GABBLING (geese) - One of the vocalizations of geese, consisting of repeated short, cackling sounds and most typically produced when encountering familiar peers. G07603. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GAIT - Action of the legs during locomotion. Also see specific gait - DIAGONAL; LATERAL. G07605. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GALLOP - The fastest naturally developed gait. The leg movement is similar to the canter, except the diagonal beat is extended so the forehoof hits the ground slightly later than the hindhoof and the phase of total suspension in the air is longer (a fast gallop is a distinctly four-heat gait). G07606. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GAMBOLING - Bouncing and turning, seemingly stiff-legged, in the air. Gamboling can be observed mainly in the young playing sheep and to a lesser degree in goats. G07608. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GANDER - A mature male goose G07610. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GASPING - Difficult breathing characterized by abrupt and often great effort in drawing breath. G07614. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GASPING TURKEY SYNDROME - Gasping accompanied by spreading of wings and often unsteady gait, occurring most commonly in heavy turkeys after 10 weeks of age. Turkeys predisposed to gasping appear to have lowered tolerance to excitement and exercise and are prone to sudden death when moved or during handling and semen collection. G07701. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GATE, TEXAS - See Texas Gate. G07702. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GATHERING AREA - A location where animals frequently aggregate, usually near water sources, feeders, shelters, or gates. Gathering sites are easily recognizable by damaged vegetation, trampled ground and accumulations of excreta. The term also is used to refer to locations within animal holding facilities designed to collect groups of animals. G07703. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GELDING - A castrated male horse. G07704. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GENITAL - Of or pertaining to the organs of reproduction G07804. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GEOPHAGIA - Eating soil or earthy substances. G07807. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GESTURE - A movement or expression displayed for the purpose of visual communication. G07815. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GETAWAY CAGE - A cage for laying hens, designed to provide higher environmental complexity than battery cages. In addition to water and feeder, these cages also have a nesting box, sand-bathing box, and roosts. G07806. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GILT - A young female swine up to the time of first farrowing. G07817. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GNAWING, WOOD - See Wood Gnawing. G07902. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GOBBLING (turkey) - Vocalization of mature male turkeys, produced usually as a series of 3 - 7 sounds, accompanied in most cases by moderate head movements. G07904. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GOOSE-STEPPING (swine) - Unusually high action of the legs accompanied by slower locomotion; it may he a symptom of deficiency of pantothenic acid. G07908. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GOSLING - A young goose prior to sexual maturation. G07909. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GRASPING REFLEX - Reflexive holding onto an object. Reflexive grasping of the body of the mother is very common in neonates. Grasping also occurs in adults during copulation. G07912. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GRAVID - Referring to a female carrying an embryo or fetus; pregnant. G07913. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GRAZING - The act of consuming standing vegetation. G07914. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 3,097KB  Comment   With weaning ring mpg video 1,767 MB Comment 

GREETING SIGNAL - Any auditory, visual, tactile, or other sign, or combination of such signs, displayed by an organism upon becoming aware of the presence of another organism and indicating acknowledgment of its presence and friendly intention toward it. G07917. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GREGARIOUS - Referring to an individual that characteristically lives in association with conspecifics in a group, herd, or flock. The same term may be applied in a general sense to a species whose individuals are typically gregarious. Antonym: Solitary. G08001. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GROAN (horse) - A vocalization of approximately 0.5 second duration, having a broad sound frequency range. It is assumed to be indicative of discomfort and frustration. G08002. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GROAN (sheep) - A low amplitude sound of intermediate duration (0.5 - 1.2 sec) produced with a slightly open mouth. Groans are characteristically emitted by animals that are ill, those apparently suffering from pain, or occasionally by healthy animals adjusting posture when recumbent. G08003. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GROOMING - An act of integumentary care (e.g., licking, scratching) to remove parasites, smooth ruffled fur, remove dirt, etc. Grooming is subdivided into self-grooming (an animal grooming itself) and allogrooming (an animal grooming another animal). Grooming may also have a social function, appearing as conciliatory behavior (a subordinate animal grooms a dominant animal), reciprocal altruism (animals groom each other), or ritualized behavior performed during courtship or conflict. G08004. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 1,519 KB   Comment  mpg video 1,225 KB  Comment  

GROUND-RUTTING - See Horning G08006. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GROUND-SCRATCHING (poultry) - A sequence of rapid foot movements performed to manipulate the ground surface. It occurs frequently during food gathering and to a lesser degree in frustrating situations. G08007. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GROUP - A collection of animals. Generally the term is applied to situations in which the animals are of the same species and the composition of the group is relatively stable over time. Also see specific group - HETEROGENEOUS; HOMOGENEOUS. G08008. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GROUP DISTANCE ZONE - An area surrounding a group of organisms defined by the distance the group seeks to maintain between itself and other groups. The size of this zone depends on circumstances existing at a given time, such as population density, group size, season, availability of feed resources. This term generally is used in the context of nonspecific social interactions. Compare: Individual Distance Zone. G08011. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GROUPING - The formation of a group of animals by natural means (e.g., herd formation as a result of social attraction) or by human action, (e.g., allocation of a number of animals to a given pen or grouping of dairy cows according to milking performance). G08102. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GROUP SIZE DEPENDENCE - A phenomenon in which the expression of a behavior is affected by the number of animals in a group (e.g., time necessary to establish a social hierarchy). Compare: Density Dependence. G08104. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GRUNT (sheep) - A low amplitude sound of short duration (0.3~0.75 sec) produced with a closed or slightly open mouth. It is emitted during re-establishment of contact between peers and is indicative of greeting. G08109. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GRUNT (swine) - The most common vocalization of mature swine produced as a sound of low to medium amplitude. Grunting may consist of single grunts, but more commonly occurs as a series of repeated sounds produced with mouth closed or only slightly open. The pitch of grunts is usually between 1 and 4 kHz. According to the duration of individual sounds they can be subdivided into short, medium, or long grunts. Short grunts (0.1 - 0.2 sec) appear to be a sign of mild excitement and often are produced when a pig is frustrated or greeting another individual. Mid-length grunts (0.2 - 0.4 sec) are often produced during interactions with familiar peers and also during the milk ejection phase of a normal nursing cycle of a sow. Long grunts (0.4 - 1.2 sec) are produced in response to tactile stimulation such as occurs during courtship and the nursing cycle (particularly the nosing and slow suckling phases). Also see specific grunt - COURTSHIP; NURSING. G08110. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GUARDING (cattle) - The maintenance of close proximity by a bull to a cow in proestrus and estrus. G08111. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GYMKHANA (horse) - Popular horseback games consisting of a combination of barrel racing, polebending, keyhole race, and stake. G08201. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

GYNADOMORPH - An organism that possesses both male and female characteristics. G08202. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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