Managers are people who do things right, while leaders are people who do
the right thing. - Warren Bennis, Ph.D. "On Becoming a Leader"
MotivationA person's motivation is a combination of desire and energy directed at achieving a goal. Influencing someone's motivation means getting them to want to do what you know must be done. A person's motivation depends upon two things:
|People can be motivated by beliefs, values, interests,
fear, worthy causes, and other such forces. Some of these forces are
internal, such as needs, interests, and beliefs. Others are external,
such as danger, the environment, or pressure from a loved one. There is
no simple formula for motivation -- you must keep a open viewpoint on
human nature. There is a complex array of forces steering the direction
of each person and these forces cannot always be seen or studied. Also,
if the same forces are steering two different people, each on will act
differently. Knowing that different people react to different needs will
guide your decisions and actions in certain situations.
As a leader you have the power to influence motivation. The following guidelines (1) form the basic view of motivation. They will help guide you in your decision making process.
CounselingCounseling has a powerful, long-term impact on people and the effectiveness of the organization. Counseling is talking with a person in a way that helps that person solve a problem or helps to create conditions that will cause the person to improve his behavior. It involves thinking, implementing, knowing human nature, timing, sincerity, compassion, and kindness. It involves much more that simply telling someone what to do about a problem.
|Leaders must demonstrate the following qualities in
order to counsel effectively.
While the reason for counseling is to develop subordinates, leaders often categorize counseling based on the topic of the session. Major categories include performance counseling, problem counseling, and individual growth counseling. While these categories help leaders to organize and focus counseling sessions, they must not be viewed as separate and distinct types of counseling. For example a counseling session which focuses on resolving a problem may also have a great impact on improving job performance, and a counseling session focused on performance may also include a discussion of opportunities for growth. Regardless of the topic of the counseling session, you should follow the same basic format to prepare for and conduct counseling.
Steps for counseling:
Hints for counseling sessions:
Performance AppraisalsThe performance appraisal is one of the most powerful motivational tools available to a leader. It has three main objectives:
The appraisal should be a joint effort. No one knows the job better than the person performing it. By turning the appraisal into a real discussion, the leader could learn some insightful information which could help boost performance in the future. Before the meeting, have the worker complete her own self-appraisal. Although you might think they will take advantage of this by giving themselves unearned high marks, studies have shown that most workers are harder on themselves than the leader would have been.
References1. U.S. Army Handbook (1973). Military Leadership.
2. Eliza G. C. Collins & Mary Anne Devanna. Portable MBA. New York: John Wiley and Sons.
Created May 11, 1997. Last update - February 6, 2000. Return to Big Dog's Leadership Page
Donald R. Clark