Ph.D., University of California, Los Angeles
Professor Howe has taught medieval history at Texas Tech for more than thirty years, and is entering his second term as co-director of the A&S Medieval and Renaissance Studies Center. Recent research projects include The Millennial Reform of the Latin Church and the Making of Europe (to be published by Cornell University Press in early 2016), and “Eastern Influence on Western Monasticism, 850-1050” and “Hermitism in the Eleventh and Twelfth Centuries” (with Kathryn Jasper), to appear in the Cambridge History of Western Monasticism, ed. by Allison Beach and Isabella Cochelin, 2 vols. (accepted for publication by Cambridge University Press). For other research, see his Vita. Howe remains an active director of graduate students.
Historians typically single out the hundred-year period from about 1050 to 1150 as the pivotal moment in the history of the Latin Church, for it was then that the Gregorian Reform movement established the ecclesiastical structure that would ensure Rome's dominance throughout the Middle Ages and beyond. In Before the Gregorian Reform John Howe challenges this familiar narrative by examining earlier, "pre-Gregorian" reform efforts within the Church. He finds that they were more extensive and widespread than previously thought and that they actually established a foundation for the subsequent Gregorian Reform movement.
The low point in the history of Christendom came in the late ninth and early tenth centuries—a period when much of Europe was overwhelmed by barbarian raids and widespread civil disorder, which left the Church in a state of disarray. As Howe shows, however, the destruction gave rise to creativity. Aristocrats and churchmen rebuilt churches and constructed new ones, competing against each other so that church building, like castle building, acquired its own momentum. Patrons strove to improve ecclesiastical furnishings, liturgy, and spirituality. Schools were constructed to staff the new churches. Moreover, Howe shows that these reform efforts paralleled broader economic, social, and cultural trends in Western Europe including the revival of long-distance trade, the rise of technology, and the emergence of feudal lordship. The result was that by the mid-eleventh century a wealthy, unified, better-organized, better-educated, more spiritually sensitive Latin Church was assuming a leading place in the broader Christian world.
Before the Gregorian Reform challenges us to rethink the history of the Church and its place in the broader narrative
of European history. Compellingly written and generously illustrated, it is a book
for all medievalists as well as general readers interested in the Middle Ages and
Learn more at Cornell University Press.
At the dawn of the second millennium, new churches and castles sprang up throughout Western Europe. In central Italy, St. Dominic of Sora (d. 1032) and his patrons played a key role in this process. John Howe mines the surprisingly rich but heretofore neglected sources that reveal their story, offering an absorbing case study of an ecclesiastical reform that was earlier—if less literate and less centralized—than the Gregorian Reform that would soon follow.
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