CACKLING (chicken) A low frequency vocalization consisting of a relatively long (up to 4 sec) sequence of uneven duration sounds, often produced after egg laying. C02805. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CAESAREAN DELIVERY - Surgical removal of a fetus from the uterus usually at the approximate time when parturition would occur normally. C02807. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CALF - In some mammalian species (such as cattle, elephants, whales, etc.), an animal before it reaches puberty. C02810. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CALL - See specific calls - ABANDONMENT ALARM; DISTRESS; SEPARATION; WARNING. C02811. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CALVING (cattle) - Natural parturition in cattle. C02902. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CAMPAGNE (horse) - Elementary dressage training, consisting of collection, neck arching, weight shifting on hindlegs, riding in a straight line, turning, and lateral movements C02906. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CANINE - A member of the family Canidae, or pertaining to dogs, coyotes, wolves, etc. C02907. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CANNIBALISM - The practice of consuming the tissue of conspecifics. This term also is used colloquially for the killing or serious injury of conspecifics by biting or pecking. Compare: Kronism. C02908. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CANTER - A naturally developed three-heat gait. The sequence of hoof beats, with the right foreleg as the leading leg, is left hind, right hind together with left fore, then right fore followed by complete suspension in the air. The diagonal pair changes with change of the leading leg. When taking a curve, the leading leg is the one on the inside of the curve. Compare: Disunited Canter; Counter Canter. C02909. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CAPON - A castrated male chicken. C02911. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CAPRILLIC - Referring to goats, particularly goat odor. C02912. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CAPRIOLE (horse) - A dressage exercise of the Spanish High Riding School. The horse leaps into a ballotade, kicks powerfully with both hind legs to reach a horizontal level, then lands on all four hoofs simultaneously near the place the leap was initiated. C02914. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CARE-GIVING BEHAVIOR - See Epimeletic Behavior. C02919. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CARE-SEEKING BEHAVIOR - See Et-epimeletic Behavior. C02920. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CARNIVOROUS - Pertaining to meat-eating species. C02921. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CAST - To cause an animal to fall to the ground. Casting can be done physically or with drugs and can be used to restrain animals for certain types of examination or treatment. C03001. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CASTRATION - Surgical removal of or rendering nonfunctional an animal's gonads. Also see specific castration-psychological. C03005. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CATATONIA - Muscular rigidity that temporarily suppresses locomotion. Organisms in a catatonic state seem to be fully aware of their surroundings and able to visually monitor moving objects. Catatonia is considered the consequence of psychological disorder. C03008. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CATTLE - Domesticated bovine animals. C03011. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CAUDAL - Pertaining to or located in the direction of the posterior end of an animal's body. C03013. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CENTER - The middle point of a body; a conglomerate of integrated neurons that fulfill specific perceptual functions (e.g., auditory, gustatory, olfactory, visual center) or control and coordinate specific activities (e.g., respiratory, thermoregulatory, vocalization, micturition, defecation, vomiting center). C03018. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CEPHALO-, CEPHAL- - Pertaining to the head. C03103. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CEREMONY - A synchronized display involving two or more individuals characterized by a standardized sequence of behavioral actions. Visual, auditory, and tactile modes of communication usually are part of ceremonies. Compare: Ritualized Behavior C03115. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHAIN REFLEX - An uninterrupted sequence of reflexes activated by a specific stimulus. Each subsequent reflex is induced by its predecessor. C03204. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHAMPING - Repetitious, strong opening and closing action of the mouth which produces sounds when the teeth hit together. Champing in swine may be a threat signal, but also is performed by boars during courtship and mating. C03205. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHANT-DE-COEUR (swine) - See Courtship Grunts. C03207. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHARGING - A threatening lunge toward or attack on a human by an animal. Charging most commonly refers to an aggressive action of a stallion, bull boar, or ram towards an attendant. C03209. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHESTNUT (horse) - A hornlike growth on the medial side of the leg. On the forelegs, chestnuts are located above the knee, on the hind legs, below the hocks. The term chestnut also may refer to horse coat color. C03212. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHEW - To masticate food or other substances. C03213. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHEWING - See specific chewing - HAIR; SHAM. C03214. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHICK - A young chicken. C03216. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHIN PRESSING - Positioning of the chin on the dorsal area of a peer. Chin pressing is performed most frequently by bovine males during precopulatory behavior but also by estrus and periestrous cows. Chin pressing is usually oriented toward the withers and the rump. Chin pressing also may he performed as chin rubbing. C03219. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHIN RUBBING - See Chin Pressing. C03220. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHIRRUP (swine) - A short vocalization sound (0.1 - 0.2 sec) of young piglets characterized by rapidly varying pitch. It occurs during the first two months of life. C03221. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHOICE - Selection from two or more alternatives. C03301. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHOICE POINT - A place in a discrimination apparatus where the organism is expected to choose the direction in which to proceed. C03302. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CHUTE - A narrow passage designed to direct and regulate the movement of animals. Chutes are used to facilitate loading, unloading, medical treatment, weighing, inspection of animals, etc. C03315. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CIRCADIAN - Referring to cyclic rhythmically corresponding closely to a 24-hour interval. C03318. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CIRCLE (horse) - A dressage maneuver in which the horse follows a circle larger than 6 m in diameter. C03401. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CIRCLING - Any repeated circular locomotion. Circling may be stereotypic behavior or a symptom of a neural disease (e.g., meningoencephalitis, listeriosis, etc.). Circling can also be induced by conditioning, C03402. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CIRCLING DISPLAY - Circular movement of sexual partners in a synchronized head-to-back position; considered to be a courtship activity. C03403. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CLINCH POSITION - Body position of two fighting adversaries, characterized by mutual insertion of the head between the hind legs of the opponent. The clinch position occurs more frequently when the duration of the fight is long and is assumed to provide each animal with an opportunity to rest while in partial control of its opponent. C03415. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CLINICAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior indicative of disease or injury. C03417. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CLIQUE - A group within a group that operates as a cooperative unit to gain specific advantages for its members. The formation and exploitation of clique affiliation is occasionally called "pactive behavior." C03418. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CLONUS - Rapid, successive contraction and relaxation of muscles. C03420. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CLUTCH - A set of eggs laid on consecutive days. C03502. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COAT MOUTHING - See Hair Chewing. C03505. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COCK - A male chicken more than one year old. Synonym: Rooster. C03508. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COCKEREL - A male chicken less than one year old. C03509. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COGNITION - A process of perception, reasoning, and development of expectations. C03510. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior that results from a process of reasoning. C03511. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COITAL LOCK - Powerful contraction of the vulva around the bulb of an inserted penis which temporarily prevents separation of copulating partners. Coital lock is common in copulating dogs. C03515. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COITUS - Intromission of the penis into the vagina and per vaginal connection between male and female. Coitus facilitates natural transfer of ejaculated semen from the male reproductive tract to the female reproductive tract. C03516. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COITUS INCOMPLETE, COITUS INTERRUPTUS - Coitus which is terminated before semen ejaculation. C03517. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COLT - A young male horse. C03610. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COMFORT BEHAVIOR - See Comfort Movement. C03615. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COMFORT MOVEMENT - Any movement performed to temporarily relieve muscular tension or integumentary irritation (e.g., grooming, preening, scratching, wing flapping, shaking, stretching, etc.). C03616. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COMPENSATION - Counterbalancing of a defect in body structure or in surroundings by behavioral adjustment or alternate behavior. C03704. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COMPETITIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior manifested to render an animal effective, relative to other animals, in the acquisition of some resource (e.g., aggression, mating calls and displays, foraging strategy, territoriality). C03706. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COMPROMISE BEHAVIOR - Behavior that is expressive of motivational conflict. The animal may manifest actions simultaneously that are indicative of different motivations, or may alternate quickly between actions consistent with different motivations. C03714. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COMPULSION - An irresistible impulse or tendency to perform an act. C03715. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COMPULSIVE MOVEMENT - A clinical term for stereotypic behavior, e.g. circling, body twisting, pressing against a wall or pulling on a halter. C03716. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COMPULSIVE ROLLING - Serious disturbance of postural reflexes characterized by excessive wallowing on the ground and difficulty or inability to stand up. Compulsive rolling is an indicator of brain damage. C03717. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CONCILIATORY BEHAVIOR - Behavior directed toward other organisms that tends to promote favorable social relationships. Subordination signals, greeting signals, and appeasement signals are the most common displays of greeting signals, and appeasement signals are the most common displays of conciliatory behavior. C03805. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CONFLICT - A psychological state which occurs when an animal is simultaneously motivated to manifest two or more mutually incompatible responses (e.g., approach-approach conflict, when the organism has to make a choice between two or more attractive stimuli; approach-avoidance conflict when the organism is in a situation where attraction and aversion are inseparably linked with the stimulus; avoidance-avoidance conflict, when the organism has to make a choice between two or more aversive stimuli). Compromise or displacement behavior may occur when the conflicting motivations are equal in strength. C03906. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CONGENITAL - Acquired during development prior to birth or hatching. C03908. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CONNATE - Appearing at birth or shortly thereafter C03910. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CONSPECIFIC - Pertaining to individuals belonging to the same species. C04004. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CONSUMMATORY ACT - An act by which an organism satisfies its interests. C04007. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CONSUMMATORY BEHAVIOR - Behavior consisting of consummatory responses manifested during the consummatory phase of an operant behavioral cycle. C04008. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CONTACTUAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior characterized by bodily contact. C04014. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CONTAGIOUS BEHAVIOR - See Allelomimetic Behavior. C04015. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CONVULSION - Violent muscular contractions affecting all or part of the body. Convulsions may be a symptom of encephalomyelitis, brain edema, tumor, epilepsy, lesion, or parasitic injury to the nervous system, or may be associated with hysteria, high fever, or parturition. C04108. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior by which two or more organisms work together to achieve a goal (e.g., coordination of behavior during mating, territorial defense, or feeding of offspring). C04111. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COPULATION - See Coitus. C04116. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COPULATION, FORCED - See Forced Copulation. C04117. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COPULATORY BEHAVIOR - Behavioral actions directly involved in copulation. These include cooperative posture of a female and mounting, intromission, thrusting, ejaculation and dismounting of a male. Copulatory behavior is preceded by precopulatory behavior (e.g., search for sexual partner, courtship) and followed by postcopulatory behavior (e.g., grooming, resting,etc.). C04118. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CORNERING - A behavioral phenomenon in which an organism cannot escape a threatening adversary without instigating an attack on the adversary. C04202. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COSSET - A lamb raised without its dam. C04212. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CORNEAL REFLEX - Rapid closure of the eyelids when the cornea is irritated. Also called blink reflex or lid reflex. C04201. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COUGH REFLEX - A reflex mediated by the medulla oblongata through the vagus nerve, instigated by the presence of obstructing matter in, or irritation of, the respiratory pathways. Coughing is performed as one or several relatively powerful bursts of air expelled from the respiratory tract to remove the obstruction or alleviate the irritation. Repeated coughing when not engaged in eating may be an indication of respiratory disease. C04303. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COUNTER CANTER (horse) - The counter canter occurs when the horse takes a right curve with the left foreleg being the leading leg, or vice versa. Compare: Canter. C04304. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COUPLING (swine) - A term referring to mating in swine. C04306. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COURBETTE (horse) - A dressage exercise of the Spanish High Riding School in which the horse makes several forward leaps in the Pessage posture. C04307. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COURTSHIP - Specialized behavior patterns that occur as preliminaries to mating and contribute to the psychophysiological synchronization of breeding partners C04308. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COURTSHIP GRUNTS (swine) - Low frequency rhythmical sounds produced by mature boars when exposed to gilts or sows. Synonym: Chant-de-coeur. C04310. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COVERING - Mating in horses. (colloquial term) C04311. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COW - A bovine female after delivery of her first calf. C04312. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

COYNESS - A ritualized short distance fight of females manifested as Part of precopulatory displays and which generally stimulates a following response by males. C04313. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CRATE - A housing compartment that permits lying down and standing up but prevents the animal from turning around or leaving the crate. As a housing system, crates presently are used mainly in swine production units during overlying of piglets (farrowing crates). Crates are also used to house veal calves (veal crate), and for examination, weighing, and transportation of animals. C04402. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CRECHE - An aggregation of juvenile animals, typically birds, that have left their parental nests and band together. C04405. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CRIBBING - Frequent biting on boards, pipes, and other structural materials used for confinement of animals, assumed to be indicative of boredom, pain, or nutritional deficiency. In horses, the term cribbing also refers to swallowing of air through the open mouth when biting on an object (also called crib biting or wind sucking). C04410. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CROSS-FIRING (horse) - Defective leg action occurring in pacers when the hoof of the hind-leg hits the fore-leg on the opposite side of the body C04503. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CROSS-SUCKING - Sucking performed by young, preweaned mammals but directed towards the mammary of lactating female other than their own dam. C04505. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CROUCHING - Lowering of the body by bending the legs. C04506. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CROUCH, SEXUAL - See Sexual Crouch. C04507. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CROUPADE (horse) - A dressage exercise of the Spanish High Riding School Performed as a vertical leap from the Pessage position. While off the ground, the horse folds its forelegs and draws up its hind legs before landing simultaneously on all fours at the same spot from which it leaped. C04508. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CROUP PRESENTATION - Fetal presentation when the posterior Part of the body enters the birth canal while all legs are folded below the body of the fetus. C04509. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CROWDING - An unusually high spatial density of animals which may cause discomfort to some or all animals in the group, but not serious deprivation or injury. Reduced individual distance zones, for the most Part, still can he maintained, and all animals are able to rest at the same rime, stand up and lie down freely, extend their limbs without interference, and have adequate opportunity for eating and drinking. Compare: Overcrowding. C04510. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CROWING (chicken) - A type of vocalization produced by males which has frequency oscillations of relatively wide amplitude, distinct breaks and a duration of approximately two seconds. It is assumed that crowing has a territorial and sexual function, and its frequency of occurrence bears a positive relation to social status in the flock. Crowing commences after six weeks of age. C04512. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CRURAL - Pertaining to the leg or thigh C04513. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CRYPTIC BEHAVIOR - Any behavior that appears to be performed for the purpose of minimizing conspicuousness of an organism. C04514. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CRYPTORCHID - A male whose testes fail to descend into the scrotum. C04516. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CUD - A bolus of regurgitated feed to be remasticated and swallowed again. C04517. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CUD-DROPPING - Tendency to drop regurgitated feed from the mouth. Cud-dropping is one of the behavioral symptoms of pharyngeal paralysis. C04519. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CURIOSITY - A tendency to approach and investigate novel stimuli or situations and become familiar with their attributes or implications. C04603. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CURLED TONGUE (turkey) - Deformity of the tongue in young poults that causes feeding difficulties C04604. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

CYCLICAL NURSING - Nursing conducted at a regular time interval. C04608. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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