NAIVE - Lacking in experience. N11901 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NAPPING (horse) - Serious disobedience of the rider's commands. Napping may be manifested in various forms, such as refusing to leave the home range territory, refusing to jump, or ignoring direction commands. N11903 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NASAL REFLEX - Sneezing in response to irritation of the nasal membrane. N11907 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NATURAL BREEDING - Breeding that takes place without direct human intervention. N11910 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NATURAL INSEMINATION - Insemination achieved by copulation. N11911 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NATURAL MATING - Natural insemination. N11915 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NATURAL SERVICE - Natural insemination. N11919 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NAVEL SUCKING - Sucking on the navel area of other individuals. It occurs often in young, early-weaned, group-housed, trough or bucket-fed calves. Navel suckling can cause serious damage to the affected tissue, resulting in infection and abscesses. N12002 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NECK, ARCHED (horse) - See Arched Neck. N12004 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NECK EXTENDING - Pronounced forward extension of the neck manifested by many animals, but most distinctly by geese. Neck extending in geese seems to have two meanings: a greeting signal when accompanied by gabbling, or a warning signal when accompanied by hissing. N12005 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NEED - Any requirement that is necessary for an organism to develop normally and to maintain its physical and psychological health. Compare: Desire. N12008 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NEEDLE TEETH (swine) - A pair of temporary tusks and a pair of comer incisors in the upper and the lower jaws of neonatal piglets. N12009 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NEGATIVE REINFORCER - See Reinforcer. N12011 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NEIGH (horse) - A medium to high amplitude, rapidly pulsed sound of relatively tong duration (1.0 - 3.0 sec). This sound is produced with the mouth partially open and nostrils slightly vibrating. The head usually is raised and the ears which it has a social bond (e.g., a dam separated from offspring, a horse separated from a permanent stablemate or sexual partner during estrus). It is thought to be an indication of excitement. N12012 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NEONURSING - Nursing that occurs during and shortly after parturition, characterized by sporadic and socially unsynchronized suckling by neonatal piglets prior to establishment of a regular nursing cycle. N12014 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NEOPHOBIA - The fear of novel stimuli. Many organisms exhibit neophobia, which is commonly induced by unfamiliar or altered surroundings or unusual events. N12015 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NEST - A structure built by some animals for the purpose of depositing and hatching their eggs, delivering and protecting their offspring, or in some cases, housing themselves. N12106 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NESTING - The process of building or occupying a nest. N12107 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NIBBLING, WITHER - See Wither Nibbling. N12211 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NICKER (horse) - A low to medium amplitude sound of relatively short duration (0.4 -1.0 sec). This sound is produced with the mouth closed and nostrils dilated by horses expecting food, by dams toward offspring (quiet nicker), and by stallions during courtship (forceful nicker). N12213 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NONADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR - See Maladaptive Behavior N12301 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NONRUMINANT - Animals without a rumen as part of their digestive tract (e.g., pigs and poultry). N12304 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NORMAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior that qualitatively and quantitatively does not deviate from regular or stabilized form. Commonly interpreted as behavior of an animal that is healthy and free from pathological stress. N12309 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NOSE - A facial structure of mammals having two external openings (nostrils) that lead to nasal cavities which in turn connect with the buccal cavity and the respiratory passages. The nose is used as a pathway for transfer of air to and from the lungs during breathing and the nasal cavities contain olfactory receptors which enable olfaction. N12314 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NOSE LEAD (cattle) - A small device that can be inserted into an animal's nostrils and squeezed by hand to pinch the nasal septum and thus facilitate handling. N12401 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NOSING - Making contact with an object or the body of another organism with the nose. Nosing is commonly displayed during investigation following sniffing, prior to suckling, and during courtship. N12403 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  mpg video 415KB Comment 

NOSING CALLS (swine) - High frequency sounds of irregular duration produced by piglets during the nosing stage of the nursing event. N12404 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NOTCHING - Cutting of notches in the ears of animals for the purpose of permanent identification. N12405 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NUDGING - Relatively gentle pushing generally using the head. Nudging is displayed by cattle, sheep, goats, and swine during play and most typically by males during sexual courtship or immediately before mounting the female. N12408 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NURSING - The act of releasing milk to suckling young. Also see specific nursing - CYCLICAL N12411 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NURSING CYCLE - A series of nursing-related activities culminating in ejection of milk by the nursing dam and ingestion of such milk by suckling young. Swine exhibit a complex nursing cycle consisting of several phases: Assembly phase (gathering of piglets around the sow and assumption of the nursing posture by the sow). Nosing phase (massage of the mammary glands by the piglets, accompanied by nosing calls and occasional suckling attempts); Slow suckling phase (noningestive suckling conducted at a rate of approximately I pulse per second); True suckling phase (ingestive suckling conducted at a rate of approximately 3 pulses per second); and Departure phase (sporadic massaging, suckling, and occasional resting, followed by complete separation of piglets from the mammary glands). N12412 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NURSING GRUNT (swine) - One of an extended rhythmic series of grunts produced by a sow just prior to and during the nursing cycle. The rate of grunting changes from slow (approx. 1 per sec) before milk letdown to fast (approx. 3 per sec) during milk letdown and then gradually decreases when milk letdown ceases. Nursing grunts alert piglets to the imminent onset of milk availability and appear to help coordinate their suckling activity. N12413 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

NYSTAGMUS - Periodic, apparently involuntary vertical, horizontal, or rotatory eye movement. The eye movement usually proceeds slowly, hut when the endpoint of the motion is reached, there is a quick return of the eye to its original orientation. N12506 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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Revised: April 18, 2008