DAM - The female parent. D04610. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DEBEAKING (poultry) - Beak trimming (colloquial term) D04706. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DECLAWING - Surgical removal of claws from the feet of birds, cats, and dogs, to prevent scratching and injuring others. D04710. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DEFECATION - Elimination of feces from the body. During defecation, healthy animals raise the tail head and may also move the tail slightly to one side. Horses, cattle, sheep and goats may defecate in a stationary position or while walking. Swine normally remain stationary and tend to deposit feces ill specific areas of a pen, such as in a comer, in a place where feces already have been deposited or in wet areas. D04715. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DEFENSIVE AGGRESSION - Aggression by a victim or potential victim directed toward an instigator or perceived instigator of an aggressive interaction. Defensive aggression characteristically is manifested to prevent or reduce some annoyance or loss . D04717. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DEFENSIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior performed to prevent or neutralize a real or perceived aversive stimulus. According to the circumstances, such behavior may encompass aggression, avoidance, or signs of appeasement and subordination. D04801. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DEHORNING - Surgical removal of horns or any treatment which prevents the development of horns in farm animals. D04809. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DEPRESSION - In a behavioral sense, a state of severe emotional dejection characterized by various behavioral disorders. Also see specific depressions - AGITATED; ENZOOTIC; STUPOROUS. D04910. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DESIRE - Motivation of an organism to acquire, control, or experience some feature of its environment (e.g., water, feed, space, social contact, escape from aversive stimuli, etc.). Desires are interpreted operationally from observed behavior and may, in turn, be indications of underlying needs. Compare: Need. D04913. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DESNOODING (turkey) - Surgical removal of the snood in neonatal poults. Such a treatment is performed to reduce subsequent incidence of cannibalism. D04914. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DETRACTION - In a strict behavioral sense, lowering attention or concentration without shifting the point of focus. D05005. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DEWATTLING (poultry) - Surgical removal of a fowl's wattles. D05007. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DEXTRAL - Pertaining to the right side of the body. Antonym: Sinistral. D05008. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DIAGONAL GAIT - A gait in which the diagonal legs move at the same time (e.g., trot). D05010. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DIESTRUS - A relatively short period of sexual inactivity between two estrus cycles in polyestrous animals. D05015. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DIGGING - See Excavation. D05101. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DIRECT REFLEX - A type of reflex in which the receptor and effector are Located on the same side of the body. D05112. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DISHING (horse) - Defective leg action when the leg is thrown inward during the extension phase D05207. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DISINHIBITION - Reoccurrence of suppressed response to the original eliciting stimulus due to motivational interference of another, previously irrelevant stimulus. D05209. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DISPLACEMENT - Behavior that is seemingly irrelevant to the situation being to perform actions appropriate to the circumstances, or when it apparently to perform actions appropriate to the circumstances, or when it apparently experiences conflict among motivations for different actions. It is also postulated that displacement involves motivational disinhibition. D05214. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DISPLAY - See specific display - BEHAVIORAL; CONFLICT THEORY OF; DIVERSIONARY D05215. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DISTAL - Remote or farther from a point of reference. In an anatomical sense, the point of reference might be the central part of an animal's body Antonym: Proximal. D05302. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DISTRESS - An emotional state of an organism resulting from excessive fear, loss of companion or object with which it has a strong psychological bond, physical discomfort, food or water deprivation, pain etc. Compare: Suffering. D05310. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DISUNITED CANTER (horse) - A three-beat gait which differs from the normal canter in the second beat when the movement of the legs is synchronized laterally rather than diagonally. Compare: Canter. D05315. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DIURESIS - Increased formation of urine. D05316. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DOCILE - Obedient or submissive. D05406. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DOCKING - Partial or complete amputation of the tail. D05407. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DOE - A female goat, deer, or rabbit after delivery of its first offspring. D05409. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DOG-SITTING POSITION - Resting on the caudal part of the body observed in pigs, cattle, and horses. It is often, but not always, indicative of disease (e.g., partial paralysis due to a vitamin or mineral deficiency, abdominal pain, etc.). D05411. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DOG-SITTING PRESENTATION - Fetal presentation when all four limbs and the nose enter the birth canal concurrently. D05412. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DOMINANCE - See Social Dominance. D05417. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DOMINANT ACTIVITY - A behavioral action which in motivational competition superimposes alternative action. The dominant action controls the expression of these alternative actions through inhibition or disinhibition. D05505. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DORSAL - Pertaining to, or in the direction of, the dorsum (back) of an organ. D05508. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DORSIFLEXION - Bending upward toward the dorsum (or forward in leg motion). D05510. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DRAKE - A sexually mature male duck. D05601. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DRESSAGE (horse) - A set of standardized exercises developed through a training program which stresses locomotory coordination of the horse, as well harmony between horse and rider. Also see Piaffe; Pirouette; Travers. D05604. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DRINKING - Voluntary oral ingestion of liquids. D05607. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 521KB  Comment mpg video 1,477 Comment 

DROP, LEG - See Leg Drop. D05610. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DROPPED ELBOW - Radial paralysis. (colloquial term) D05611. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DROWSING - Being in a somnolent state characterized by reduced attention, eye closure, muscular relaxation, and immobility. D05612. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DRUMMING - A rapid series of repeated nonvocal sounds. Geese may produce such sounds by vigorous flapping of the wings. D05613. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DUBBING (poultry) - Trimming of the comb. Such a treatment is performed, generally on neonatal birds, to reduce subsequent incidence of cannibalism and comb injuries. D05617. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DUCK - A mature female duck. D05618. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DUCKLING - A young duck D05619. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DUMMY SYNDROME - A clinical term occasionally used to refer to decreased or diminished awareness of an obstruction in the path of movement. D05621. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

DUST-BATHING (chicken) - A behavior pattern that is a component of integumentary care characterized by lying on the side and making a small depression in the floor surface while head rubbing, bill raking, wing shaking, and scratching on the floor. During dust bathing, birds throw particles of floor material over their bodies and the surrounding area. The dust bathing event ends with ruffling and preening. Synonym: Sand bathing, Litter bathing. Also see specific dust bathing - SHAM. D05622. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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