PACE (horse) - A two-beat gait with the leg movement synchronized laterally. The sequence of hoof beats is left hind together with left fore followed by right hind together with right fore. Generally, the pace is an artificially attained gait in horses. Compare: Natural Pacer. P13101. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PACER (horse) - A horse that races using a two-beat lateral gait called the pace. Also see specific pacer - NATURAL. P13102. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PACING - Stereotyped, short-distance walking back and forth, or side to side, typically manifested by animals kept in close confinement. P13103. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PADDLING (horse) - Defective leg action in which the leg is thrown outward during the extension phase. P13105. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PAIN - Unpleasant sensation, usually localized, resulting from noxious stimulation or injury. P13106. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PAIN SYMPTOM - Any sign or behavioral display indicative of distinct discomfort due to the experience of pain, such as lack of or reduced eye movement, puckered eyelids, dilated nostrils, ears pulled back (horse), teeth grinding (swine), reduced or lack of tonguing (cattle), head turning and kicking toward affected part of the body, distress vocalization, abnormal postures, frequently changing body position, pawing with the feet, head pushing toward the wall, sensitivity to palpation of the affected area, etc. P13107. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PAIRING - Any voluntary or imposed grouping of two individuals. Typical pair formations can be observed between sexual partners, between mutually investigating adversaries, etc. P13109. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PALATABILITY - Relative acceptability of feed as influenced by factors such as taste, smell, structure, color, or other nonnutritional attributes. P13110. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PALSY - Paralysis. P13115. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PANTING - Increased breathing characterized by polypnea or hyperpnea and generally performed with an open mouth and distinct thoracic movements. Panting primarily serves to increase oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange or to increase evaporative heat loss. P13202. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PARALLEL MOVEMENT - Completely synchronized movement of dual organs. This term is most commonly applied to movement of the eyeballs when focussing on distant objects. P13206. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PARALYSIS - Partial or complete loss of muscle functions caused by injury or neural disfunction. P13207. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PARENTAL - Pertaining to parents, to adults displaying parental care, or to the generation of parents as a whole. P13214. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PARENTAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior of parents, foster parents, or other adults characterized by assistance, cooperation, leadership or training of offspring or young conspecifics prior to weaning. P13215. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PARENTAL REJECTION - Social rejection of offspring by a parent. P13301. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PARENTAL PREFERENCE - Preference of a parent to care for or associate with a particular young individual or group of such individuals. Such a preference may be expressed at several levels, e.g., preference for offspring versus other young, for neonatal offspring versus older offspring, or for certain individuals versus others in a litter. P13217. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PARTURITION - The process of giving birth. P13309. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PARTURITION PERIOD - A period of time starting with the first symptoms of labor and ending when the afterbirth is eliminated from the mother's body. P13310. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PASO (horse) - A smooth four-beat gait of Paso horses. The lateral legs are lifted al most simultaneously, but the hindhoof contacts the ground shortly before the forehoof. The sequence of leg movements is similar to that of the stow gait in five-gaited horses, but the action is not as high and the cadence may be faster. P13311. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PASSAGE (horse) - A dressage gait, performed as a collected and highly rhythmical trot with even beats between diagonally synchronized legs. P13312. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PATCH AVOIDANCE - A form of selective grazing whereby animals avoid small circular areas of pasture marked by excreta of other grazing animals. P13316. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PATCHING - Patch avoidance by grazing animals. (colloquial term) P13317. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PATELLAR REFLEX - Extension of the limb in response to a mild blow to the patellar tendon. P13318. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PATERNAL - Pertaining to the male parent or sometimes to ancestors on the sire's side. P13319. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PARENTAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior of parents, foster parents, or other adults characterized by assistance, cooperation, leadership or training of offspring or young conspecifics prior to weaning. P13215. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PARENTAL REJECTION - Social rejection of offspring by a parent P13402. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PARTURITION - The process of giving birth. P13309. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PARTURITION PERIOD - A period of time starting with the first symptoms of labor and ending when the afterbirth is eliminated from the mother's body. P13310. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PASO (horse) - A smooth four-beat gait of Paso horses. The lateral legs are lifted almost simultaneously, but the hindhoof contacts the ground shortly before the forehoof. The sequence of leg movements is similar to that of the slow gait in five-gaited horses, but the action is not as high and the cadence may be faster. P13311. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PASSAGE (horse) - A dressage gait, performed as a collected and highly rhythmical trot with even beats between diagonally synchronized legs. P13312. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PATCH AVOIDANCE - A form of selective grazing whereby animals avoid small circular areas of pasture marked by excreta of other grazing animals. P13316. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PATCHING - Patch avoidance by grazing animals. (colloquial term) P13317. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PATELLAR REFLEX - Extension of the limb in response to a mild blow to the patellar tendon. P13318. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PATERNAL CARE - Epimeletic behavior of a sire directed toward dependent offspring or young P13320. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PATERNALISM - Control over satisfaction of needs and desires of an individual on its behalf, rather than allowing it to attempt to fulfill such needs and desires itself. P13401. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PATERNAL REJECTION - Social rejection of neonatal offspring by their sire P13402. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PATHOGNOMONIC BEHAVIOR - Any behavioral sign symptomatic of a pathological condition of an organism. P13404. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PATRIARCH - A male that is predominant in the social organization of a given social unit. Such predominance involves alpha social status and arises out of ancestry to other members of the unit. P13407. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PATTERN, ACTION - See Action Pattern. P13408. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING - See Classical Conditioning. P13410. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PAWING - A scooping leg movement, generally on the ground. Animals may display pawing in play situations, as warning signals, when searching for food in snow-covered terrain, when in pain, or when frustrated. P13412. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PECKING - Making contact with an object or the body of another organism using the tip of the beak. Pecking is performed with a short, quick forward motion of the head and is displayed during investigation following visual inspection, during feeding, during fighting, and during courtship. Also see specific pecking - FEATHER. P13413. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PECKING RIGHT (poultry) - A term occasionally used to refer to unreciprocated pecks directed towards group peers. Pecking right is assumed to be a sign of rigid social dominance or despotism. P13414. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PECK ORDER - Social hierarchy in domestic birds. P13415. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PEEP - A high-amplitude repeated vocalization produced repetitively by young domestic poultry (and young of a variety of wild avian species) in response to physical discomfort or separation from conspecifics. Each peep is characterized by relatively short duration and primarily descending sound frequency. The peep vocalization also is referred to as a distress call or separation call P13416. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PELVIC THRUSTING - See Thrusting. P13418. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PEN - Any housing unit within a barn, separated from others by barriers, which can he occupied by one animal (individual pen) or several animals (group pen). Also see specific pen - FLOOR. P13501. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PENECTOMY - Surgical removal of a part of a penis. This term also refers to surgical displacement of the penis to prevent natural insemination. P13502. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PENIS, BROKEN - See Broken Penis. P13503. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PERCH - Any elevated object upon which a bird stands or sits. Also, the act of standing or sitting on such an object P13509. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PERIPARTURIENT BEHAVIOR - Behavioral activities related to and occurring around the time of parturition. P13512. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PERSONAL DISTANCE - See Individual Distance. P13517. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PERSONAL SPACE - See Individual Distance Zone. P13518. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PESSAGE (horse) - A dressage exercise of the Spanish High Riding School in which the horse raises the anterior portion of its body by supporting itself on its hindlegs which are spread apart and slightly bent at the hocks, and the forelegs are folded underneath the chest. The pessage is performed in the same way as the levade except that the anterior of the horse is raised higher. P13602. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PHALLECTOMY - Surgical trimming or amputation of the penis to prevent intromission. Phallectomy is used to develop teaser bulls for estrus detection. P13603. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PHEROMONE - A chemical substance secreted and perceived by individuals of the same species. Pheromones are of two types: signaling pheromones, which induce a behavioral response, and priming pheromones, which induce physiological changes. Pheromones are important in sexual behavior. P13608. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PHOBIA - An excessive, persistent and apparently unsubstantiated fear specific to given stimuli, situations, or circumstances. P13611. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PHORETIC BEHAVIOR - The use of one organism by another organism as a means of transport. P13613. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PIAFFE (horse) - A dressage gait performed as a highly rhythmical trot on the spot with even beats between diagonally synchronized legs. P13702. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PICA - Abnormal appetite for unusual and often inappropriate feed, e.g., dirt, hair, feces, etc. P13704. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PIEBALD (horse) - A black coated horse with white spots. P13705. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PIG - Young swine, usually below 75 kg body weight. This term is being used increasingly for all categories of swine. P13707. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PIGLET - A young pig during its first two months of life. P13708. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PIGLET SCOUR - See Colibacillosis. P13709. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PILING (poultry) - Extremely dense accumulation of individuals in a small area so that some may be buried under others. Piling is observed primarily in poultry and is caused by a serious environmental inadequacy, such as inappropriate temperature, strong draft, or limitation of an essential resource, or by events inducing fear and escape responses, such as unusual light or unfamiliar noise, a predator, or an action of a careless attendant. Piling, if not immediately corrected, leads to suffocation of the buried individuals. P13710. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PILOERECTION - Erection of hair. Piloerection commonly is a thermoregulatory response and also may be observed during aggressive interactions. P13711. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PINTO (horse) - A horse with spotted, piebald, or mottled coat color. P13713. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PIPPED EGG (poultry) - An egg that is visibly cracked or perforated by the beak of its hatching chick. P13714. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PIPPING - The first cracking of the egg shell by the hatching chick. P13715. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PIROUETTE (horse) - A dressage maneuver in which the forelegs follow a circle having a radius equal to the distance between the hindlegs and forelegs. Pirouette may be performed in collected walk, collected canter, or passage P13716. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PLACENTOPHAGIA - Eating of own afterbirth by a postparturient female P13721. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PLACER (horse) - In dressage, lateral flexion of the head in the direction of movement during performance of the half-pass. P13801. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PLANT AVOIDANCE - A form of selective grazing in which animals avoid certain plants of the pasture flora. Compare: Defoliation, Progressive Defoliation, Patch Avoidance. P13802. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PLAY BEHAVIOR - A set of activities experienced as pleasurable in themselves by the organism performing them. Play behavior might be directed either toward the surroundings or toward the body of the animal itself. Social play often imitates serious situations (e.g., social conflicts) but without the serious consequences of such situations. P13805. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PLEASURE - An emotional state resulting from an enjoyable sensation. P13806. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PLUMAGE - Feather coverage of a bird's body. P13810. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

POLLARD - A castrate, usually a female chicken whose ovary has been removed; also may refer to a hornless cow or sheep. P13904. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

POLLING - See Dehorning. P13905. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PONY - A small horse not taller than 150 cm when mature. P13920. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PORCINE - Swine or pertaining to swine. P14003. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

POST-LEGGED - Pertaining to animals with abnormally straight hind legs P14011. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

POST-NATAL - After birth. P14012. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

POSTPARTUM - The period of time following parturition. P14013. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

POSTPARTURIENT BEHAVIOR - Behavior of mammalian females displayed after delivery of their offspring. Postparturient behavior characteristically includes puerperal behavior and epimeletic behavior oriented toward off includes puerperal behavior and epimeletic behavior oriented toward offspring (neonatal licking, nursing, protection, play, parental training, and weaning). P14014. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

POSTURE - The attitude or position of the body. Also see specific posture - AMBIVALENT; HERDING. P14017. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

POULT - A young turkey up to the stage of secondary sexual differentiation. P14019. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

POULTRY - Birds bred for production of eggs or meat P14020. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

POUNDING (horse) - Defective leg action in which the contact of the hooves with the ground appears excessively heavy. P14101. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PRECOCIAL - Refers to species whose individuals are sufficiently developed at birth or hatching to see, move in a coordinated fashion, and fend fairly well for themselves. Neonatal individuals of such species require much less parental care than those of altricial species. Compare ; Altricial. P14103. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PRECONDITIONING - Preparation of an animal to cope with changes in environment (social or physical). This preparation may involve exposure to novel feeds, familiarization with different environments, handling, etc. Also see specific preconditioning - SENSORY . P14105. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PREDATION - A form of interspecies relationship in which the attacker (predator) kilts and eats the victim (prey). P14106. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PREDATOR - Any animal which preys upon other animals. P14107. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PREENING - An act of integumentary care in birds similar in function to grooming in mammals. Preening is manifested as manipulation of feathers and distribution of secretions from the uropygial gland (preen gland) using the beak, and also as scratching of the body surface with claws or beak. P14110. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PREFERENCE - Choice of a certain alternative over another alternative(s). This term generally is used in reference to a specific situation or the outcome of such a situation (e.g., preference test, natural preference, learned preference, spatial preference, social preference, feed preference, color preference, preference index, preference order, etc.). Also see specific preference - LEARNED; MATE; NATURAL; OFFSPRING; PARENTAL; SIBLING; SOCIAL P14111. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PREHENSION - The act of grasping or seizing. Also, the action of the tongue and lips during feed intake of grazing animals. P14203. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PREMATURE BIRTH - Birth after an abnormally short gestation. Offspring born prematurely tend to be underweight or underdeveloped in other ways and usually require special care to survive. P14204. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PREPARTUM - Before parturition. P14206. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PREPARTURIENT BEHAVIOR - Behavioral actions indicative of impending parturition. Typical preparturient behavior in farm animals comprises reduced ambulatory activity, avoidance of slippery floors, careful locomotion, search for delivery site, nest building in some species (e.g., swine, rabbits), search for delivery site, nest building in some species (e.g., swine, rabbits), and predelivery excitement followed by increased recumbency with high respiratory rate. P14208. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PREPUCE SUCKING - Sucking on the prepuce of other individuals. It occurs in young group-housed bull calves. Prepuce sucking may lead to infection abscesses, or stricture of the prepuce causing difficult urination. P14211. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PRESENTING - Exposure of external genitalia by a female in estrus to a male or sexually cooperative female. P14303. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PRESSING - See specific pressing - CHIN HEAD. P14304. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PREVENTIVE AGGRESSION - See Defensive Aggression. P14306. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PROCEPTIVE BEHAVIOR - Solicitation of a male's attention by a sexually receptive female.Compare :Presenting. P14410. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PROESTRUS - The first phase of the estrous cycle, characterized by rapid increase in the size of ovarian follicles and the occurrence of early signs of estrous behavior P14416. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PROGRESSIVE DEFOLIATION - A form of selective grazing whereby animals preferentially consume the most palatable Parts of some plants before eating less palatable portions. Progressive defoliation is most obvious when pasture flora is inadequate in highly palatable plants. P14503. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PROGRESSIVE LAMENESS - Lameness that gradually increases over time, usually caused by inflammation, degeneration of tissue, or neoplasia. P14504. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PROLAPSE - Protrusion of an organ or part of an organ from its normal position due to inadequate strength of supportive tissue (e.g., anal, cloacal, or vaginal prolapse). P14507. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PROPULSUS (cattle) - A segment of copulatory behavior in males, characterized by a distinct, powerful thrust immediately after intromission, and accompanied by ejaculation. P14515. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PROXIMAL - Near or closer to a point of reference. Antonym: Distal. P14603. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PSEUDOCONDITIONING - Development of association between an unconditioned stimulus and a previously neutral stimulus that is not paired with the unconditioned stimulus in time but, due to chance, sometimes appears close to it. As a result, a conditioned response becomes elicited upon the occurrence of the previously neutral stimulus. P14608. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PSEUDOPREGNANCY - Occurrence of physiological and behavioral symptoms of pregnancy without conception. P14609. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PSYCHOLOGICAL CASTRATION - Conditioned inhibition of sexual behavior. P14616. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PSYCHOLOGICAL ESTRUS - Manifestation of alI behavioral signs of estrus, except tolerating mounting. P14617. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PUBERTAL BEHAVIOR - Behavioral activities occurring typically during the period of development of secondary sexual characteristics and reproductive maturity. P14704. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PUBERTY - The developmental stage of an organism when the gonads start to secrete hormones in amounts that are sufficient to cause maturation of genitalia and appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. In normal circumstances, the period is completed when the organism achieves the capability to produce viable gametes and displays behavior characteristic of sexual maturity. P14705. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PUERPERAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior indicative of physical exhaustion immediately following Parturition. The characteristic behavioral state is recumbency. The duration of recumbency is influenced by species affiliation and delivery ease. P14706. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PULLET - A female chicken close to sexual maturity. P14709. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

PULLING, FLEECE - See Fleece Pulling P14710. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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