FACILITATION - A process or action by which something is made easier or more convenient. F06806. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FAINTING - A temporary loss of consciousness. Fainting can occasionally occur in young stallions during initial copulatory experiences. F06810. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FARROWING (swine) - The process of parturition F06815. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FARROWING CRATE - See Crate. F06901. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FARROWING HYSTERIA - Parturient psychosis in swine. F06902. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FATIGUE - The condition of being very tired and having reduced ability as a result of exertion or lack of rest. Also see specific fatigue, AGE LAYER MUSCLE. F06905. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FEAR - An emotion caused by perception of danger. Behavioral symptoms of fear may include temporary immobility, hiding, escape, attack, urination, defecation, increased heart rate, etc. Also see specific fear - CONDITIONED. F06908. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FEATHER PECKING (poultry) - Any pecking of the plumage, regardless of whether it is conducted by the bird itself or by another bird(s). Excessive feather pecking can cause structural damage to the plumage, and may be an indication of frustration or inadequacy of flock management. F06909. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FEEDING - Delivery of feed to animals. Also see specific feeding - CONTROLLED; FORCED; INTRAVENOUS; LIMITED; RESTRICTED. F06915. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  

FEIGNING BEHAVIOR - Behavior performed in an attempt to deceive (e.g., feigning of injury by a bird to distract a predator from its nest), F06917. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FEMALE TENDING - See Guarding. F06921. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FEMINIZATION - Acquisition of female behavioral or body conformational characteristics by a male. F07001. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FETICIDE - Killing of fetuses; induced abortion. Male harassment of pregnant females that have been inseminated by other males, apparently to cause abortion (natural feticide) and thus reduce the genetic fitness of rival sires, has been observed. Natural feticide has been suggested to occur fairly commonly in wild or feral horses. F07009. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FETLOCK - The area around the joint between the metatarsal hone and the first phalanx. F07010. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FIGHT - An aggressive social interaction involving interchange of forceful or potentially harmful actions, generally through some means of physical contact. Habitual fighting is considered to be a dangerous vice. F07015. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FIGHTING STANCE (chicken) - A postural display indicative of readiness to attack and characterized by lowered head, extended neck, raised hackles, slightly spread wings in trailing position, and body positioned for a leap. F07016. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FIGURE EIGHT (horse) - A dressage maneuver in which the horse follows two joint voltes or two circles, changing the direction of the circular path at the point where the voltes or circles join. F07017. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FILIAL - Pertaining to offspring or to the generation of offspring as a whole. F07018. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FILIAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior characteristic of the relationship of offspring to parents, particularly behavior that induces parental assistance and cooperation, or requires parental leadership or parental training of offspring. F07019. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FILLY (horse) - A young female horse. F07102. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FIVE-GAITED - A horse trained to execute five gaits (walk, trot, canter, slow gait, and rack) mainly for showing. In the American Saddlebred horse, five-gaited horses can be distinguished from three-gaited horses by their flowing manes. Compare: Three-gaited. F07110. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FIXED ACTION PATTERN - Any action pattern typical of a given species or breed that is performed in a very similar way by its individual members. In contemporary ethology, the term fixed action pattern often is replaced by modal action pattern because of inevitable individual variations in behavior. F07112. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FLAPPING, EAR - See Ear Flapping. F07201. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FLEECE PULLING (sheep) - An abnormal form of ingestive behavior manifested as pulling, tearing, and swallowing of the fleece of peers. F07205. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FLEHMEN - See Lip-curling. F07206. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FLEXION - Bending movement of an organism (or limb of an organism) that reduces the angle between the segments of a joint. Antonym : Extension. F07208. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FLICKING, EAR - See Ear Flicking. F07211. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FLIGHT DISTANCE - The critical distance at which an organism will make an escape response upon the approach of another organism or object. F07213. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FLIGHT REACTION - Swift escape when an object perceived to be dangerous emerges within the limit of critical distance to the reacting organism. F07214. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  mpg video 1,157 KB Comment 

FLIP-OVER (chicken) - Sudden death syndrome in broilers apparently caused by heart failure. It occurs usually after the third week of life and most often affects fast growing individuals. Dead birds typically are found lying on their backs. (colloquial term) F07215. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FLOCK - A socially coordinated group of birds or sheep. F07216. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FLOCKING - The formation and maintenance of socially coordinated groups in birds and sheep. Compare: Aggregation. F07217. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FLYING - Locomotion of an airborn organism in which lift and thrust derive from the action of wings. F07221. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FOALING (horse) - Natural parturition in horses. F07301. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FOCAL ANIMAL - An animal that is chosen as the subject of behavioral observation while it remains in its group. The behavior of group members other than the focal animal is not recorded F07302. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FOLLOWERSHIP - A tendency by group members to accept control of their actions and direction of their behavior by others. F07304. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FOLLOWING RESPONSE - A response of an organism to the movement of another organism or object whereby the former travels at some relatively proximate distance behind the latter. F07305. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.   mpg video 1,755KB Comment 

FOOD CALLING (chicken) - See Tidbitting. F07307. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FOOD-RUNNING (poultry) - Distinctive rapid locomotion most frequently displayed by young birds in the presence of their peers after grasping worms or worm-shaped objects with their beaks. A bird running with such an object in its beak is followed by peers who attempt to steal the object. F07308. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FOOD SELECTION - Preferential (and often species-specific) consumption of certain foods. Animals can be subdivided into herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores, according to the type of food consumed, and into specialists and generalists, according to the range of food consumed. F07309. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FOOTROT - A disease occurring most often in sheep, hut also in cattle and pigs. Behavioral symptoms are progressive lameness and swelling above the coronet followed by an odorous discharge from the affected areas. F07311. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FORAGING BEHAVIOR - Behavior involving search for and intake of food. F07314. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FORCED COPULATION - Copulation after an unsuccessful attempt by a female to avoid mounting and intromission. In feral horses a stallion performing a forced copulation is occasionally aided by female members of his harem who actively prevent the avoidance or escape of the target female. F07315. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FORCED FEEDING - Any artificially induced delivery of feed into an organism's digestive tract. F07316. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FORGING (horse) - Defective leg action when the hoof of the hindleg hits the foreleg on the same side of the body. F07402. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FOSTERING - Promotion of growth and development In a behavioral sense, the term refers to epimeletic behavior toward alien young, enabling their survival. F07407. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FOUNDER - To go lame or become unable to walk due to some physical disorder, such as laminitis. (colloquial term). F07408. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FOWL - Poultry and related wild species of birds. F07410. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FOX HUNTING (horse) - A popular cross-country horseback recreational activity. F07413. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FOX-TROT (horse) - A medium speed (8 - 11 km/hr) four-beat gait comfortable for the rider. The diagonal legs are raised at the same time, but the forehoof contacts the ground before the hindhoof. F07414. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FREE-CHOICE - A type of feeding in which an animal is free to choose among two or more alternatives. F07419. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FREE GOING (horse) - A horse that performs a gait in an easy and seemingly effortless manner. F07502. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FREE-LEGGED PACER (horse) - See Natural Pacer. F07503. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FREE STALL - A stall within a housing unit which animals can enter and exit freely. Free stalls are commonly part of loose housing systems for dairy cows. F07507. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FREEZING BEHAVIOR - Adoption of a fixed, immobile stance. Freezing may be manifested by animals that perceive dangers and may be related to this. It also may be shown by predators hunting prey. In either case, the behavior is thought to render an animal less susceptible to detection. F07508. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FRESH - Referring to a postpartum cow. (colloquial term) F07509. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FRESHEN (cattle) - Parturition and commencement of lactation. (colloquial term) F07510. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FROG POSTURE - Full or partial extension of both hind legs forward along the sides of the recumbent body. In cattle and horses, frog posture is an indicator of hip dislocation, rupture of the adductor muscles, or paralysis of the obturator nerve. F07511. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FROLICKING - A form of play behavior, observed particularly in young animals and often in a social context. F07512. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FRONTAL - Referring to or located in the forehead. F07513. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FRUSTRATION - A theoretical concept referring to a condition that is produced hen an organism is blocked in its attempts to achieve a goal. Behavioral symptoms of frustration vary among species and may include elevated levels of pacing, grooming, preening, pawing, vocalization, and aggression. Sustained frustration promotes development of stereotypy or apathy. F07515. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FULL-PASS (horse) - An artificial maneuver in which the horse moves sideways in a direction 90 degrees from its median plane. Compare: Half-pass. F07516. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FUNCTION - In a behavioral context, that which is accomplished by a given action. In a statistical sense, a function mathematically defines the relationship between two or more variables. F07517. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

FUNCTIONAL UNIT - A molar category subsuming behavioral actions that serve a common purpose, but may be performed in a different way. For example, a functional unit identified as "eating" may include intake of roughage, chopped roughage, mixed diet, concentrates etc., each such form of feed being consumed in a slightly different way. F07601. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EFAB HOME

Send comments or suggestions to LIRU Webmaster
Revised: April 18, 2008