BALANCE - Maintenance of an upright posture through appropriate adjustment of muscle tonus. In a more general sense, the term is used to define a state of equilibrium or homeostasis (e.g., nutritional balance, thermal balance). B01711. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BALKING - The refusal of an animal to move from a spot or the disobedience of directive commands from the rider or handler. B01713. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BALLOTADE (horse) - A dressage exercise of the Spanish High Riding School similar to the Croupade except that the hind legs instead of being drawn up below the body are extended backward exposing the hoofs before the horse lands on all four feet simultaneously on the same spot from which it leaped. B01714. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BAR BITING - Stereotyped biting, gnawing, or sliding of the mouth on accessible parts (usually metal bars) of an enclosure. This type of behavior occurs relatively often in swine housed in close confinement, particularly farrowing or gestation crates, or on concrete floors without bedding material and with a concentrated diet. Bar biting is considered to be an indicator of boredom, but since its occurrence is increased prior to farrowing, it also may be a component of vacuum nest building or a displacement activity linked to predelivery discomfort. Also see Cribbing. B01802. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BAND (horse) - A natural group of horses consisting generally of a stallion, several mares, and several sexually immature individuals of various ages. B01801. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BARED TEETH (horse) - Contraction of lips displaying incisor teeth. Bared teeth is a threat signal and is an integral part of aggressive biting. B01803. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BARK (swine) - A short (0.05 - 0.2 sec), sharp vocalization produced with an open mouth as a single sound or a short series of repeated sounds by a surprised pig. The amplitude of a bark is highest at the beginning of the sound and falls sharply thereafter. The pitch is usually between 2 and 3 kHz. Barks appear to be both threat and alarm calls, having a high arousal effect on other pigs, particularly preweaned young. Other animals react to barking with quick orientation, followed by a brief period of immobility and silence. B01805. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BARKER SYNDROME (swine) - A rare respiratory disease of pigs. Behavioral symptoms are difficult breathing, repeated barking sounds, and uncoordinated locomotion. B01806. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BARREN ENVIRONMENT - An environment of very low complexity. B01811. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BARROW - A young castrated male pig. B01813. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BATTERY CAGE - One in a series of identical or similar cages for housing of animals, all equipped with waterers and feeders. Battery cages usually are stacked in several horizontal tiers and most commonly are used for housing of laying hens. The number of hens housed in each cage depends on its size, but generally varies between 3 and 10 birds. B01817. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BAWL (cattle) - A loud vocalization made when cattle are apparently distressed or disturbed. B01901. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BEAK TRIMMING (poultry) - Removal of the distal portion of the beak to curtail injuries due to pecking among birds housed in groups. Since the beak is innervated, the ethical validity of beak trimming has been questioned. B01903. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BEHAVIOR - The observable action of a living organism, either instigated by the organism or imposed by external circumstances (e.g., contraction of a muscle, locomotion, vocalization, social interaction, movement as a result of being pushed, etc.). Many Behaviors listed. B01909. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BEHAVIORAL ACTION - Any observable behavioral state or event. In a more specific context, the term refers to operationally intrinsic and simple actions which are an integral part of some more complex behavioral pattern. B02001. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS - The process of separation of behavioral activities including to their basic features (e.g., cause, function, or history of acquisition). B02002. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BEHAVIORAL CATEGORY - A class of behavioral activities, usually based on some essential or fundamental consideration (e.g., learned or instinctive behavior in a classification according to origin; social or territorial behavior in a functional classification). B02003. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BEHAVIORAL INVENTORY A list comprising the range of documented behavioral actions performed by an individual, breed, or species. Compare: Behavioral Repertoire. B02010. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BEHAVIORAL REPERTOIRE - The full range of behavioral actions manifested by an individual breed or species. Compare: Behavioral inventory. B02015. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BELLOWING (cattle) - A general term for loud, repeated vocalizations of cattle. Bellowing may be an indication of excitement or distress (e.g., when expecting feed or water, when separated from group members, when in estrus) or a warning signal High incidence of bellowing may be associated with nymphomania or disease (e.g., rabies). B02203. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 1,005 Comment 

BELLY SUCKING - A term applied jointly to navel sucking, prepuce sucking. B02204. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  

BILLING (poultry) - Mutual contact of beaks between two birds, often displayed between monogamous partners. B02212. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BILL WIPING - Periodic vigorous lateral movements of the head by which a bird rubs its beak on some object. Bill wiping increases in frequency during or after feeding. B02213. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BIRTH - Emergence of an organism from the body of its dam. Also see specific birth - PREMATURE. B02308. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BITING - Grasping and applying pressure to an object with the teeth or beak to hold, puncture, or shear it. Biting may occur as a component of ingestive behavior, sexual behavior, or aggressive behavior. Habitual aggressive biting is considered a dangerous vice. Also see specific biting - BAR; EAR. B02310. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  

BLATT (sheep) - A general term for the vocalization of sheep and goats. A medium amplitude sound of variable duration (0.5 - 2.0 sec) produced with the mouth open. This sound is emitted when an animal becomes separated from its herdmates. In the case of dam-offspring separation, the duration of the dam's blatts is longer than usual. It is thought that short blatts aid herd cohesion and loud, repeated blatts indicate distress. B02313. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BLOAT - A digestive disorder in ruminant animals characterized by excessive accumulation of gases in the rumen. The term also is used to describe generalized distention of the abdomen. B02403. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BLOW (cattle) - Forceful expulsion of air through the nasal cavity and nostrils. It is produced during olfactory investigation with the head extended toward the object being investigated. In a louder version, it is apparently a threat signal directed toward a nearby adversary or other aversive stimulus. B02408. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BLOW (horse) - A sound of approximately 0.1 - 0.20 sec duration with a broad frequency range. It is emitted often during investigation and is assumed to indicate anxiety. B02409. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BOAR - A sexually mature male pig. B02410. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BODY RUBBER - A simple device, usually a suspended bag, chain, line, or post, against which an animal can rub itself. Body rubbers are occasionally equipped for automatic application of pesticides to control ectoparasites. B02412. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BOLTING - Swallowing of food with very little or no chewing action. Bolting can cause digestive problems and typically reduces the efficiency of feed conversion. Habitual bolting is considered a dangerous vice. B02413. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BOLTING (horse) - Uncontrolled running by the horse which is dangerous to the rider and the horse. B02414. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BOSS ANIMAL - "Alpha" animal. (colloquial term) B02501. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BOVINE - A cattle-beast or pertaining to cattle. B02504. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BOWIE (sheep) - A clinical term for leg deformity in lambs. It may lead to severe lameness and inability to walk. B02506. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BRANDING - Marking the surface of an organism's body for the purpose of individual identification by causing a permanent and visible scar to form. The branding destroys melanocytes in the skin and permanently changes the color of hairs growing on the affected areas. B02601. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BREAKING-IN (horse) - The first stage of training of a young horse. B02602. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BREATHING - See Respiration. B02603. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BREECH PRESENTATION - Fetal presentation in which the posterior enters the birth canal with the hind legs directed toward the head of the fetus. B02604. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BREEZE (horse) - To run a horse at a moderate speed. B02608. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BRIDLING (ducks) - A postcopulatory action pattern of male ducks characterized by periodic pulling of the head and neck towards the hack interspersed with occasional vocalizations. B02609. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BROADCAST SIGNAL - A signal that is emitted to convey information to any appropriate individual(s) that may be within range (e.g., crowing by roosters). Compare: Directed Signal. B02613. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BROILER - A meat type chicken raised for marketing at an early age (approximately 5 to 7 weeks) B02614. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BROKEN MOUTH - A condition occurring when a sheep loses its incisor teeth thus causing difficulties in grazing and feed intake (colloquial term) B02615. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BROKEN PENIS - Morphological abnormality of the penis caused by rupture or tearing of its tissues. The damage may occur as a consequence of a sudden rapid movement (e.g., collapse) of the female during copulation, or misdirection of the penis during strong propulsus. B02616. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BROODINESS - Maternal tendency of birds to hatch eggs in a nest and raise neonates. B02702. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BRUSHING (horse) - Inappropriate movement of the legs causing the median side of the moving hoof to knock against the median side of the opposite leg. B02705. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BUCK - A sexually mature male goat, rabbit, or deer. B02707. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BUCKING (horse) - The act of leaping with arched hack and lowered head lands on stiff forelegs, attempting to dislodge the rider. B02708. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BULL - A sexually mature bovine male. B02711. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BULLER-RIDER SYNDROME - Frequent mounting of an animal by its peers. This syndrome develops more frequently when the animals are housed in large groups and/or crowded conditions (e.g., in a feedlot) and, if persistent, may cause the death of the mounted animal. B02712. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  mpg video 765KB Comment  mpg video 999KB Comment mpg video 1,179KB Comment 

BULLING (cattle) - Mounting and chin-pressing of peer cows by a cow, usually when the instigator is close to or in estrus (colloquial term) B02714. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BUMPING - A traditional technique used to detect pregnancy in cows during the latter stage (last four months) of gestation. It is conducted by placing a hand against the right flank of the abdomen and then applying one or more pushes in an attempt to feel the fetus. The accuracy of this technique increases with advancing stage of pregnancy and experience of the tester. B02716. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BUNTING - See Butting. B02801. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BUNT ORDER - Social rank order in pigs, sheep, goats, and cattle (colloquial term). B02802. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BURROWING - To dig into and make passageways through some material (e.g., a rabbit burrowing through soil or straw). B02803. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

BUTTING - Hitting an object or another organism with the forehead or horns. Butting is commonly displayed during aggression or as displacement behavior when directed toward some object other than an adversary. A mild butting during nursing (nursing butts) conducted by a suckling offspring is most common in bovines. B02804. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.   mpg video 1,213KB  Comment  mpg video 1,477KB Comment

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