RACK (horse) - An artificially attained fast cadence, four-beat gait of five-gaited horses. Each leg leaves and hits the ground at regular intervals in the sequence, left hind, left fore, right hind, right fore. Synonym: Single Foot. R14905. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RALES - Chest sounds produced during inspiration and expiration by an animal suffering from respiratory disease. R14908. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RAM - A sexually mature male sheep. R14909. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RAM BLOCKING - A tendency of some males to place themselves between estrous ewes and other males thus preventing them from mating. Ram blocking is commonly displayed by dominant males and in some situations can have an adverse effect on conception rates. R14910. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RAMENER (horse) - In dressage, reduction of the angle between the head and neck while the poll is kept at the apex. R14911. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RATE - Quantity of a variable in relation to some other variable or standard (e.g., number of behavioral events per given time period). Also see specific rate - HEART; RESPIRATION. R15007. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

REACTION TIME - Time between the beginning of stimulation and the initiation of response. Compare: Response Latency. R15013. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

REACTIVE INHIBITION - Diminishing learning rate or lessened response strength with increasing number of preceding responses in a given trial series. R15014. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

REAFFERENCE - Illusionary movement of objects in the visual field caused by discrepancy between the picture expected by the brain and the image on the retina R15015. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

REARING - Lifting of the anterior part of the body by shifting weight entirely to the hindlegs. Rearing is common in many species during play, aggression, or us a segment of mounting behavior. Rearing of a ridden horse may indicate refusal or be a startle response and if excessively high, may result in falling over backward, dangerous to both rider and horse. R15017. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

REAR-LEG LIFT (horse) - Partial lifting of a rear leg indicative of readiness to kick. Rear-leg lift is considered to be a threat signal. R15101. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RECEPTIVE PHASE - The second phase of estrus, occurring prior to hut closely linked with ovulation. The receptive phase is characterized by willingness of an estrous female to engage in mating. R15102. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RECUMBENCY - See Lie and specific recumbency - LATERAL; SEMILATERAL; VENTRAL R15105. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

REDUCTION - Transfer of behavior from the stimulus that motivates it to an alternative stimulus. Redirection may occur when some factor inhibits the animal's response toward the eliciting stimulus, and the behavior is then directed toward the alternate stimulus. R15106. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

REFUSAL (horse) - Disobedience (e.g., when the horse refuses to jump an obstacle). R15201. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

REGURGITATION - Flow of stomach contents back from the stomach to the mouth. Regurgitation facilitates remastication of boluses of feed in ruminants and provision of food for offspring in canids and some species of birds. R15203. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RELAXATION - To enter into or maintain a restful state characterized by lessened work output, reduction of the level of tonus in tissue (e.g., muscular relaxation) or diminished level of mental arousal (mental relaxation). R15214. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RELEARNING - Reinstitution, through a learning process, of previously learned acts which for some reason have become extinct. R15303. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RENVERS (horse) - An inverse travers. R15306. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavioral actions involved in the sexual reproduction of an organism, including search for a mate(s), courtship, copulatory behavior, and parental care. R15312. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RESPIRATION - Inspiration and expiration of air. R15317. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

REST - Interruption of training or work to avoid or recover from fatigue, exhaustion or overtraining. R15412. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RESTING AREA - A location used regularly by one or more animals when resting. Characteristically, resting areas provide safety, protection against adverse weather conditions, or a good vantage point for surveillance of the surroundings. The term also is used to refer to animal holding facilities or pens designed to be used by animals when resting. R15414. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RESTLESSNESS - A behavioral state characterized by sustained arousal and motor activity. Typical actions include short and repeated periods of pacing, scratching, ground scratching, head tossing or jerking, grooming or preening, higher occurrence of urination, frequent alteration between standing and lying, and increased ambulation. R15501. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RESTRAINT - Any technique used to temporarily discourage or prevent unwanted movement. Restraint is used for examination, surgery, convalescence, breeding, and safe handling of animals. R15502. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RESTRICTED FEEDING - See Limited Feeding. R15503. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RETENTION - Persistence of information in the memory of an organism. R15505. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RETRACTED EARS (horse) - Ears flattened along the dorsal portion of the head. Retraction of ears is a common display during agnostic encounters. R15508. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RETURNED APPETITE - A clinical term for resumption of normal intensity of eating or normal feed intake after a period of inappetance or reduced appetite. R15511. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

REWARD - A stimulus or situation that occurs contingent upon performance of a particular behavior and that has pleasant or satisfying characteristics for a given organism. Also see specific reward-ADVENTITIOUS; PRIMARY; SECONDARY. R15513. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RICOCHETAL LOCOMOTION - Locomotion conducted by jumps or hops. R15606. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RIG - A cryptorchid horse. (colloquial term) R15607. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RIGHT, PECKING - See Pecking Right. R15609. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RITUALIZED BEHAVIOR - Behavior, often eclectic in nature, performed in a symbolic, stereotyped manner which is Part of behavior patterns typical of, and often specific to a species (e.g., courtship feeding in some birds). R15614. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ROADSTER (horse) - A horse trained, exhibited, or competing in the pulling of bikes or road wagons. Roadsters are judged working at a walking pace and at slow, medium, and full speed trot. R15615. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ROAR (horse) - A low to medium amplitude sound of variable duration (0.2 - 1.5 sec) emitted during breathing with the mouth slightly open. It is caused by reduced control of the vocal cords and may be a consequence of damage to the laryngeal nerve. Roaring may develop after severe pneumonia and can be corrected surgically. R15616. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ROLLING (cattle) - See Tongue Rolling. R15704. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ROLLING (horse) - An activity characterized by lying down and rolling onto the back accompanied by rubbing movement against the ground. Rolling is considered to be comfort related. The term also refers to side-to-side movement of the body during running in wide-fronted and wide-based horses. R15705. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ROLLING (poultry) - See Egg Rolling. R15706. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ROOST - Any elevated object used as a resting place by birds. In animal agriculture, any object constructed by humans for such use by birds. Also, the act of resting on such objects. R15707. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ROOSTER - A mature male chicken. R15708. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ROOTING (swine) - Digging the ground with the snout. R15709. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ROPE-WALKING (horse) - Defective leg action in which the moving leg travels in a semicircle around the supporting leg and the hooves are planted too close to the horse's midline. R15710. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ROTATION - A twisting or turning movement around the longitudinal axis of a body or limb R15711. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

ROUTE HORSE - A horse trained for long distance racing. (colloquial term) R15713. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RUB - To press some portion of the body against a blunt object, or another portion of the body, and generate friction by moving one or the other while they are in sustained contact. Rubbing commonly is a component of integumentary care. Excessive rubbing may also occur in association with skin disease. In some circumstances, rubbing may become stereotyped and thereafter may lead to damage of the integument (e.g., tail-rubbing of horses). R15715. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RUBBER, BODY - See Body Rubber. R15716. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RUBBING - See Chin Pressing and specific rubbing - HOOF; TAlL. R15717. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RUFFLING (chicken) - A postural display characterized by ruffled feathers, extended neck, and a short period of intense shaking of the whole body. Ruffling is considered to be a comfort movement R15718. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RUNNING - Relatively fast locomotion of an organism on the ground in which propulsive force derives from the action of legs. R15804. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RUNNING HORSE - A thoroughbred horse. R15805. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RUNNING WALK (horse) - An artificially attained fast four-beat gait. The legs leave the ground at different times, and the cadence of all four beats should be even in the sequence, left hind, left fore, right hind, right fore (the running walk differs from the rack in lower action of all legs). R15806. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

RUNT - An individual that is small and underdeveloped in comparison with litter mates or peers of equal age. R15807. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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