MAIDEN (horse) - A horse that has never won a race; a mare that has never been bred. M10803. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MAINTENANCE BEHAVIOR - Any behavior through which an organism sustains its own physiological equilibrium or that of a dependent. In a broader sense, this term refers to activities required for essential physical and psychological comfort. M10804. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR - Any behavior that directly or indirectly causes reduction or inhibition of the reproductive performance of a given organism. Compare: Maladjusted Behavior. M10806. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MALADJUSTED BEHAVIOR - Any behavior that directly or indirectly reduces production performance, leads to health problems, or causes discomfort of a given organism. Compare: Maladaptive Behavior M10807. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MALADJUSTMENT - Failure of an organism to cope effectively with its surroundings. M10808. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MALSUCKING - Sucking directed toward other objects than mammary teats of a lactating female, or sucking directed toward the mammary teats but performed at an inappropriate age. Malsucking of inappropriate objects occurs frequently in early weaned or young, bucket-fed calves. Malsucking among adult animals is considered a serious social vice. M10812. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MAMMILLA, OR MAMILLA - The nipple of a mammary gland. M10813. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MANIA - A general term for behavioral disorders indicative of disease of the nervous system. Characteristic actions are excessive licking, chewing of unusual materials, perceptual incompetence, staggering gait, abnormal vocalization, and increased aggressiveness. M10815. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MARE - A female horse that has foaled, or that is older than four years. M10903. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MARKER ANIMAL - A hormonally masculinized female or a vasectomized or penectomized male used for identification of estrous cows. M10905. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MARKING - Any deposition of scent compounds or other signs that serve to delineate territorial boundaries or trails, or to designate partners and group members. M10907. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MASKING (horse) - Defecation or urination, generally by a stallion, on the feces of another horse. Masking is postulated to be an assertion of status or territory, or an attempt to mask olfactory stimuli from the feces of the other horse M10910. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MASSAGING - Rhythmic and sustained mechanical manipulation of the integument and underlying tissues (e.g., manipulation of the mammaries of a sow by piglets prior to and after nursing) M10911. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  

MASTICATION - The process of physically breaking down food in the mouth by tearing and grinding action of the teeth in preparation for swallowing and digestion. M10912. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MASTURBATION - Sexual stimulation of the genitalia without coitus. Masturbation has been recorded in males of all mammalian farm animal species. Masturbation is conducted by rhythmic movements approximating pelvic thrusting (horses, cattle) or by self-licking of the penis (dogs, cats), M10914. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MATE - An organism that is the sexual partner of an individual of the opposite sex. Such an association may be of short duration or may involve a pair bond over an extended period of time. As a verb, the term means to form a sexual partnership or, more specifically, to copulate. M10915. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MATE PREFERENCE - A phenomenon manifested by some males and females of many polygamous and polyandrous species to favor specific sexual partners while avoiding or reducing interactions with others. Mate selection has been observed in horses, sheep, goats, and pigs. M10916. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MATERNAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior of a dam directed toward the well-being and care of her dependent offspring or young. M11001. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MATERNAL DEPARTURE - The phenomenon in which a dam temporarily leaves her offspring in some place (e.g., a nest), enabling her to conduct activities essential for survival (e.g., foraging for food). M11002. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MATERNAL INADEQUACY - Inability of a dam to provide sufficient maternal care to her neonatal offspring. Maternal inadequacy usually is caused by agalactia or hypogalactia, undernourishment, poor health, excessive excitability, or exhaustion due to dystocia. Compare: Maternal Rejection. M11003. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MATERNAL REJECTION - Social rejection of neonatal offspring by their dam Maternal rejection develops when, for some reason, normal primary socialization does not take place. It occurs in all species of farm animals, most frequently with primiparous dams or dams having infected or injured udders. Compare: Maternal Inadequacy, Kronism M11004. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MATING - See specific mating - ASSORTATIVE; RANDOM. M11005. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MATING BEHAVIOR - The component of sexual behavior closely associated with and including copulation. M11006. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MATING STANCE - Posture of a female indicative of sexual receptivity. Most common characteristics of this stance in four-legged animals are slightly spread hind legs, extended neck with slightly lowered head, and laterally displaced tail. M11007. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MATRIARCH - A female that is predominant in the social organization of a social unit Such predominance involves alpha social status and arises out of ancestry to other members of the unit. M11008. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MEDIAN - A plane or point of division of some distribution into two equal parts. M11104. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MEMORY - The entire set of information acquired and retained by an organism and potentially available for its use. Also see specific memory - LONG-TERM; SHORT-TERM. M11109. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MENTAL - Pertaining to the cognitive state or activity of the brain. M11201. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MICTION - See Urination. M11208. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MICTURITION - See Urination. M11209. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MICTURITION REFLEX - The sequence of activities controlling urination. The reflex center is located in the spinal cord but is also controlled by the brain. M11210. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MIGRATION - Movement, often seasonal and distant, of Part or all of an animal population from one area to another. M11213. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MILK EJECTION - A process, controlled by the hormone oxytocin, characterized by contraction of myoepithelal cells, alveoles, and small ducts of the mammary gland resulting in the expulsion of secreted milk. M11216. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MILKING - Manual or mechanical extraction of milk from the mammary gland. M11218. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MILKING HOBBLES (cattle) - A simple device used to prevent kicking. It consists of two metal pieces shaped to fit the hindlegs above the hocks and connected in front by a chain. At the present time, milking hobbles are seldom used during milking but occasionally are employed for the safety of a person conducting medical examination or treatment. M11219. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MILKING PARLOR - An area specially designed for milking. M11301. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MILK LETDOWN - Milk ejection. (colloquial term) M11302. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MINCING - Circling around an adversary with the body hunched up and taking short, rapid steps. This behavior appears to be a combination of an attacking and of a defensive posture, commonly interpreted as a threat display. M11304. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MISE EN MAIN (horse) - Relaxation of the jaw during ramener in dressage. M11306. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

"MM" VOCALIZATION (cattle) - A low-amplitude sound of variable duration (0.5 - 3.0 sec) produced with the mouth closed or only slightly open. It is emitted during social interactions with offspring and familiar peers (particularly young animals), during sexual interactions between females, or (directed toward a caretaker) while waiting for food or milking. It is thought that this vocalization promotes maintenance of herd cohesion. M11308. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOB - To engage as a group in harassment or attack of an individual(s). M11309. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOLTING - Seasonal shedding and regrowth of the pelage of mammals and the plumage of birds. Also see specific molting - CONTROLLED. M11315. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MONOESTROUS FEMALES - Females that manifest only one estrous cycle per year. M11319. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MONOGAMY - A reproductory arrangement in which two individuals of opposite sex form a primary and durable breeding unit. M11320. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

"MOOEH" VOCALIZATION (cattle) - A high amplitude call of intermediate duration (0.7 -1.2 sec) usually produced in a series of two to fifteen calls with the neck extended and mouth wide open, generally by sexually mature males This call is a threat signal when directed toward potential male adversaries at a distance or a greeting signal when oriented toward females or distant herdmates. M11407. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

"MOOH" VOCALIZATION (cattle) - A medium to high amplitude sound of intermediate duration (0.5 - 1.5 sec) produced as a single sound or a series of an animal is thirsty or hungry, separated from its calf, or threatened by a perceived danger, and is thought to be an indication of distress. M11408. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOON BLINDNESS (horse) - Equine periodic opthalmia, an eye disease. At an early stage it occurs periodically (approximately as often as every new moon thus, the name moon blindness). As the disease progresses, cataract formation leads to eventual blindness. M11409. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

"MOO" VOCALIZATION (cattle) - A medium amplitude sound of widely varying duration (0.5 - 4.0 sec) produced with neck partially extended and mouth open. It is emitted by animals seeking others or when hearing familiar sounds of feed delivery. It is thought that this call is an indicator of mild excitement. M11410. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MORIBUND BEHAVIOR. - Behavior an animal performs when it is dying. M11507. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MORTAR-EATING - Licking or pecking surfaces rich in minerals. It is assumed to be a sign of mineral deficiency in the diet. M11510. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOTHERING - See Maternal Care. (colloquial term) M11513. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOTHERING ABILITY - The ability of a dam to provide maternal care to her offspring. Various assessments of mothering ability commonly are used as criteria in breeding programs involving selection of female agricultural mammals. M11514. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOTILE - Capable of locomotion. M11515. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOTION ILLUSION - An illusion that an object is moving when it actually is motionless. M11516. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOTIONLESS SITTING - Maintaining a dog-sitting position for a long period of time with lowered head, semi-closed eyes, and apparently low level of alertness. The behavior occurs most often in pigs housed individually on concrete floors and fed concentrated diets. M11517. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOTIVATION - Urge to perform a given behavioral action. Motivation arises when a neural controlling mechanism that interprets incoming stimuli and assesses available alternatives selects an appropriate response. Compare: Drive. M11601. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOTIVATIONAL CORNERING - Cornering induced by some strong social or psychological attachment, and not because of physical restraint. (For example, a female in the presence of her offspring may not flee a predator, even if she could, hut may instead attack it.) Compare: Cornering. M11604. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOUNT - An event of mounting. M11612. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOUNTING - The act of an animal raising the anterior part of its body generally onto the posterior part of another animal. Mounting, while typically performed by a male as part of copulatory behavior, is also common in sexually homogeneous groups of animals. Mounting among females is usually a reliable sign of estrus. Also see Mounting Misalignment M11613. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOUNTING MISALIGNMENT - A heterosexual attempt to mount a female in a way that will not facilitate coital intromission of the male's penis: e.g., head mounting, or flank mounting. M11614. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOURNING - A state of psychological depression, caused by separation from strongly bonded organisms or objects, or by pain and illness. According to circumstances, behavioral indicators may include distress calls, lowered mobility, reduced appetite, and weakened attention to occurrences in its surrounding. M11701. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOUTH - The cavity in the head delineated by the jaws and pallet and containing the teeth and tongue. In birds the mouth includes the beak. At the anterior, the mouth opens to the external environment through the oral orifice (also called the mouth), and at the posterior connects with the nasal cavities, esophagus, and trachea. The mouth is adapted for the intake, gustation, mastication, and ingestion of food, facilitates vocalization and tactile stimulation, and may be used for breathing when the nasal passages are blocked or large volumes of air are required. In some species, the mouth also may serve as a weapon. Also see specific mouth - BROKEN. M11702. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MOUTHING - Investigation of objects by manipulation with the mouth. Mouthing is most common in young animals. In some situations, mouthing nay develop into a persistent, stereotyped behavior pattern. M11703. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 834KB Comment 

MOVEMENT - Any spatial translocation of all or part of an organism. Also see specific movement - COMFORT; EXPRESSIVE; FETAL; INTENTION; SIGNAL; STEREOTYPED. M11704. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

"MRRH" VOCALIZATION (cattle) - A variable amplitude sound of a relatively short duration (0.5 -1.0 sec) produced with the mouth closed. It occurs when animals are resting, but may indicate muscular effort in a resting situation because it frequently is emitted when an animal adjusts its lying posture. In mature males, a similar sound often is emitted in conjunction with propulsus during copulation. M11705. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MULE - The offspring of an ass sire (jack) and a horse dam. M11706. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MULEY - A polled cow. M11707. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MULTIPAROUS - Referring to females having undergone more than one cycle of pregnancy and parturition. Compare: Primiparous. M11709. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MUSCLE FATIGUE - Inability or severely reduced ability of a muscle fiber to exert force when action potentials pass through the neuromuscular junction and spread over the fiber. Muscle fatigue develops as a consequence of prolonged and strong contraction of the muscle involved M11711. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MUSCLING, DOUBLE - See Double Muscling M11712. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MUSCONE (swine) - A phenomenal steroid produced in the sub-maxillary gland of mature boars and secreted through the prepuce. A synthetic form of this steroid is used as an estrus detection aid in swine. M11801. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

MUSTANG - A feral horse descended from horses brought by Spanish colonists to America. M11803. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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