SADDLE GROOMING - Allogrooming of the saddle region conducted mutually by two animals. S15808. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SAND-BATHING - See Dust-bathing. S15811. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SANGUINE - Having an alert and confident temperament. The term is derived from classical categorization of human character types. S15812. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SATIETY - A state of complete satisfaction of a given desire. S15902. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SATISFIER - Any stimulus or experience that meets a need or desire. S15903. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SATURATION - An attribute of color, referring to the intensity of hue. S15904. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SAVAGING - Destructive behavior that causes serious injury or death of other organisms. This term is commonly used in reference to biting of neonatal piglets by their dam. Compare: Overlying. S15905. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SCALPING (horse) - Defective leg action in which the hoof of the hindleg hits the coronet of the foreleg. S15908. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SCENT MARKING - Olfactory markings that delineate territory, designate trails, or attract sexual partners. S15909. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SCHEDULE-INDUCED BEHAVIOR - Activity of an organism that is causally linked to a reinforcement schedule imposed on the organism. Schedule-induced behavior may be manifested during or between the intervals in which reinforcement is applied. S15910. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SCHOOLING - The formation and maintenance of socially coordinated groups in fishes. Occasionally this term also refers to training assistance provided by parents or guardians (e.g. "obedience training"). S15912. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SCOUR, PIGLET - See Colibacillosis. S15918. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SCOUR, WHITE; - See Colibacillosis. S15919. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SCOURING (horses) - Outbursts of undesirable activities during training session or work. (colloquial term) S15920. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SCOURS - Prolonged diarrhea in animals. S15921. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SCRAPIE (sheep) - A clinical term for a contagious, fatal, ovine spongiform encephalopathy. Symptoms include pruritus and muscular incoordination. S15923. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SCRATCHING - Any repeated or rhythmical rubbing action against objects in the surroundings (e.g., wall, ground surface, etc.) or rubbing action between two parts of an animal's own body (e.g., foot against neck). Also see specific scratching - HEAD. S16001. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SCRATCH REFLEX - A reflexive response to itching irritation of the integument. This reflex occurs in two stages involving specific location of the irritating stimulus, and application of abrasive force to it by means of some oscillating body movement. S16002. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SCROTUM SUCKING - Sucking of the scrotum of other individuals. Scrotum sucking may occur in young, group-housed animals and may cause abrasion and infection. S16003. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEARCH - Goal-oriented investigation. S16004. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEASON - Estrus. (colloquial term) S16006. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEDATION - Reduced excitability. Also, the process of reducing excitability, (e.g., by treatment with a native). S16101. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEE - To perceive stimuli through the visual sense mode. S16104. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEGREGATION - See Social Segregation. S16106. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEIZURE - See Convulsion. S16107. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SELECTIVE ATTENTION - A tendency to be more attentive to a particular stimulus (or type of stimulus) than to other stimuli present at the same time. S16109. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SELF-AWARENESS - A state of being cognizant of one's own existence, and thus aware of one's own action and place in the environment. S16111. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SELF-FEEDING SYSTEM - A feeding system that permits ad libitum feed intake by individual animals whenever feed is available. S16112. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SELF-FELATOR - Oral self-stimulation of the penis. It occurs frequently in the Canidae and Felidae families. S16113. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SELF-GROOMING - See Grooming. S16114. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SELF-LICKING - See Licking. S16115. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEMANTIC COLOR - A color which has specific social meaning. S16116. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEMILATERAL RECUMBENCY - Lying during which the posterior part of the body is in lateral contact with the ground while the thorax contacts the ground only in the sternal area with forelegs folded to each side or one or may be folded or extended. Semilateral recumbency is very cummon in may be folded or extended. Semilateral recumbency is very common in four-legged farm species. If rumination is conducted while lying, it is done o in lateral recumbency. S16118. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SENSATION - Any experience resulting from stimulation of sensory receptors sensory nerves or sensory areas in the brain. In a biophysical context, sensation often refers to a basic element of excitation theoretically independent of learning, motivation, or social circumstances. S16203. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SENSE ORGAN - A body structure that facilitates reception of stimuli by sensory neurons (e.g., ear, eye). S16207. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SENSES - The total array of sense modes of an organism. S16208. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SENSITIVE PERIOD - See Critical Period. S16209. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SENSITIVITY - The capacity to respond to a given stimulus. For example, an organism with normal hearing is sensitive to sound waves; a deaf organism is not Also see specific sensitivity - ABSOLUTE; LIMINAL; TERMINAL. S16210. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SENSORY DISCRIMINATION - The process or ability to recognize differences between stimuli. S16216. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SENTIENCE - Capacity for sensing or feeling. In the context of behavior, sentience may refer to capability of self-awareness and emotion. S16301. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SENTINEL BEHAVIOR - Sensory focussing of a guarding animal(s) beyond the periphery of its group, apparently to detect predators or territorial incursions by neighboring groups. S16302. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEPARATION CALL - A call produced when an individual is removed from its a vocalization is thought to be an attempt to re-establish communication a vocalization is thought to be an attempt to re-establish communication and, ultimately, contact with peers, S16304. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEQUENCE, BEHAVIORAL - See Behavioral Sequence. S16305. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEQUESTRATION CALLS - Warning calls broadcasted to keep others from approaching too closely to an individual distance zone, guarded young, or guarded territory. S16306. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SERPENTINE (horse) - A dressage maneuver in which the horse starts at the middle of one short side of the arena and travels along a path having wide oscillations from one longitudinal side to the other, ending at the middle of the opposite short side of the arena S16308. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SERVICE - Insemination. S16309. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SERVING - Mating in cattle and goats. S16310. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SETTING HEN - A broody hen incubating eggs S16312. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEX - Binomial classification of organisms (i.e., female or male) according to characteristic morphology and behavior, chromosomal array, or gamete type produced. S16313. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEX-INFLUENCED - Refers to characteristics having a greater tendency to occur in one sex than in the other because the genes underlying such characteristics are dominant in one sex and recessive in the other. S16316. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEX-LIMITED - Refers to characteristics affecting only individuals of one sex. S16317. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEX-LINKED - Referring to characteristics controlled by genes located on the sex chromosomes. S16318. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEXUAL AGGRESSION - Aggression displayed toward a conspecific of the same sex during competition for a sexual partner or aggression displayed toward a partner during sexual interaction. S16319. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEXUAL BEHAVIOR - Activities related to sexual sensation, sexual arousal, and sexual gratification. S16401. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEXUAL BIMATURISM - A phenomenon in which males and females of a given species or breed differ in the age of sexual maturity. S16402. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEXUAL CROUCH (poultry) - Cooperative posture of a female to facilitate mounting by a sexual partner. Sexual crouch is performed as bending and partial spreading of legs, lowering of the body, mild relaxation of the wings, and exposure of the cloaca. S16405. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEXUAL LICKING - See Licking. S16406. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SEXUAL RECEPTIVITY - Willingness of a female to engage in mating interaction with a sexual partner. The period of sexual receptivity in farm animals occurs typically during estrus. Reliable behavioral signs of sexual receptivity are display of cooperative postures and standing while mounted. S16408. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHAKING - An apparently voluntarily induced short period of rapid spasms of the muscles that control the integument. Shaking is commonly performed after dust-bathing, rolling on the ground, or when the coat becomes wet. S16411. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHAM CHEWING - Chewing actions performed without the presence of food in the oral cavity. If performed excessively, sham chewing may be accompanied by hypersalivation. Sham chewing occurs most frequently in confined pigs feed a highly concentrated diet and is considered to be a vacuum activity S16414. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHAM DUST BATHING - Dust bathing activity performed without the presence of litter material or other manipulable floor substrate (e.g., on plastic or wire floors). Sham dust bathing is considered to be a vacuum activity. S16415. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHAM RUMINATION - Display of mandibular movements typical of rumination without presence of feed in the mouth. Sham rumination is a vacuum activity manifested by ruminants whose diet is lacking in roughage. S16416. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHEARING - Artificial removal of fleece from the body of a sheep or any other wool-producing animal. S16501. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHELTER-SEEKING BEHAVIOR - Any action indicating a tendency to seek out environmental conditions that provide protection against danger or discomfort. S16503. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHIN HITTING (horse) - Defective leg action in which the hoof of the foreleg hits the canon or shin of the hindleg. S16504. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHIVERING - Rapid clonic spasms that prevent or reduce hypothermia by generating body heat. Shivering also can be a reaction to extreme fear or excitement S16505. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHOCK - The act of causing or the state of experiencing a sudden and extreme physical, physiological, or psychological disturbance resulting in partial or complete incapacitation. S16506. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHOULDER - The area around the scapula bone. S16510. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHOULDER-IN (horse) - A dressage maneuver in which the horse moves forward, with its body slightly bent around the right leg of the rider. The horse's head should point to the right of the direction of movement. S16511. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHOVEL BEAK (chicken) - A tongue deformity that causes feeding difficulty. The occurrence of this deformity is higher in chickens fed on an all-mash diet (colloquial term). S16512. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHRIEK (chicken) - A high-amplitude vocalization, akin to the PEEP, produced by a chick experiencing intense discomfort or fear. S16513. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHY BREEDER - Mature animals of either sex that have very low reproductive success. S16514. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SHYING (horse) - Spontaneous and often unpredictable backward and sideways movements indicative of startlement. A symptom of an excitable and inexperienced horse. S16515. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SIBLINGS - Organisms that have one or both parents in common. S16601. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SIB TESTING - A method used to assess breeding value of individuals by statistical analysis and evaluation of the performance of their siblings. S16602. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SIFTING (ducks, geese) - A form of feed intake by water fowl in shallow water, characterized by straining water through the beak S16606. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SIGHT - Vision. Also, the characteristics of a particular visual image, or to obtain such an image. S16607. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SIGHT AVERSION - A phenomenon similar to taste aversion except that the relevant stimuli by which the food to be avoided is identified are visual in nature. Birds such as chickens and pigeons can learn aversions quickly to the sight of food. Compare: Taste Aversion. S16608. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SIGNAL - Any visual, tactile, auditory, chemical, or other sign emitted to convey information. Signals may be transmitted between organisms, or between systems within organisms. See Expression and specific signal - ALARM; APPEASEMENT; ATTRACTION; BROADCAST; COMPOSITE; DIRECTED; DISCRETE; DISTRESS; DOMINANCE; GRADED; GREETING; REPULSION: SOCIAL STATUS; STATUS; SUBORDINATION; THREAT; WARNING. S16609. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SIGN STIMULUS - The stimulus in an array of simultaneous stimuli that consistently evokes a specific response. This term usually is applied to stimuli that activate instinctive behavior. S16611. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SILENT ESTRUS - Estrus not accompanied by behavioral symptoms of estrus. S16612. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SILENT HEAT - See Silent Estrus. S16613. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SINGING (chicken) - Low frequency sounds of uneven duration produced by mature hens. Singing is assumed to be associated with contentment and satiation. S16616. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SINGLE FOOT - See Rack. S16617. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SINISTRAL - Pertaining to the left side of the body. Antonym: Dextral. S16618. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SITTING - Body position in which the posterior of the body trunk is in contact with the ground and supports most of the body weight. Also see specific sitting - MOTIONLESS. S16702. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 521KB Comment 

SKILL - Aptitude in the performance of behavior. S16704. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SKIMMING - A short period of running on the water and vigorous napping of e wings by some species of waterfowl prior to take-off from water surfaces. S16705. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SKIN PINCH - Grasping of a fold of skin of an animal (generally on the neck) to control its attention and thus facilitate handling ease. S16707. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SLEEP - A state of bodily rest manifested by inhibition of voluntary activities and partial suspension of consciousness. Also see specific sleep--REM; SW. S16708. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SLIP (poultry) - An incompletely castrated male. (colloquial term) S16710. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SLIPPER CLAW - An overgrown claw causing walking difficulty, particularly on slippery surfaces. (colloquial term) S16711. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SLIPPING, HALTER - See Halter Slipping. S16712. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SLOW GAIT (horse) - An artificially attained four-beat gait performed by five-gaited horses. Both legs on one side of the body are lifted simultaneously but, due to the high action of the foreleg, the hindhoof hits the ground slightly earlier, resulting in two distinct intervals between beats. Synonym: Stepping Pace. S16713. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SNAP - A sudden, quick, and usually noisy biting action. S16715. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SNARE - A simple device, used mostly for brief restraint of pigs, consisting of a loop made of strong rope or smooth cable which can be retracted through a pipe and thus tightened around a pig's snout. S16716. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SNATCH - A sudden, quick grasping and holding of objects with the mouth. S16717. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SNEEZING - A sudden, powerful expulsion of air through the nose and mouth induced as a reflex spasm. Compare: Nasal Reflex. S16718. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SNIFFING - A series of brief inhalations of air occurring during olfactory investigation. S16719. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 1,669KB Comment 

SNORT (horse) - A medium to high amplitude, rapidly pulsed sound of short duration (0.5 - 0.75 sec) produced with the mouth closed by powerfully blowing air through the nostrils, which vibrate strongly. It often is emitted during olfactory investigation, immediately after a startling experience or during a work-out under saddle or when pulling, characteristically at the beginning of a new task Snorts generally are more frequent in young horses. S16720. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SNORT (sheep) - A medium amplitude sound of very short duration (0.2 - 0.5 sec) produced with a closed mouth. Snorts often are emitted by startled animals S16801. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOCIABILITY - Tendency to seek and maintain the company of peers. This term sometimes is used to refer to an animal's attachment to humans. S16802. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOCIAL ACCEPTANCE - A positive or at least neutral attitude toward other individuals or groups. S16803. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOCIAL BEHAVIOR - Activities directed toward and influenced by other members of a social unit. S16807. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOCIAL DISTANCE - The distance that two or more individuals or groups maintain between themselves. This distance generally will fall within a certain range determined by the combined effects of cohesive and dispersive social forces characteristic of the species involved, as well as by the given environmental circumstances. S16810. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOCIAL FACILITATION - A phenomenon in which the behavior of an animal reflectively increases the occurrence of the same behavior among its social partners. S16814. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOCIAL FAMILIARIZATION - Acquisition of information about conspecifics, or members of other animal species, facilitating their subsequent correct identification. The process of social familiarization among adult domestic animals starts characteristically with distal investigation (visual, auditory, olfactory) followed by an approach response and proximal investigation (tactile, gustatory). Among neonatal animals, social familiarization begins with proximal investigation. Compare: Socialization. S16815. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOCIAL LICKING - See Licking. S16907. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOCIAL RANK - See Social Status. S16910. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOCIAL REJECTION - Exclusion of an individual from a social unit by persistent manifestation of aversion toward it or refusal to provide care. S16912. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOCIAL RANK ORDER - See Social Hierarchy. S16911. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOCIAL SEPARATION - Voluntary or imposed severance of physical contacts between two or more individuals. Compare: Social Isolation; Social Segregation. S16917. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOCIAL STATUS - The rank in the social hierarchy attained by an individual as a consequence of its interactions with other members of its social group. Synonym: Social Hierarchy Status. S17001. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOCIOGRAM - An ethogram of social behavior indicating preferences and aversions as well as dominance-subordinance relationships among members of a group. S17010. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOLITARY - A term referring to an individual which characteristically lives alone and infrequently associates with other conspecifics. The same term may be applied in a general sense to a species whose individuals are typically solitary. Antonym: Gregarious. S17014. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOMNOLENT MALE - A sexually hypoactive male. When exposed to an estrous cow, a somnolent bull may lay his chin on the hindquarters of the cow and stay behind her with closed eyes without any attempt to mount. S17103. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SONG - Vocalization consisting of a species-specific sequence of notes. This term most commonly refers to vocalizations of animals having some distinct social context (e.g., courtship song). S17104. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SONOGRAM - Record of a sound registering tone amplitude, frequency, and intensity. S17105. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOPOR - A deep or profound sleep. S17107. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SORREL (horse) - A yellowish-brown or yellowish-red shade of chestnut coat color. S17109. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOUND - Sensation mediated by the auditory sense mode due to vibratory stimulation caused by pressure waves (sound waves) transmitted through air or some other medium. Also see specific sound - STENOSIS. S17111. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SOW - A female swine after delivery of her first litter of offspring. S17112. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SPACING BEHAVIOR - Behavioral activities by which organisms establish and maintain appropriate distances among group members or between adjoining groups. Compare: Social Distance, Individual Distance Zone, Group Distance Zone. S17113. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SPASM - Convulsive contraction of muscles. S17201. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SPECIES-SPECIFIC BEHAVIOR - Behavior that is specific to a particular species of animal. Vocalizations, threat signals, and reproductive behavior patterns frequently are species-specific. S17207. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SPEEDY CUTTING (horse) - Defective leg action in which the hoof of the foreleg hits the pastern or fetlock of the hindleg. S17210. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SPLAY-FOOTED - Characterized by the feet pointing to the side (outwards). This walking defect is also called toe-out or slew-foot. S17303. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SPLAY LEG (swine) - Myofibrial hypoplasia of neonatal piglets, characterized by paralysis of the hind legs or, occasionally, aIl four legs. (colloquial term) S17304. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SPLIT ESTRUS - A term used to refer to extended period of estrus interrupted by short intervals of anestrus. Split estrus occurs most commonly in mares. S17306. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY - See Spontaneous Response. S17308. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SPONTANEOUS BEHAVIOR - Behavior induced by endogenous stimulation without detectable external causation. S17309. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SPONTANEOUS RESPONSE - A response initiated without observable stimulation S17312. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SPREADER INJURY - Injury caused when the forelegs or hindlegs splay laterally beyond their normal range of motion. Spreader injuries are more likely to occur when flooring is slippery, particularly if animals are caused to move too quickly or to make sudden movements and changes in direction. S17313. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  

SPRINGER - A female in an advanced stage of pregnancy. (colloquial term) S17314. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SPUR (poultry) - A horn-like protuberance occurring in males and some females on the inner side of the shank and occasionally used as a weapon. S17315. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SQUATTING STANCE - See Mating Stance. S17317. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SQUAWKING (chicken) - A variety of calls made by adult birds in response to predators or when trapped or handIed in such a way as to cause fear. Squawking differs between sexes and breeds, but usually is produced as a relatively high frequency sound of variable duration. S17318 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SQUEAL (horse) - A high amplitude sound of intermediate duration (0.5 -1.5 sec.). This sound frequently is emitted during agnostic interactions and is produced with the mouth open and retracted at the corners, ears laid back, and head raised or turned sideways toward the opponent and often immediately precedes striking out with the legs. S17319. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SQUEAL (swine) - An extended sound (0.5 - 2.0 sec) of both high amplitude and high frequency produced with an open mouth, indicative of a high level of excitement, fear, or pain. Squeals are more frequent in young animals. S17401. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SQUEEZE - A device used to mechanically immobilize conscious animals for a short time to allow some treatment to be performed on them, e.g., dehorning, hoof trimming, branding. S17402. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STAG - A castrated mature male exhibiting secondary sexual characteristics. S17404. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STALE - An animal that has not been used for work for a lengthy period of time so that its physical condition or ability to obey commands have become substandard. S17405. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STALL, FREE - See Free Stall. S17407. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STALL - A place in a barn designed to be occupied by a single animal or, exceptionally, a dam with her neonatal offspring. S17406. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STALL, TIE - See Tie Stall. S17408. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STALLION - A full-grown sexually mature male horse. S17409. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STALL KICKING (horse) - Repeated kicking with hindlegs or forelegs against walls, doors, or other parts of a stall. Stall kicking generates a disturbing noise in the barn and is considered to be a dangerous vice as it often leads to leg injuries. Synonym: Stall Knocking S17410. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STALL KNOCKING (horse) - See Stall Kicking. S17411. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STALL WALKING - Pacing or stereotyped circling in a stall. Primarily referring to such behavior in horses. Stall walking is considered to be a nuisance vice. S17412. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STAMPING - Striking of the sole of a forefoot on the ground. Stamping is performed by sheep and goats and is a threat signal. S17413. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STANCE, MATING - See Mating Stance. S17414. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STAND - To assume or maintain an upright position on extended legs. The behavior patterns involved in standing up show a high degree of uniformity within species, but may be modified by environmental circumstances (e.g., restriction of movement, injury). If an animal has been lying for a long time, it may manifest leg stretching and ventroflexion, frequently followed by defecation, upon standing. S17415. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 1,477KB Comment 

STARVATION - Food deprivation. S17505. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STENOSIS SOUND - Any of a variety of sounds produced during breathing as a result of partial obstruction of air flow in the upper respiratory tract. Stenosis sounds often are indicators of inflammatory constriction of respiratory pathways. The sounds may consist of hissing, purring, roaring, snorting, snuffling, or whistling. S17513. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STEREOTYPED BEHAVIOR - Behavior repeated in a very constant way. The term generally is used to refer to behavior that develops as a consequence of a problem situation such as extended social isolation, low level of environmental complexity, deprivation, etc. Stereotypy also may arise from genetic predispositions, or from disease of, or damage to, the brain. S17517. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STEREOTYPED MOVEMENT - Any motor activity classified as being an integral part of stereotyped behavior. S17518. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STIMULATION - Generation of neural activity by a stimulus. In the context of experimental behavior, The term simulation also applies to an attempt to generate such neural activity. Also see specific stimutation - ENDOGENOUS; EFAFFERENT; EXOGENOUS; REAFFRENT; VESTIBULAR. S17513. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STOCK - A general term for livestock. Also to place animals in facilities set aside for their use. S17609. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STOTTING - A type of locomotion, occasionally displayed by sheep and some wild species of ungulates, in which movement forward is conducted in a series of long jumps with all four legs leaving the ground at the same time (or almost at the same time). S17702. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STRETCHING - A muscular activity, characterized by brief, forceful extension of limbs or other parts of the body. Stretching is considered to he a comfort movement. S17709. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STRIDE - The distance between midpoints of two consecutive prints of the same foot. S17711. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STRIDOR - A high-pitched sound produced during respiration and indicative of deformed laryngeal configuration or partial obstruction of the respiratory pathways. S17712. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STRINGHALT (horse) - Sudden, excessive contraction of the flexor muscles of the hock causing the hindleg to rise higher than normal for a given gait. It occurs more frequently in older horses (over 5 years of age) and usually starts to develop us a light jerk of the limb when the animal is turning. S17713. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STRUTTING (chicken) - A threat display characterized by a chase with raised ruff and tail feathers, and trailed wings. S17804. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

STUPOR - A state of complete or substantial diminution of sensitivity. S17805. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SUBORDINANCE - See Social Subordinance. S17815. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SUBORDINATION SIGNAL - Any behavioral display or sign performed by an organism that is indicative of acceptance of subordinance to another organism. Common subordination signals are spatial avoidance, avoidance of visual or tactile contact, allogrooming of the dominant individual, exposure of vulnerable areas of the body, frozen posture, readiness to accept punishment, or escape from the scene of a threatening encounter or fight. S17816. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SUBSTITUTE ACTIVITY - See Displacement. S17817. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SUCKING - Grasping an object in the mouth and creating a partial vacuum in the oral cavity by coordinated actions of the lips, tongue, and buccal muscles. Also see specific sucking - BELLY; EAR; NAVEL; PREPUCE; SCROTUM. S17818. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SUCKLING - Acquiring milk by sucking on the teats of a lactating female or nursing device. The term generally refers to the acquisition of milk by young from their dam As a noun, suckling also refers to a preweaned mammal. Also see specific suckling - ADULT. S17901. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 2,405KB Comment  

SUCKLING REFLEX - The sequentially synchronized movements of the tongue and buccal muscles that create a sucking action. S17902. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SUDDEN LAMENESS - Lameness that occurs instantly as a consequence of injury to a limb or limb-related tissues (e.g., injured tendon, ligament, or muscle, dislocated joint, bone fissure or fracture, claw lesion, etc.). S17904. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SUN BATHING - Basking in the sun to utilize solar radiation for the purpose of thermoregulation and comfort. S17907. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SUPPLEMENTAL LIGHTING - Any augmentation in level or duration of ambient illumination (e.g., artificial lighting of a barn interior). S17913. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SUPPORTIVE LAMENESS - Lameness that occurs when transfer of weight generates pain in the supporting limb. As a result, an ambulating animal will lift this limb sooner than normal and increase the length of the supportive phase of the opposing limb. It also may place more weight on the opposing limb. S17914. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SWALLOWING REFLEX - A complex set of actions that controls swallowing of food and liquids and prevents food from entering the respiratory tract. S18004. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SWAY BACK (sheep) - A disease of neonatal lambs caused by cerebral demyelination, behaviorally manifested by paralysis beginning in the hind legs. S18006. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SWIMMING - Locomotion of an organism through water or liquids. S18008. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

SYMMETRIC GAIT - A gait in which the action of each leg is synchronized with another leg. Also see Trot; Pace. S18015. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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Revised: April 18, 2008