2003 ASAS Trickle Feeding All Abstracts
Evaluation of drop versus trickle feeding for crated and penned pregnant gilts: productivity measures
J. J. McGlone, J. L. Morrow, J. Smith. Pork Industry Institute, Texas Tech University, Lubbock and Livestock Issues Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Lubbock, TX.
Eighty three Camborough-22 (PIC USA) gilts with known estrus dates were used to determine the effects of two penning systems (crates vs. pens of 5) and feeding system (drop fed vs. trickle fed) on reproductive performance. The four treatments were arranged in a 2 X 2 factorial. Drop-fed gilts (DROP) received their entire 2.7 kg daily meal in a single drop. Trickle-fed (TRICK) gilts were fed 2.7 kg over a 30 min period. Gilts with a known estrus date and a predicted next estrus date were randomly selected and moved from their acclimation group pen to their assigned treatment. Estrus detection, maintenance of pregnancy and litter performance measures were collected. Measures of behavior and physiology will be reported elsewhere. Overall farrowing rate was not different among treatments. However, more gilts were not bred (not detected in estrus) among penned (4.9%) than crated gilts (0.0%). Fewer gilts recycled after mating when in TRICK-Pen (15%) than in TRICK-Crate (25%), DROP-Pen (29.2%), or DROP-Crate (24.2%) treatments. Other measures (mean ± SEM) not significantly influenced by treatments included: gilt body weights at breeding (135.6 ± 2.7 kg), farrowing (205.0 ± 2.02 kg) or weaning (189.4 ± 2.82), backfat thickness (11.05 ± 0.57), and per litter measures of pigs born alive (10.9 ± 0.61), pigs born dead (1.13 ± 0.28), piglet birth weights (1.7 ± 0.04 kg), number weaned (8.8 ± 0.57), preweaning survival (87.0 ± 3.9%), piglet weaning weight (6.21 ± 0.14 kg) and shoulder lesions (scored 0-3 with 0 = no lesion; 0.53 ± 0.13). Overall reproductive rates and sow and litter productivity were similar for gilts in the four treatments. Differences in estrus detection and recycle rates after mating were probably due to ease of animal observation in the different systems. In conclusion, productivity of breeding and gestating gilts was similar in the four systems evaluated.
Evaluation of drop versus trickle feeding for crated and penned pregnant gilts: behavioral measures
L. Hulbert, J. L. Morrow, J. Dailey, and J. McGlone. Pork Industry Institute, Texas Tech University, Lubbock and Livestock Issues Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Lubbock, TX.
Seventy-eight Camborough-22 (PIC USA) gilts in mid gestation were used to determine the effects of two penning systems (crates vs. pens of 5) and feeding system (drop fed vs. trickle fed) on gilt behavior. The four treatments were arranged in a 2 X 2 factorial. Drop-fed gilts (DROP) received their entire 2.7 kg daily meal in a single drop at 0730 h. Trickle-fed (TRICK) gilts were fed 2.7 kg over a 30 min period at 0730 h. Gilts with a known estrus date and a predicted next estrus date were randomly selected and moved from their acclimation group pen to their assigned treatment. Behavioral measures were collected from time lapse video recordings made over a 24-h period from d 50 to 70 of gestation. Measures of reproductive performance and physiology will be reported elsewhere. Behaviors recorded and summarized included standing, lying, sitting, drinking, feeding, social interactions and oral/nasal/facial (ONF) behaviors. The statistical model was a randomized complete block design with a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, four complete blocks and a split plot over time (4 h time periods over a 24-h day). Overall activity levels of gilts were statistically similar (P > 0.10) among treatments. However, gilts in some treatments expressed different durations of behaviors at certain times of day. Gilts in Pen-DROP showed more (P < 0.05) ONF around 1200 h than gilts in the other treatment groups. Over the entire 24-h period, ONF duration was not different among treatments. Crated gilts showed less (P < 0.01) standing but more (P < 0.05) sitting than penned gilts (for Crated and Penned gilts, respectively, standing: 0.25 vs. 0.06 ± 0.024 h and sitting: 0.10 vs. 0.04 ± 0.17 h). Crated gilts spent more (P = 0.05) time feeding than penned gilts (0.09 vs. 0.07 ± 0.007 h) while the time to feed was not significantly different between Drop- and Trickle-fed gilts. Agonistic and non-agonistic social interactions did not differ (P > 0.10) among treatments during this mid gestation sample period. In conclusion, while overall behavioral activity levels were statistically similar among treatments, pregnant gilts expressed different forms of activity depending on the available space.
Evaluation of drop versus trickle feeding for crated and penned pregnant gilts: Immune measures
Leslie Dabovich, J. Morrow, Anthony Rudine, Lindsey Hulbert, Barbara Smith, J.J. McGlone. Pork Industry Institute, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX.
Seventy nine Camborough-22 (PIC USA) gilts with know estrous dates were used to determine the effects of two penning systems (5 crates vs. pens of 5) and two feeding systems (drop fed vs. trickle fed) on immunity. The four treatments were arranged in 2 X 2 factorial. Drop-fed gilts (DROP) received their entire 2.7 kg daily meal in a single drop. Trickle-fed (TRICK) gilts were fed 2.7 kg over a 30 min period. Immune measures were collected five to six weeks before expected farrowing. Data were analyzed as a randomized complete block design with a 2 X 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Immune measures were collected including total number of white blood cells (WBC), differential counts, red blood cell numbers, hemoglobin, hematocrit, lymphocyte proliferation under phytohemagglutinin and lipopolysaccharide mitogens, neutrophil chemotaxis, and neutrophil phagocytosis. The interaction between penning and feeding systems was statistically significant for percent phagocytosis (77.97, 97.00, 91.04, and 74.16, SEp = 5.01, P < 0.05 for DROP-Crate, DROP-Pen, TRICKLE-Crate, and TRICKLE-Pen, respectively) and average number of beads phagocytized (5.38, 5.61, 5.55, and 5.11, SEp = 0.07, P < 0.05, respectively). In general, the efficiency of neutrophil phagocytosis (measured by both % of neutrophils that phagocytized and the numbers of beads phagocytized) was higher among Crated gilts that were Trickle-fed than Drop-fed; however, among penned gilts, the neutrophil efficiency was reduced among Trickle-fed gilts compared with Drop-fed gilts. Generally, all other immune measures and plasma cortisol were not different among treatments or their interactions. In conclusion, most immune measures were not influenced by the penning or feeding systems evaluated. However, neutrophil phagocytosis efficiency may be improved for crated gilts that are trickle rather than drop fed. Among penned gilts, trickle feeding reduced neutrophil efficiency compared with neutrophils from gilts that were drop fed.
Effect of Housing Systems on Implantation in Sows
Anil, L.; Baidoo, S.K.; Walker, R.; Deen, J.; Morrison, R.; Anil, S.S.
A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of housing systems during breeding and gestation in sows on subsequent reproductive performance in terms of piglets born alive, mummies and stillborn piglets. The 3 housing systems were; 1.Sows bred and reared for their entire gestation in stalls (TS, number of observations 87), 2. Sows bred and reared for their entire gestation in pens with electronic sow feeder (TP, number of observations 49) and 3. Sows bred and maintained in stalls for 28 days and then transferred to pens with electronic sow feeder for the rest of gestation (PS, number of observations 43). Analysis of variance was performed to compare the housing systems. The mean born alive varied significantly among the housing systems (TS 11.71 + 0.27; TP 10.27 + 0.41; PS 10.42 + 0.39; P < 0.01). The difference between PS and TP housing systems was not significant. However, significant differences (P < 0.01) were found between the TS and TP and between TS and PS. Litter weight (kg) showed the same trend as that of born alive (18.33+ 0.35, 16.77 + 0.59 and 16.74+ 0.58 for TS, TP and PS respectively with P < 0.05). There was no difference among the groups in terms of farrowing rate, mummies and stillborn. Sows housed in stalls and pens during gestation are equally susceptible to factors causing stillborn and mummies and therefore, there was no difference among sows with respect to mummies and stillborn. There was no difference in farrowing rate among sows, as farrowing success is independent of litter size. The higher live born numbers in stall-housed sows indicates the beneficial effect of stall housing in reducing stress during the implantation period.