. D. Cowley, and M. E. Doumit.  2003.  Effect of repeated administration of combination trenbolone acetate and estradiol implants on growth, carcass traits, and beef quality of long-fed Holstein steers.  J. Anim. Sci.  81:2395-2400.

Simms, D. D., T. B. Goehring, R. T. Brandt, Jr., G. L. Huhl, J. J. Higgins, S. B. Laudert, and R. W. Lee.  1988.  Effect of sequential implanting with zeranol on steer lifetime performance.  J. Anim. Sci.  66:2736-2741.

Implant Safety and Tissue Residue References 

Ankley G.T., K. M. Jensen, E. A. Makynen, M. D. Kahl, J. J. Korte, M. W. Hornung, T. R. Henry, J. S. Denny, R. L. Leino, V. S. Wilson, M. C. Cardon, P. C. Hartig, and L. E. Gray.  2003.  Effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17-beta-trenbolone on fecundity and reproductive endocrinology of the fathead minnow.  Environ. Toxicol. Chem.  22:1350-1360.

Heitzman, R. J., and D. J. Harwood.  1977.  Residue levels of trenbolone and estradiol-17β in plasma and tissues of steers implanted with anabolic steroid preparations.  Br. Vet. J.  133.564-571.

MacNeil J. D., J. Reid, C. D. Neiser, and A. C. Fesser.  2003.  Single-laboratory validation of a modified liquid chromatographic method with UV detection for determination of trenbolone residues in bovine liver and muscle.  J. AOAC Int.  86:916-924.

Preston, R. L.  1975.  Biological responses to estrogen additives in meat producing cattle and lambs.  J. Anim. Sci.  41:1414-1430.

Preston, R. L., E. Cheng, C. D. Story, P. Homeyer, J. Pauls, and W. Burroughs.  1956.  The influence of oral administration of diethylstilbestrol upon estrogenic residues in the tissues of beef cattle.  J. Anim. Sci. 15:3-12.

Stobb, M., F. N. Andrews, M. X. Zarrow, and W. M. Beeson.  1954.  Estrogenic activity of the meat of cattle, sheep, and poultry following treatment with synthetic estrogens and progesterone.  J. Anim. Sci.  13:138-151.

Wilson V. S, C. Lambright, J. Ostby, and L. E. Gray, Jr.  2002.  In vitro and in vivo effects of 17beta-trenbolone:  a feedlot effluent contaminant.  Toxicol. Sci.  70:202-211.


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