SPRING 2012 Tectonics
GEOL 4362/5362 (Cross listed for undergraduates/graduates) • T/TH 1-2:20 PM, Room SCI 201 "Structure & Tectonics Lab"
Professor Aaron Yoshinobu, firstname.lastname@example.org
Syllabus (.pdf) General Guidelines on Writing & Editing in Geosciences (.pdf) Presentation Assessment Rubric (.pdf) General Grading Rubric (.pdf)
INTRODUCTION TO PLATE TECTONICS
Exercise 1: Plate tectonics geography quiz. Global plate motion analysis. (map, 7MB color map) (text, .pdf) (black & white map for Part 1, .pdf)
DEFINING THE LITHOSPHERE - READINGS - Bold readings are supplied to either grad students, undergrad students or both. See details for the date below.
- Barrel, J., 1918 and 1925, American Journal of Science. The guy who coined the term…
- Brace and Kohlstedt, 1980, Limits on lithosphere stress imposed by laboratory experiments. JGR, v. 85, p. 6248-6252.
- Chen and Molnar, 1983, Focal depths of intracontinental and intraplate EQ’s and their implications for the thermal and mechanical properties of the lithosphere. JGR, v. 88, p. 4183-4214.
- Maggi et al., 2000, Earthquake focal depths, effective elastic thickness, and the strength of the continental lithosphere. Geology, v. 28, p. 495-498.
- Walcott, 1970, Flexural rigidity, thickness, and viscosity of the lithosphere. JGR, v. 75, p. 3941-3954.
- Watts, A.B., 2011, Isostasy review.
- Watts, A.B., 1983, The strength of the Earth’s Crust, Marine Technology Society Journal, v. 17, p. 5-17.
- Watts, and Zhong, 2000, Observations of flexure and the rheology of oceanic lithosphere. Geophys. J. Int., v. 142, p. 855-875.
- Watts and Burov, 2003, Lithospheric strength and its relationship to the elastic and seismogenic layer thickness, EPSL, v. 213, p. 113-131.
Reading for Thursday, 26 January: Walcott, 1970. Here's a simple review of some geophysical concepts: Kearey et al.
Reading for Tuesday, 31 January:
Grad Students: Read Chen and Molnar, 1983, Watts, 1983, Watts, 2011, and Maggi et al., 2000.
Undergrads: Read Watts, 1983, focussing on the the concepts and Watts, 2011, focussing on the figures and general concepts. Kearey et al. provides a brief review of the concepts of isostasy, plate flexure, etc.
KINEMATICS OF LITHOSPHERIC PLATE MOTION - READINGS - Bold readings are supplied to either grad students, undergrad students or both. See details for the date below.
- Morgan, W.J., 1968. A must...
- Wilson, J.T., 1965. Transform faults; another must...
- McKenie and Parker, 1967. Tectonics on a sphere... so cool...
Exercise 2: Plate motion exercises, Due 9 Feburary.
Exercise 3: Mystery Margins of the Pacific Northwest Maps, Due 14 Feburary.
TRIPLE JUNCTIONS - READINGS - Bold readings are supplied to either grad students, undergrad students or both. See details for the date below. updated 2/14/12
Grad students read all by Tuesday, 21 February. Undergrad students read Atwater by Tuesday, 21 February.
- Atwater, 1970. THE CLASSIC... First use of the phrase "plate tectonics" in the title of a scientific paper!
Dickinson and Snyder, 1979. Another classic...
McKenzie and Morgan, 1969. Evolution of Triple Junctions, Nature. Wow...
- Li Luchen and Olabisi present on 2/14/12.
- Tari & Brian present on 2/14/12.
TRIPLE JUNCTION MOVIES - courtesy of Tanya Atwater
- 30 m.y. of plate tectonics along the western U.S. (.mov file)
- 80 m.y. of plate tectonics in the eastern Pacific Ocean (.mov file)
- Microplate evolution during slip along the San Andreas plate boundary. (mov file)
Exercise 4: Plate velocity ciruits exercise; grad students 3 pages of problems; undergraduates 2 pages of problems. Due 21 February.
RETURN TO THE NATURE OF THE LITHOSPHERE! Enough geometry and kinematics; let's get on with it and learn more about what a lithospheric plate might be! - SUGGESTED READINGS - Bold readings are supplied to either grad students, undergrad students or both. See details for the date below.
- Crosby et al., 2006, JGI
- McKenzie et al., 2005, EPSL
- Parsons and Sclater, 1977, JGR
- Parsons and McKenzie, 1978, JGR
- Stein and Stein, 1992, Nature
Notes: I'll have some notes for you soon...
THE TEST! - 30 February 2012! er..., I mean, um... March 2-1=X, 2012. Solve for X.
Ugrads: bring pencil, writing paper, colored pencils, calculator.
Grads: bring pencil, writing paper, colored pencils, calculator, field hammer, hand lens, cupcakes to share.
MID-OCEAN RIDGES!!! The nitty-gritty deep dark secrets that the marine geologists don't want to tell you! - SUGGESTED READINGS - Bold readings are supplied to either grad students, undergrad students or both. See details for the date below.
Macdonald, 2001 MOR Review. ALL STUDENTS NEED TO READ THIS.
- Dick et al., 2003 Ultra-slow spreading ridges
- Dick et a., 2006 Drilling oceanic crust and mantle rocks
- Karson, 2002 Upper crust of intermediate to fast spreading ridges
- Langmuir adn Forsythe, 2007 Mantle melting review
- Kelemen, 2009 Getting melts outta da mantle
Exercise 5: heh heh heh... comparative ridge-ology!
Ophiolites, Mid-Ocean Ridges and Suprasubduction Zones!!! - SUGGESTED READINGS - Bold readings are supplied to either grad students, undergrad students or both. See details for the date below.
Some notes on magma geochemistry. (.ppt)
Some notes on mantle melting. (.ppt)
Ophiolites form above subduction zones and are emplaced during collision and obduction! - SUGGESTED READINGS - Bold readings are supplied to either grad students, undergrad students or both. See details for the date below.
- Dewey, 1976 - an original...
- Gealy, 1977 - an early Oman explanation
- Hacker et al., 1996 - emplaced as fast as it spread!
- Searle and Cox, 2002 - a perspective from the Brits!
- Coleman, 1981 - the classic...
Subduction Zones - SUGGESTED READINGS - Bold readings are supplied to either grad students, undergrad students or both. See details for the date below.
- Stern, 2002 - Subduction zones, more or less (Y'ALL, READ THIS!!!! (Ugrads and grads, alike!)
- Stern and Smoot, 1998 - What does the Marianas trench look like?!?!?!
- Stern, 2004 - Initiation of subduction!
- Stern, 2010 - what is an oceanic island arc - Y'ALL, READ THIS!!!! (Ugrads and grads, alike!)
- Long and Silver, 2008 - the flow field in the mantle - TOM, READ THIS!
- Poli and Schmidt, 2002 - Petrology of the down-going slab.
- Ruff and Kanamori, 1980 - seismicity and sub zones - XINWEI, READ THIS!
- Uyeda and Kanamori, 1979 - back arc basins and sub zones - LUCHEN, READ THIS!
Exercise 6: Arc Ontology!
A few references for the various subduction zones of interest:
Will be added this week!
HOW IS CONTINENTAL CRUST 'MADE'? Or, the crust according to Roberta Rudnick.
- Rudnick and Fountain, 1995
- Rudnick, 2000 Read for Thursday, 17 April.
- Rudnick's review, 1998
- Rudnick and Gao, Treatise, 2008
THE MANTLE! Plumes vs. Hot Spots... vs. Godzilla...
- Holden and Vogt, 1977. Classic. "Must read."
- Morgan, 1972. Where it all started. (note the journal in which this article was published!) GRAD
Plumes versus plates
- Anderson, 2001. Top down tectonics UGRAD/GRAD
- Courtillot, 2003
- Anderson and Natland, 2005 SKIM THIS ONE... It provides some nice background.
- Cambell, 2006 UGRAD/GRAD
- Hirano et al., 2006 GRAD
- McNutt, 2006 UGRAD/GRAD
- Hoffman and Hart response to McNutt and Hirano et al. UGRAD/GRAD
- Anderson reply to McNutt, Hoffman and Hart, Hirano et al. UGRAD/GRAD
- Foulger, 2007 GRAD
Exercise 7: YOUR FINAL PROJECT! DUE 14 MAY, 2012, by 5 PM!