IDLING - Being stationary for extended periods of time while apparently not engaged in any other activity, such as rumination or sleep. Idling occurs predominantly in environments where an animal has relatively limited opportunity or stimulation to perform diverse behavioral activities and may be difficult to distinguish from resting, except that it is performed for more time than is actually required for resting. I09206. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ILLUSION - An object hypothesis that distinctly misrepresents reality. Illusions may involve different sense modes (e.g., optical, motion, temperature, taste, or auditory illusions). Also see specific illusion - OPTICAL; MOTION; VISUAL I09207. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

IMITATIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior of an organism that mimics that of other organisms. I09209. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

IMMOBILITY - Lack of movement. Also see specific immobility - TONIC. I09210. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

IMMOBILIZE - To render incapable of movement using physical restraint or an immobilizing agent, e.g. etorphine. I09211. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

IMPRINTING - Rapid learning to identify, approach, and follow some object (typically a parent). Imprinting occurs in some animal species during a critical period of development early in life and is strongly genetically predisposed. I09216. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INAPPETENCE - Failure to manifest the appetitive and consummatory phases of a behavioral cycle. The term generally is used in reference to food. I09304. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INATTENTION - Lack of attention or a state of unselective attention I09305. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INBORN - Present in the organism at birth. Synonym: Innate. I09306. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

IN CALF (cattle) - Referring to a pregnant cow (colloquial term) I09308. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INCIDENTAL LEARNING - Learning that occurs without a detectable learning process or without ascertainable motivation. I09310. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INCIDENTAL REINFORCEMENT - Reinforcement that occurs unpredictably and rarely and is unplanned. Also called accidental reinforcement or spurious reinforcement. I09311. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INCITEMENT - A phenomenon in which an organism causes another to instigate an attack on a third organism. For example a female in the proximity of a male may show a threat display toward an approaching conspecific female, which may lead to the male driving the intruder away. Incitement generally is most common in monogamous species. Compare: Interference I09313. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INCOMMEASURABLE - Referring to two or more characteristics that cannot be classified with the same scale or unit (e.g., amount of feed consumed and speed of locomotion). I09315. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INCOORDINATION - Insufficient synchronization of motor activity of muscles causing incoherent locomotion and reduced body balance. I09317. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INDECISION - Inability to choose a course of action or select between alternatives I09319. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INDIVIDUAL DISTANCE - The distance an individual seeks to maintain between itself and other individuals, I09405. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INDIVIDUAL DISTANCE ZONE - An area surrounding an individual defined by the distance the individual seeks to maintain between itself and other individuals. The size of this zone depends on circumstances existing at a given time, e.g., reproductive stage, social status, temperature. This term generally is used in the context of conspecific social interactions. Compare: Group Distance Zone. I09406. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INDIVIDUALITY - A set of characteristics or qualities that distinguishes any given organism from its peers. I09407. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INDUCED MOLTING - See Controlled Molting. I09408. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INERTIA - A tendency to persist in a state of rest or equilibrium. With regard to the nervous system this tern denotes the time lag between a stimulus and he onset of a detectable response. I09410. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INFANTICIDE - Killing of young by a conspecific adult Compare: Infantophagia. I09411. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INFANTILE BEHAVIOR - Behavior of neonatal animals during the stage when hey are fully dependent on parental care. I09412. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INFANTILISM - Stalled or regressed psychophysiological development of an organism to the degree that it psychologically and behaviorally approximates an infant. I09413. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INFANTOPHAGIA - Eating of young by a conspecific adult. Compare infanticide. I09414. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INFESTATION - Occurrence of large numbers of parasites within or on an organism. I09417. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

IN FOAL (horse) - Referring to a pregnant mare (colloquial term). I09502. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR - Actions by which an organism takes substances into the body by swallowing. I09504. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INHALATION - Inspiration of air together with an airborn substance such as medicine. Antonym: Exhalation. I09505. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INHIBITION - Partial or complete suppression of a response in the presence of an eliciting stimulus. Also see specific inhibition - AFFERENT; ASSOCIATIVE; CONDITIONED; EXTERNAL; MEMORY; REACTIVE; REINFORCEMENT; RETROACTIVE. I09508. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INITIATOR - An individual who incites imitative responses by other members f its group. I09509. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INJURY, SPREADER - See Spreader Injury. I09510. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

IN MILK - Lactating. (colloquial term) I09511. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INSEMINATION - Transfer of semen into the reproductive tract of a female. Also see specific insemination - ARTIFICIAL; NATURAL I09517. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INSOMNIA - Extended inability to sleep. I09520. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INSPIRATION - A segment of the respiration cycle, characterized by expansion of the chest and lungs causing air intake. I09521. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INSTIGATOR - In a social context, an organism that initiates some action with regard to another organism (e.g., an animal instigating a fight). I09522. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INSTINCT - An unlearned tendency to act in ways typical of a species. I09601. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR - Any response that does not require a learning experience (frequently used synonymously with innate or inherited behavior). I09602. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INTEGUMENTARY - Pertaining to the skin or its layers and accessory structures such as hair, horns, hooves, and skin glands. I09607. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INTEGUMENTARY BEHAVIOR - Behavior directed toward the integument of the organism (e.g., grooming). I09608. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INTENSITY - The quantitative aspect of a stimulus, sensation, or response I09610. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INTENTION - Cognitive determination to perform a given action. I09611. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INTENTIONAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior directed toward a goal. I09612. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INTENTION MOVEMENT - An action that indicates the behavior in which an animal is about to engage. Frequently, such movements are merely preparatory to the subsequent behavior, or they may be the initial actions themselves. In conflict situations, an animal may display intention movements but not follow through with the behavior the intention movements suggest In such cases, the movements may indicate which motivations are in conflict. I09613. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INTERFERENCE - A phenomenon in which an organism interrupts an aggressive encounter (threat or fight) among other organisms. Interference is most common in gregarious species. Compare : incitement I09616. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INTERIM ACTIVITIES - Behavioral actions that are induced by application of an intermittent reinforcement schedule and are displayed during the period between intervals of reinforcement. I09617. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INTRINSIC BEHAVIOR - Behavior that is mediated apparently by specific response mechanisms and is performed with minimal plasticity (e.g., eye blinking). I09715. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INTROMISSION - Insertion or admission into something. In a biological context, the term is most commonly used in reference to insertion of the penis into the vagina. I09717. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INVESIGATIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior of an organism indicative of inspection of an object or surroundings. I09803. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

INVOLUNTARY BEHAVIOR - Any action that occurs without intention or volition (e.g., attention to an unexpected object). I09805. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

IRIS - A disc-shaped, pigmented membrane with a circular opening in its center (pupil) located in the anterior portion of the eye in front of the lens. By contracting or dilating, the iris can change the size of the pupil and control the amount of light entering the eye. I09807. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

IRRITABILITY - Ability to respond to stimulation. This term is used frequently to denote oversensitivity to stimulation. I09810. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ITCH - An irritating sensation that arouses motivation to scratch, rub, or bite the affected area of the body. A clinical level of itching may result from conditions caused by external parasites (e.g., mange, lice) or internal disorders (scrapie, Aujeszky's disease). I09813. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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