EAR BITING - Biting or chewing on the ears of other animals. It occurs most frequently in early-weaned, trough- or bucket-fed young mammals, particularly calves and piglets. Ear biting can be substantially reduced if the young animals are fed through artificial nipples. Ear biting may lead to serious injury of the victim's ear(s). E05711. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EAR FLAPPING - Rapid rotatory oscillation of the head causing the ears to flap and strike against the face. Ear flapping is relatively common in swine, and it is conjectured to be a display of mild excitement, a threat signal, or a response to irritation of the ear caused by parasites or specific sounds. E05802. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EAR FLICKING - Quick, light movements of one or both ears. E05803. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EARS, RETRACTED (horse) - See Retracted Ears. E05805. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EAR SUCKING - Sucking of the ears of littermates or conspecifics. Ear sucking occurs frequently in early-weaned, trough- or bucket-fed piglets or calves, or piglets of hypogalactic dams. It may cause lesions of the ear and in crowded pens may lead to serious abscesses. E05806. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EATING - Voluntary oral ingestion of solids and semi-solids. E05807. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EATING, EGG - See Egg Eating. E05808. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ECHOPRAXIA - Imitation of the movement of another organism. E05811. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EGG BEATER (horse) - A horse having very light and coordinated leg action. (colloquial term) E05903. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EGG EATING (poultry) - A vice characterized by penetration of the egg shell by pecking and partial consumption of the egg content. E05904. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EGG LAYING (poultry) - See Oviposition. E05905. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EGG ROLLING (poultry) - Retrieval of eggs to the nest or periodic movement of incubating eggs in the nest by breeding birds. E05906. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EJACULATION - A sudden discharge, commonly referring to the expulsion of semen during male orgasm. Also see specific ejaculation - PREMATURE. E05909. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ELBOW, DROPPED - See Dropped Elbow. E05914. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ELECTROEJACULATION - Any ejaculation artificially induced by electrical stimulation. Electroejaculation is occasionally used for the purpose of semen collection. E05916. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ELIMINATIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior involved in the expulsion of feces or urine from the body or dwelling place. E05919. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EMBRYONIC BEHAVIOR - See Prenatal Behavior. E05922. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EMESIS - An act of vomiting E06004. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EMOTION - A state of arousal, referred to as fear, anger, pleasure, joy, etc., associated with specific cognitive processes and characterized by specific behavioral and physiological symptoms E06008. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EMOTIONAL BEHAVIOR - Any behavior that expresses a strong emotion. An animal may become incoherent in its ability to cope with the situation if it experiences a strong emotion. E06009. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ENURESIS - Involuntary urination during extreme emotional experiences or during sleep E06111. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ENVIRONMENT - The total sum of nongenetic factors which interact with the genotype of an organism. Also see specific environment - BARREN; EXTERNAL; INTERNAL. E06112. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLEXITY - The diversity and intensity of environmental stimuli relevant to a given organism, age group, species, etc. Environmental complexity may range from very low to very high, and thus be characterized as insufficient, adequate, or excessive. E06113. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ENVIRONMENTAL COMPLEXITY DEPENDENCE - A phenomenon in which the expression of a behavior is affected by environmental complexity, e.g., manifestation of stereotypy, response to novel stimuli E06114. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT - The process or factor which increases the complexity of the environment. E06115. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EPIMELETIC BEHAVIOR - Behavioral activities associated with the provision of attention, care, or help to other individuals. Synonym Care-giving Behavior. E06203. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EPIPHORA - An overflow of tears down the cheek, often due to blockage of the tear ducts that normally direct the flow of tears from the eye down into the nasal cavity. E06207. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EQUILIBRIUM - A state of balance in which opposing forces or tendencies counteract each other. E06214. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ERECTION - A process or state of becoming rigid or elevated. This term commonly refers to swelling of erectile tissues such as the clitoris, nipples, and penis. E06303. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ESCAPE - Speedy departure from a place of aversive or potentially aversive stimulation E06312. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ESTROUS BEHAVIOR - See Estrus. E06316. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ESTROUS PERIOD - The part of the estrous cycle during which sexual behavior is manifested. E06402. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ESTRUS - A temporary state of sexual receptivity in female mammals occurring in coordination with ovulation. Behavioral signs of estrus, which may vary between species, typically include increased motor activity, higher excitability, reduction in feeding time, more frequent urination, presenting toward males or sexually cooperative females, tolerance of bodily contacts, and mounting. The most reliable sign of estrus is standing when mounted. The usual duration of estrus is 2 - 7 days in mares, 8 - 18 hours in cows, 1 - 2 days in ewes, and 1 - 3 days in sows. Also see specific estrus - FALSE; PSYCHOLOGICAL; QUIET; SILENT; SPILT; STANDING; TRUE E06404. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ET-EPIMELETIC BEHAVIOR - A variety of behavioral activities manifested to solicit attention, care, or help from other individuals. Synonym: Care-soliciting Behavior. E06406. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ETHOGRAM - A record of behavioral activities. E06410. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXCITEMENT - A behavioral state characterized by an elevated level of arousal. Signs of excitement vary among species and different age groups and may include sensory focusing (orienting response), alteration of body posture, immobility, increased respiratory rate and heart beat, approach toward or retreat from the cause of excitement, emission or suppression of vocal signals and, in some circumstances, threat, attack or display of frustration. E06511. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXCRETA - Residue of digestive and metabolic processes excreted from the body. E06513. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXERCISE - Activity, often repetitive, that provides a psychophysiological challenge to an animal and promotes its maintenance and development. The activity may be rewarding to the animal in itself. E06515. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXHALATION - Expiration of air together with airborne substances. Antonym: Inhalation. E06601. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXHAUSTION - A state of extreme fatigue. E06602. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXOGENOUS STIMULATION - Stimulation arising from events occurring outside an organism's body. E06605. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXPIRATION - A segment of the respiration cycle characterized by contraction of the chest and lungs causing expulsion of air. E06613. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXPLORATORY BEHAVIOR - Behavior characteristically manifested during exposure to novel environments. The activities involved are usually increased overall alertness, sensory focusing, and locomotion accompanied by investigation. E06701. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXPRESSIVE MOVEMENT - See Expression. E06703. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXPRESSION - An observable sign(s) indicative of some ongoing internal process. E06702. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXTENDING, NECK - See Neck Extending. E06705. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXTENSION - In a behavioral sense, straightening movement of an organism (or limb of an organism) which increases the angle between two segments of a joint. Antonym: Flexion. E06706. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXTENSION (horse) - Exaggerated forward movement of the legs in horse gaits. E06707. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXTERIOR - Situated on the outside, or toward the outside. E06711. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXTINCTION - Suppression of a conditioned response by dissociation of reinforcement with the response, replacement of positive reinforcement with negative reinforcement (or vice versa) or establishment of an alternate conditioning regime in the same stimulus context. E06717. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EXTRINSIC BEHAVIOR - Behavior which does not have a specific response mechanism and can be performed in various ways. E06801. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EYE - A sensory organ specialized to receive and process light waves and transmit visual signals to the brain. The principal receptors are rods for scotopic vision and cones for photopic vision. E06803. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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Revised: April 18, 2008