HABIT - A persistent pattern of behavior. H08203. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HABIT BREAKING - A conditioning process focusing on extinction of habitual forms of behavior. H08205. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HAIRBALL - A ball of hair in the digestive tract, developed most frequently in bovines as a consequence of excessive integumentary licking. H08208. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HAIR CHEWING - Chewing or nibbling on the pelage of conspecifics. It occurs in animals of all ages in free stalls or tie stalls, particularly if the animals are fed high concentrate diets. H08210. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HALF-PASS (horse) - A dressage maneuver in which the horse moves on a 45 degree angle from its median lane. Half-pass is principally a Traverse executed in a semi-lateral direction. H08211. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HALT (horse) - A dressage position in which the horse stands motionless with apparently equal distribution of weight on all four legs. The neck is raised with the front of the head close to vertical and the ears indicating attention. H08214. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HALTER - A device made of leather straps or rope that closely fits the shape of an animal's head and commonly is used to tie and handle large farm animals. H08301. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HALTER-PULLING (horse) - An action in which a tethered horse pulls backward powerfully on its halter. The horse may have it's hindhooves slip, causing it to fall and roll, or if the halter breaks, the horse may tumble backward and risk injury. Halter-pulling may become habitual in some horses and is considered a dangerous vice. H08303. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HALTER SLIPPING - Intentional escape from a halter restraint. Some animals become skilled at halter slipping. To prevent this behavior, once it becomes a habit, specially designed haIters must be used. H08302. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HAND BREEDING - Human-controlled and time-limited pairing of sexual partners for the purpose of mating. H08304. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HAPTOMETER - An instrument for measuring touch sensitivity. H08309. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HARASSMENT - Persistent, intentional disturbance of an individual by another individual or group. H08310. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HAREM - A group of sexually mature females dominated by and mating with one male. H08311. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HATCHING - The process whereby an organism emerges from the egg laid by its dam. H08314. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HAUTE ECOLE (horse) - Advanced dressage focusing on refined execution of required movements. H08316. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEAD DIPPING - A period of rhythmical submergings of the head and part of the neck in water, manifested by some waterfowl during courtship. H08317. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEAD JERKING - Voluntarily controlled short, quick, single movements of the head H08401. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEAD NYSTAGMUS - Oscillatory head movement that occurs after the body of an animal has been subjected to rotation. H08402. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEAD PRESSING - Extended and repeated leaning forward and pushing of the head against a wall, fence post, or other fixed objects. Head pressing commonly is a symptom of brain damage (due to, e.g., encephalomyelitis, hepatic encephalopathy or elevated intracranial pressure). H08403. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEAD SCRATCHING - A comfort movement oriented toward the head area. Generally it is a response to skin irritation or a symptom of mild excitement. H08405. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEAD SHAKING (poultry) - A rapid series of side-to-side nicking movements of the head H08406. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEAD-SHY (horse) - Refers to a horse that resists close approach to its head or having a bridle put on its head. H08407. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEAD TOSSING - A vigorous and often repetitive vertical movement of the head. Head tossing often can be observed in horses under saddle or in unfamiliar environments. It is thought to be a sign of mild excitement or improperly fitting equipment H08408. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEART RATE - The number of contractions of the heart muscle in a given time, commonly one minute. H08411. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEAT - A sensation resulting from simultaneous stimulation of thermal receptors in the skin. Colloquially, the word heat refers to estrus. H08412. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEAT, STANDING - See True Estrus H08413. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEAT DETECTOR - See Estrus Detector. H08414. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEIFER - A female bovine younger than 3 years that has not delivered a calf. H08419. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HELPLESSNESS, LEARNED - See Learned Helplessness H08421. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HEN - A sexually mature female turkey or chicken. H08505. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HERD - A socially coordinated group of ungulates. In an agricultural sense, a herd is a group of horses, cattle, goats, or swine considered as one managerial unit. H08509. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HERDING - The formation and maintenance of socially coordinated groups by mammals. Compare: Aggregation. H08510. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HERDING POSTURE - A stance adopted by stallions manifested as a lowered head and neck with ears laid back. It often is performed when the stallion drives females from one place to another. Rams and bucks may perform a similar behavior pattern but in a less elaborated form and less frequently. H08511. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HERMAPHRODITISM - The presence of male and female sexual organs in the same organism. H08516. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HETEROSEXUALITY - Sexual attraction to individuals of the opposite sex H08522. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HIDDEN TESTES - See Cryptorchid. H08603. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HIDE - To engage in cryptic behavior. H08604. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HIDROSIS - Extreme sweating. H08605. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HIERARCHY - See specific hierarchy - COMPLEX; LINEAR; LINEAR-TENDING; SOCIAL. H08606. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HIERARCHY LOOP - Any nonlinearity in a dominance-subordinance ranking scale. This may occur in groups of three or more animals (e.g., animal one dominates animal two, animal two dominates animal three, but animal three dominates animal one). H08607. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HIGH-GAITED (horse) - Referring to leg action in which there is high raising of the hooves from the ground and great flexion of the hocks. H08608. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HIGH-STEPPING (chicken) - A postural display of males characterized by semicircular movement performed with high, slow steps around an opponent. The bird holds its head and tail high, thrusts out its chest and slightly trails its wings. High-stepping is a threat signal. H08610. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HINNY - Offspring of a stallion and a jenny. H08613. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HISSING (geese) - A sibilant sound, up to several seconds long, produced as a threat signal by geese. This term also refers to similar activities in other species such as cats and some reptiles. H08614. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HOARDING - The storage of food or other materials in a cache(s) located within an animal's home range. H08618. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HOBBLE - Any leather band or rope placed around an animal's leg(s) to restrain it. H08619. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HOBBLES - See specific hobbles - BREEDING; MILKING. H08620. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HOCK TWITCH (cattle) - A flexible loop placed above the hock. When tightened with a short stick, the loop compresses the Achilles tendon and prevents kicking. H08701. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HOGGET - A young sheep from weaning to first shearing. H08703. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HOME RANGE - A locality where an individual(s) conducts all its principal activities. H08708. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HOMOLOGOUS BEHAVIOR - Behavior in different species that is similar in form, but not necessarily in function. The behavior is similar as a result of the species' common phylogenetic origin. Compare: Analogous Behavior. H08712. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HOMOSEXUALITY - Sexual attraction for individuals of the same sex. H08713. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HONKING (geese) - One of the vocalizations of geese, consisting of rhythmical loud sounds. Honking is typically produced when geese are flying or excited. H08716. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HOOF RUBBING (horse) - Chafing of the crown of one hindleg by habitual resting of the hoof of the other hindleg on it. This may lead to leg injury, particularly if the horse wears shoes that have sharp edges. H08801. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HORNING (cattle) - Digging or churning the ground using the horns or forehead. This type of behavior is generally displayed by males and is assumed to be a sign of excitement and a warning signal. H08804. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HORSE LAUGH - Lip-curling (Flehmen) in horses. (colloquial term) H08805. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HOT WALKER - A person or mechanical device that leads horses in a circle at a slow walk to cool them after training. H08806. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HUDDLING - Maintaining close bodily contact with other members of a group. The term huddling is used for situations in which the bodily contact is initiated voluntarily by the individuals involved. H08808. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HUNGER - An uncomfortable sensation induced by fasting. Hunger generally is associated with increased appetite for food, provided the duration of fasting has not resulted in lethargy. H08812. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HUNTER (horse) - A horse trained, exhibited, or competing in the maintenance of an even hunter pace and good jumping style. Hunters are judged working natural obstacles such as hedges, stone walls, and board fences that are 1.0 - 1.5 m high. H08814. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HYBRIDIZATION - Sexual reproduction in which gametes originate from animals of different species. H08817. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

HYSTERIA - A state characterized by extensive use of defense mechanisms and by a variety of symptoms associated with high levels of fear, anxiety, restlessness, and general irritability. H09111. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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