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Exercise & Sport Psychology Research

Research Facilities

Texas Tech and the Department of Health, Exercise & Sport Sciences support state-of- the-art laboratories in Exercise Science. Students in all disciplines have access to equipment in all areas of exercise science for research purposes. All laboratories are equipped to investigate a variety of biomechanical, physiological and psychological constructs and mechanisms.

Dr. Masataka Umeda directs the Exercise Psychology Laboratory (EPL) housed in the Exercise and Sport Sciences Building. EPL is well-equipped to investigate the relationship between physical activity and pain in individuals with and without chronic pain conditions. Research equipments available in EPL include constant current stimulator, pressure stimulator, accelerometer, cycle ergometer, etc. Currently, Dr. Umeda runs two projects in EPL:

  1. Investigation of the relationship between psychophysical responses to laboratory exercise and free-living physical activity in patients with fibromyalgia
  2. Investigation of the influence of physical activity levels on central pain modulation in healthy young adults.

ESS 3318 Required Readings

The required readings are in pdf format. If needed, click on the graphic below to download the FREE Adobe Reader in order to view the required readings.

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Module 01

  1. Syllabus (Instructor will provide)


Module 02

  1. Gould, D. (1995). Sport psychology: The Griffith era, 1920-1940. The Sport Psychologist, 9, 391-405.
  2. Gill, D. L. (1995). Women’s place in the history of sport psychology. The Sport Psychologist, 9, 418-433.


Module 03

  1. Biddle, S. J. H. (2006). Research synthesis in sport and exercise psychology: Chaos in the brickyard revisited. European Journal of Sport Science, 6, 97-102.
  2. Forscher, D. K. (1963). Chaos in the brickyard. Science, 142, 35.


Module 04

  1. Piedmont, R. L., Hill, D. C., & Blanco, S. (1999). Predicting athletic performance using the five-factor model of personality. Personality and Individual Differences, 27, 769-777.


Module 05

  1. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American Psychologist, 55, 68-78.


Module 06

  1. Weinburg, R. S., Butt, J., & Knight, B. (2001). High school coaches' perceptions of the process of goal setting. The Sport Psychologist, 15, 20-47.


Module 07

  1. Oudejans, R., Kuijpers, W., Kooijman, C. C., & Bakker, F. C. (2001). Thoughts and attention of athletes under pressure: Skill-focus or performance worries? Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 24, 59-73.


Module 08

  1. Arent, S. M., & Landers, D. M. (2003). Arousal, anxiety, and performance: A reexamination of the Inverted-U hypothesis. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 74, 436-444.
  2. Hardy, L., & Parfitt, G. (1991). A catastrophe model of anxiety and performance. British Journal of Psychology, 82, 163-178.


Module 09

  1. Beauchamp, M. R., Bray, S. R., & Aklbinson, J. G. (2002). Pre-competitive imagery, self-efficacy and performance in collegiate golfers. Journal of Sports Sciences, 20, 697-705.
  2. Hayes, K., Thomas, O., Maynard, I., & Bawden, M. (2009). The role of confidence in world-class sport performance. Journal of Sports Sciences, 27, 1185-1199.
  3. Myers, N. D., Feltz, D. L., & Short, S. E. (2004). Collective efficacy and team performance: A longitudinal study of collegiate football teams. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice, 8, 126-138.


Module 10

No additional readings.


Module 11

  1. Tracey, J. (2003). The emotional response to the injury and rehabilitation process. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 15, 279-293.
  2. Podlog, L., & Eklund, R.C. (2006). A longitudinal investigation of competitive athletes’ return to sport following serious injury. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 18, 44-68.


Module 12

  1. Goldstein, J. D., & Iso-Ahola, S. E. (2008). Determinants of parents’ sideline-range emotions and behaviours at youth soccer games. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 38, 1442-1462.
  2. Grange, P., & Kerr, J. H. (2010). Physical aggression in Australian football: A qualitative study of elite athletes. Psychology of Sport & Exercise, 11, 36-43.


Module 13

  1. Cresswell, S. L, & Eklund, R.C. (2006). The nature of player burnout in rugby: Key characteristics and attributions. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 18, 219-240.
  2. Cresswell, S. L., & Eklund, R. C. (2007). Athlete burnout: A longitudinal qualitative study. The Sport Psychologist, 21, 1-21.

Dr. Lochbaum's Publications

  1. Lochbaum, M., Podlog, L., Litchfield, K., Surles, J., & Hilliard, S. (in press). Stage of physical activity and approach-avoidance achievement goals in university students. Psychology of Sport & Exercise.
  2. Lochbaum, M., Litchfield, K., Podlog, L., & Lutz, R. (in press). Extraversion, emotional instability, and self-reported exercise: The mediating effects of approach-avoidance achievement goals.Journal of Sport and Health Science. doi: 10.1016/j.jshs.2012.08.002
  3. Podlog, L., Lochbaum, M., Kleinert, J., Dimmock, J., Newton, M., & Schulte, S. (2012, advance online copy found at The relationship between self-presentation concerns and pre-game affect among adolescent football players. Journal of Sport and Health Science, xx, 1-8.
  4. Gao, Z., Xiang, P., Lochbaum, M.(in press). Relationships between children’s hierarchical ability beliefs, cardiovascular fitness and achievement behaviors. The Journal of Comparative Physical Education and Sport.
  5. Gao, Z., Lochbaum, M., & Podlog, L. (2011). Self-efficacy as a mediator of children’s achievement motivation and physical activity participation. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 113, 1-13.
  6. Lochbaum, M., Rhodes, R., Stevenson, S. J., Stevens, T., Surles, J., & Wang, J. C. K. (2010). Does gender moderate the exercising personality? An examination of continuous and stage-based exercise. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 15, 50-60.
  7. Podlog, L., & Lochbaum, M. R., & Stevens, T. (2010). Need satisfaction, well-being and perceived return-to-sport outcomes among injured athletes. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 22, 167-182.
  8. Wang, C. K. J., Liu, W. C., Lochbaum, M. R., & Stevenson, S. J. (2009). Sport ability beliefs, 2 x 2 achievement goals, and intrinsic motivation: The moderating role of perceived competence in sport and exercise. Research Quarterly for Exercise & Sport, 80, 303-312.
  9. Lochbaum, M. R., Stevenson, S. J., & Hilario, D. (2009). Achievement goals, thoughts about intense physical activity, and exerted effort: A mediational analysis. Journal of Sport Behavior, 32, 53-68.
  10. Lochbaum, M. R., Stevenson, S., Hilario, D., Surles, J., & Havenar, J. (2008). Achievement goal profiles for female exercise participants.International Journal of Fitness, 4, 39-48.
  11. Stevens, T., To, Y., Stevenson, S., & Lochbaum, M. R.(2008). The importance of physical activity and physical education in the prediction of academic achievement.Journal of Sport Behavior, 31, 368-388.
  12. Stevenson, S. J., & Lochbaum, M. R.(2008). Understanding Exercise Motivation: Examining the Revised Social-Cognitive Model of Achievement Motivation. Journal of Sport Behavior, 31, 389-412.
  13. Lutz, R., Lochbaum, M. R., Carson, T., Jackson, S., Greenwood, M., & Byars, A. (2008). Are we underestimating the affective benefits of exercise? An experience sampling study of university aerobic students.Journal of Sport Behavior, 31, 166-186.
  14. Lochbaum, M. R., Stevens, T., To, Y. & Stevenson, S. (2008). The importance of parent physical activity levels and their expectations for their children’s health: A path analysis. Journal of Contemporary Athletics, 3, 139-160.
  15. Bixby W.R. & Lochbaum, M. R. (2008). The effects of modality preference on the temporal dynamics of affective response associated with acute exercise in college aged females.Journal of Sport Behavior, 31, 299-311.
  16. Lutz, R., Lochbaum, M., Lanning, B., Stinson, L., & Brewer, R. (2007). An Examination of the cross-lagged relationships among leisure-time exercise and perceived stress in a sample of blue collar workers. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 29, 687-705.
  17. Lochbaum, M. R., Bixby, W., & Wang, J. C. K.  (2007). Achievement goal profiles for exercise participation: Differences in personality. Journal of Sport Behavior, 30, 471-490.
  18. Havenar, J., & Lochbaum, M. R. (2007). Motivation for marathon running. Journal of Sport Behavior, 30, 270-279.
  19. Lochbaum, M. R., Bixby, W., & Lutz, R. (2006). Temporal patterns of affective change: An examination of the impact of self-rated exercise intensity. International Journal of Fitness, 2, 33-39.
  20. Lochbaum, M. R. (2006). Viability of resting electroencephalograph asymmetry as a predictor of exercise-induced affect: A lack of consistent support.  Journal of Sport Behavior, 4, 315-334.
  21. Lochbaum, M. R., Bixby, W. R., Lutz, R. S., Parsons, M., & Akerhielm, T. (2006). Implicit theories and physical activity patterns: The mediating role of task orientation. Individual Differences Research, 4, 58-67.
  22. Bixby, W., & Lochbaum, M. R.(2006). Affect responses to acute bouts of aerobic exercise in fit and unfit participants: An examination of opponent-process theory. Journal of Sport Behavior, 29, 111-125.
  23. Lochbaum, M. R. & Lutz, R. (2005). Exercise enjoyment and psychological response to acute exercise: The role of personality and goal cognitions. Individual Differences Research, 3, 153-161.
  24. Lochbaum, M. R., Karoly, P., & Landers, D. M. (2004). Affect response to acute bouts of aerobic exercise: A test of opponent-process theory. Journal of Sport Behavior, 27, 330-348.
  25. Lochbaum, M. R., Lutz, R., Sell, S., Ready, A., & Carson, T. (2004). Perceived stress and health complaints: An examination of the moderating roles of personality and physical activity. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 99, 909-912.
  26. Crews, D. J., Lochbaum, M. R., & Landers, D. M. (2004). Aerobic physical activity effects on psychological well-being in low-income Hispanic children. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 98, 319-324.
  27. Lochbaum, M. R., & Crews, D. J. (2003). Viability of cardio respiratory and muscular strength programs for the adolescent with autism. Complementary Health Practice Review, 8, 225-233.
  28. Lutz, R., & Lochbaum, M. R., & Turnbow, K. (2003). The role of autonomy in post-exercise affect responding. Journal of Sport Behavior, 26, 137-154.
  29. Lochbaum, M. R., Karoly, P., & Landers, D. M. (2002). Evidence for the importance of openness to experience on performance of a fluid intelligence task by physically active and inactive participants. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 73, 437-444.
  30. Thomas, J. R.,Lochbaum, M. R., Landers, D. M., & He, C. (1997). Planning significant and meaningful research in exercise science: Estimating sample size. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 68, 33-43.
  31. Lochbaum, M. R., & Roberts, G. C. (1993). Goal orientations and the perception of the sport experience. Journal of Exercise and Sport Psychology, 15, 160-171.
  32. Gould, D., Tuffey, S., Hardy, L., & Lochbaum, M. R.(1993). Multidimensional state anxiety and middle distance running performance: A test of Hanin's (1980) zones of optimal performance. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 5, 85-95.
  33. Gould, D., Wilson, C. G., Tuffey, S., & Lochbaum, M. R.(1993). Stress and the young athlete: The child's perspective. Pediatric Exercise and Science, 5, 286-297.