ABANDONMENT CALL - See Separation Call. A00301. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ABDUCTION - Movement away from the median plane. A00303. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ABERRANT BEHAVIOR - See Abnormal Behavior. A00304. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ABERRATION - Deviation from that which is typical, regular, common, or standard. A00305. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ABIENT - Avoiding or moving away from the source of stimulation. Antonym adient. A00306. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ABILITY - Competence of an organism to perform a given task. Also see specific ability - MOTHERING. A00307. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ABNORMAL - Deviating from a norm. The term has many applications, the most objective being a statistical interpretation focusing on qualitative or quantitative deviations from expected frequencies, means, or intervals. A00309. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior that deviates in form, frequency, or sequence from a defined, comparable standard. Such a standard may be a behavioral inventory typical for a given genotype, age group, sex, nutritional level, housing condition, or management system, etc. A00310. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ABORAL - The region of the body considered opposite to the mouth, or in a direction of movement away from the mouth (e.g., along the digestive tract). A00311. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ACCEPTANCE, SOCIAL - See Social Acceptance A00317. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ACCIDENTAL REINFORCEMENT - See Incidental Reinforcement. A00320. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ADVENTITIOUS REWARD - A reward that is unplanned by the experimenter, or not under the experimenter's control, but that influences the behavior of he test organism. A00601. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ADVERTISEMENT - Any form of communication displayed to attract conspecifics (typically potential sexual partners) or to distract, warn, or threaten potential rivals or adversaries. A00602. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AEROPHAGIA - The swallowing of air. Excessive aerophagia, commonly occurring during habitual cribbing in horses, can lead to serious digestive problems and is considered a dangerous vice. A00603. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AFFECTION - Behavior that indicates positive feelings toward other organisms of the same or different species. A00604. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AFTERBIRTH - The placenta and placental membranes expelled from the uterus following parturition. A00609. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AGGREGATION - Clustering of organisms independently attracted to some environmental resource (e.g., feed, water, temperature, etc.) Aggregation is distinguished from grouping induced by social factors. Compare Flocking, Herding A00616. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AGGRESSION - Any purposive action of an organism toward another organism with the actual or potential result of harming, limiting, or depriving it. In special cases, a nonliving object or the instigator itself may be the focus of the aggressive action. Also see specific aggressions -- DEFENSIVE; DOMINANCE; OFFENSIVE; REINFORCED; SEXUAL; TERRITORIAL. A00617. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR - See Aggression. A00618. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AGITATION - Relatively strong emotionality, nervousness, or restlessness. A00702. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AGNOSIA - Inability to perceive; generally used in reference to specific sensory modalities, such as auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, or visual agnosia. A00704. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AGONISTIC - Refers to any activity performed in the context of an aggressive interaction. It encompasses the actions of both the instigator and the victim. A00706. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR - Any behavior indicative of social conflict such as; threat, attack, and fight; or escape, avoidance, appeasement, and subordination. A00707. 

AGONY - A state of extreme suffering and distress often associated with moribund behavior. A00708. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AHEMERAL CYCLE - A light-dark cycle other than 24 hours in length. A00712. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AIR PECKING (poultry) - Pecking movements toward no obvious target. A00715. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ALARM CALL - A vocal alarm signal. A00717. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ALARM SIGNAL - A signal emitted by an organism to alert other individuals in the vicinity of the presence of danger. The signal has a high arousal potential for conspecifics, and often for other animals as well. A00719. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ALARM RESPONSE - Any behavioral response indicative of fear or awareness of danger. A00720. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  mpg video 1,081 Comment  mpg video 1,301  Comment 

ALERT - The state characterized by high attentiveness and responsiveness to stimuli Compare: Consciousness, Awareness. A00721. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ALLELOMIMETIC BEHAVIOR - Behavioral activities that have strong components of social facilitation, imitation, and group coordination. Synonym: Allomimetic Behavior. A00805. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ALLIANCE (horse) - A form of cooperation between stallions in a multi-male bands of feral horses. One stallion may confront an approaching male from another band, while the other stays with his group. On the next such confrontation the roles of the two stallions might change. A00806. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ALLOCHTHONOUS BEHAVIOR - A term arising out of the concept of action-specific energy. Allochthonous behavior is that which is driven by energy that has sparked over from some other drive due to thwarting of the expression of behavior specific to the latter drive. In this conceptual system, displacement activities could be considered allochthonous behaviors. Compare: Autochthonous Behavior. A00807. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ALLOGROOMING - See Grooming. A00808. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 1,081 Comment 

ALLOLICKING - See Licking. A00810. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ALLOMIMETIC BEHAVIOR - See Allelomimetic Behavior. A00811. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ALL-OR-NONE RESPONSE - A response that is either elicited or not and, if elicited, shows no grading. A00817. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ALPHA ANIMAL - The animal that ranks highest socially in its group (Animals in an established linear social hierarchy are often designated with letters of the Greek alphabet according to their rank.) Compare Omega Animal. A00820. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOR - Behavior by which an organism manifests altruism. A00904. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ALTRUISM - A phenomenon in which one organism does something to the benefit of another organism(s), usually at some cost to itself. In the context of human conduct altruistic moral philosophy asserts that morality cannot be based exclusively on satisfaction of self-interest. A00903. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AMATORY BEHAVIOR - A term occasionally used to refer to activities indicative of the development and maintenance of attachment between animals. Behavioral signs include allogrooming, muzzling, licking, and social play. A00905. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AMBIVALENT POSTURE - A form of compromise behavior in which an animal adopts a posture having separate elements suggestive of the influence of different motivations. A00909. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AMBLE (horse) - A variation of the pace gait that is distinguished by a slight hesitation between the placing of the hooves of the front and rear legs on the same side of the horse. The amble is a slower gait than is the pace, but it is easier for the rider. A00910. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AMBULATION - Walking. A00912. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AMBLYOPIA - Reduced clarity of vision. A00911. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANADIPSIA - Intense thirst A00913. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANALOGOUS BEHAVIOR - Behavior manifested by different species that is similar in function but does not originate from common ancestry. Compare: Homologous Behavior. A00917. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANAL REFLEX - Spasmodic contraction of the anus in response to tactile stimulation. A01002. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANAPHIA - Lack of sense of touch. A01004. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANESTRUS - A relatively long period of sexual inactivity in females of reproductive age, generally occurring in response to seasonal change. Compare: Seasonal Breeding. A01009. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANNOUNCING (chicken) - A vocalization emitted frequently after oviposition. Synonym: Cackling. A01107. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANNOYER - An unpleasant stimulus. A01108. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANOMALOUS BEHAVIOR - See Abnormal Behavior. A01109. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANOREXIA - Chronic inappetance or reduced appetite for food. A01109. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANTE PARTUM - Before parturition, or more specifically, before onset of labor. A01110. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANTERIOR - Situated in front of, or in the direction of, the head of the body, A01106. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANTERIOR PRESENTATION - Fetal presentation in which the forelegs and nose jointly enter the birth canal. There are also two variations of anterior presentation partially anterior presentation and cranial presentation. A01117. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANTICIPATORY REACTION - A response to a stimulus before its actual occurrence. A01120. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANTIPREDATOR BEHAVIOR - Any action having the purpose of reducing attacks by predators or diminishing their harm to an individual or group. Antipredator behavior includes cryptic behavior, vigilance, avoidance or escape, grouping, temporary group dispersion, defensive formation, selection of protective nest site, distraction of the predator from the nest site or offspring, threat display, discharge of noxious substances, and attack. A01201. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ANURIA - Absence of or complete retention of urine. Compare: Oliguria. A01202. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APATHY - Listless and indifferent behavior; commonly a reaction to persistent and insurmountable frustration. A01204. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APHAGIA - Refusal to eat. A01206. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APHRODISIA - Exaggerated sexual desire or unusually frequent display of sexual behavior A01207. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APNEA - Lack of respiration. An apneic period occurs in newborns prior to initiation of regular pulmonary activity (neonatal apnea). Apnea also occurs as a consequence of neural malfunction (sleep apnea), or intense traumatic experience (traumatic apnea). A01208. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APOPATHETIC BEHAVIOR - Behavior influenced by the presence of conspecifics, but not directed toward them. A01210. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APOSEMATIC - Conspicuous display of colored structures that increase the effect of threat and benefit self-defense capacity of animals. A01212. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APOSIA - Refusal to drink A01213. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APOSITIA - Aversion to food. A01214. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APPARENT MOVEMENT - Subjective and illusionary visual perception of movement in the absence of real movement. Apparent movement can he generated by rapid succession of motionless stimuli that mimic the changes that occur in true movement. A01216. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APPEASEMENT - Conciliation directed toward an aggressor or potential aggressor. A01217. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APPEASEMENT SIGNAL - Any behavioral display indicative of conciliatory intent. Appeasement signals often are manifested toward threatening conspecifics when escape is either difficult or impossible. A01218. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APPERCEPTION - The process of conscious perception of events and full awareness including self awareness. A01219. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APPETITE - Desire for some commodity that can be neutralized by specific consummatory responses. The term generally is used in reference to recurrent desires related to physiological processes. Also see specific appetites - DIMINISHED; PERVERTED; REDUCED; RETURNED; VARIABLE. A01301. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APPETITIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior manifested during the initial phase of an operant behavioral cycle indicative of desire to attain a certain goal (e.g., searching for food, pressing bar, broadcasting attraction signals, etc.). A01302. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

APPREHENSIVE BEHAVIOR - Any behavior indicative of an organism' s anticipation of some adverse experience. The most common indicators include high level of alertness, intense sensory focusing on fear-causing stimulus(i), lowered "Flight or Fight" thresholds, defensive posture, and threat display. A01305. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ARCHED NECK (horse) - Distinct flexion of the neck displayed during agnostic encounters between males and during courtship when a male is approaching a female. A01311. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ARREST - Sudden cessation. This term is used frequently in reference to the activities or the function of specific organs (e.g., maturation arrest, cardiac arrest). A01316. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ARTIFICIAL BREEDING - Breeding which artificially replaces or by-passes one or more steps of natural breeding. A01319. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ASEXUALITY - Long lasting or permanent absence of sexual excitability and sexual activity. A01402. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ASYMMETRIC GAIT - A gait in which the action of one or more legs is not synchronized with that of another leg. Also see specific gaits - CANTER; COUNTER CANTER; DISUNITED CANTER; GALLOP. A01411. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ASYMMETRY - In a biological context, any incomplete identity between two sides of the body; or differences in levels of activity between pairs of organs located on either side of the body. A01412. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ATTACK - A violent, generally sudden, punishing action by one animal toward another. A01504. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  

ATTENTION - Adjustment of sense organs and central nervous system to allow for maximal perception of a particular stimulus. Also see specific attention-selective. A01505. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ATTITUDE - The characteristic manner in which an organism tends to react toward another organism. This term also is used to denote body posture or position, particularly in reference to specific situations, (e.g., defensive attitude, forced attitude, stereotyped attitude). A01506. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ATTRACTION - The phenomenon of being stimulated to focus attention on, and in some cases to approach, some object, organism, or action because of its inherent characteristics. Antonym: Repulsion. A01508. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ATTRACTION SIGNAL - Any vocal, visual, olfactory, or other sign, or combination of such signs, broadcast by an organism to attract other organisms into its spatial proximity. A01509. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AUDIBILITY RANGE - The range between the lowest and highest frequency of sound perceivable to an individual, group, or species A01512. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AURICLE - The portion of the external car that surrounds the meatus and extends out from the side of the head. The structure of the auricle is specialized to channel sound waves into the meatus. A01601. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AURICLE REFLEX - Movement of the ears in response to auditory stimuli. A01602. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AUTOCHTHONOUS BEHAVIOR - A term arising out of the concept of action-specific energy. AUTOCHTHONOUS behavior is that which is driven by its own action-specific energy. In this conceptual system vacuum activities could be considered autochthonous behaviors. Compare: Allochthonous Behavior. A01604. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AVERSION - A strong or fixed dislike. Also see specific aversions-SIGNAL; TASTE. A01612. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AVERSIVE STIMULUS - A noxious stimulus that an organism tends to remove or avoid. A01614. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

AVOIDANCE - Prevention or neutralization of aversive stimulation by means of nonapproach, escape, appeasement or subordination, or appropriate operant response. A01616. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 2,203  Comment 

AWAKE - A state of full consciousness and readiness to perform voluntary activities. Antonym: Sleep. A01701. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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