TAIL BITING (swine) - Aberrant behavior consisting of playful mouthing, chewing, or rigorous biting of the tails of other pigs. Tail biting very often leads to serious injury and death of victimized animals. T18113. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TAIL FLAPPING - See Tail Wagging T18115. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TAIL RESTRAINT (cattle) - Mild twisting of the base of the tail by hand to control an animal's attention and promote handling ease. T18116. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TAIL RUBBING - Stereotyped rubbing of the tail against walls and other objects n a stall. Primarily used in reference to such behavior in horses. Tail rubbing often is an indication of parasites or skin disease, but also can be a sign c>f boredom. Tail rubbing is considered to be a nuisance vice. T18201. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TAIL SWISHING - Swinging of the tail so that the long hairs at the end of the tail brush against the body of the animal. Tail swishing is performed by horses and cattle and serves as a defensive action against flies. T18202. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.   Hind legs Tail Swishing, mpg video 913KB   Comment  Stomach Tail Swishing mpg video 545KB  Comment  Back Tail Swishing mpg video 587KB Comment 

TAIL WAGGING - Rapid, swinging of the tail from side to side. Tail wagging is performed in a number of contexts by different species, e.g., by suckling lambs or kids, by dogs when experiencing excitement and pleasure. The action is thought to function as a signal communicating the motivational state of the animal performing the behavior. Tail wagging in goats is also a sign of sexual receptivity during estrus. Occasionally it may he performed by nonestrous goats when approached by a mature male. It may also be performed by juvenile does prior to sexual maturity in response to sniffing or mounting attempts by male penmates. T18203. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TAIL WAGGING (ducks) - A postural display characterized by depressed tail feathers that are rapidly moved from side to side. T18204. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TAKE - Cooperation by a female with the sexual advances, including mounting, of a male. T18206. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TAME - Referring to an animal that has been familiarized with humans so as to be tractable. T18207. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TASTE To perceive stimuli through the gustatory sense mode. Also, the particular gustatory characteristics of a substance. T18209. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TEASER - In agricultural sense, a conspecific animal used for detection of females in estrus, or an animal that serves as a mounting object during semen collection T18214. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TEASING - A process of testing females for readiness to mate. T18301. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TEAT DIPPING - Partial submersion of the teats of lactating animals into a disinfecting fluid to prevent infection. T18302. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TEAT ORDER - A numerical system to designate the position of teats along an udder. In a looser sense, the term is used for the order of littermates along an udder during a suckling event. T18303. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TEAT SAMPLING (swine) - A tendency of neonatal piglets to seek out successive teats on the dam's udder and suckle briefly from them. Teat sampling occurs during the neonursing phase on the day of birth soon after the piglet encounters its first teat and before the development of teat specificity. It is thought to enable the piglet to assess the relative quality of each teat. T18304. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TEAT SPECIFICITY - The tendency of a preweaned mammal to suckle consistently from a particular teat in the dam's udder. T18305. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TEAT SUCKING, JUVENILE - See Juvenile Teat Sucking. T18306. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TEETH, BARED (horse) - See Bared Teeth. T18308. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TEG - A two-year-old sheep. T18309. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TEMPERAMENT - A simplified generalization of an organism according to its excitatory or inhibitory reactions, persistent habits, level of motor activity, emotionality, alertness, curiosity, etc., T18317. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TEMPLATE, BEHAVIORAL - See Behavioral Template. T18402. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TENDENCY, ORAL - See Oral Tendency. T18404. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR - Behavioral actions performed by an individual, pair, or group to establish or maintain a territory (e.g., boundary marking, vocalization, visual displays, aggression, and avoidance of neighboring territories). T18410. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TEST STIMULUS - An experimental stimulus. This term is most commonly used in generalization studies to determine the ability of animals to differentiate between a novel stimulus and the original stimulus. T18416. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TETHER - The instrument or device used to tie animals to one specific location (e.g., a barn stancheon), but permitting free feed intake, standing, and lying down. Also, to tie an animal with a tether. T18418. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TEXAS GATE - A grid having intrabar spaces large enough for a hoof to pass through, placed over a ditch across a roadway at the entrance to a fenced-off area. A Texas gate will allow wheeled vehicles to pass through the entrance, but will contain horses or cattle within the enclosure because they will refuse to step on the gate. T18420. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

THIGMOTAXIC BEHAVIOR - Tendency to stay close to or in contact with walls or objects and to avoid open areas. This tendency is relatively common in many species of animals during shelter seeking and resting. T18512. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

THIRST - An uncomfortable sensation induced by deprivation of liquids. Thirst generally is associated with increased appetite for liquids, provided the du ration of such deprivation has not resulted in lethargy. T18514. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

THREAT - Indication of intent to harm directed toward an adversary. Functionally, threat provides an opportunity for the threatened individual to resolve the situation by escape, avoidance, or display of submission. T18602. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

THRESHOLD - The minimum or maximum stimulus intensity that an organism is able to sense. Also see specific threshold - DIFFERENCE; EMIGRATION; STIMULUS. T18606. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

THRIFTY - Of robust health and vigor. (colloquial term) T18607. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

THROW - The act of causing an animal to fall to the ground for the purpose of branding or some other treatment. T18608. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

THRUSTING - Repeated, forceful movement forward followed by slower retraction. Such action may be performed with the pelvis, head, tongue, etc. T18609. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

THUMPING (rabbit) - Simultaneous striking of both hindpaws on the ground. Thumping is considered to be a warning signal. T18610. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TIDBITTING (chicken) - Calls produced by mature males and broody females consisting of a series of regularly spaced, wide frequency range sounds. They are vocalized by males during courtship and aggressive encounters, and by females in an epimeletic context. T18612. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TIE STALL - A stall within a housing unit where an animal is tethered except when released temporarily for exercise, grazing, milking, or examination. T18613. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TIME-SHARING - Alternation between two behavioral actions due to disinhibition and motivational competition. When the motivation for a dominant activity declines, the subdominant activity is disinhibited and is manifested until rising motivation for the dominant activity inhibits the subdominant activity through motivational competition. T18701. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TOE TRIMMING (poultry) - Removal of the distal portion of the phalanges, including the toenail. T18704. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TOLERANCE - The ability of an organism to survive in a given range of environmental conditions and maintain normal bodily functions. Also see specific tolerance-social T18705. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TOM - A mature male turkey or mature male cat. T18707. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TONGUE - A muscular, mobile structure attached at the ventral posterior of the mouth. The tongue is used for manipulation of food in the mouth during mastication, for licking, and to assist vocalization. The dorsal surface of the tongue has taste buds that contain gustatory receptors which mediate the sense of taste. T18708. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TONGUE, CURLED - See Curled Tongue. T18709. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TONGUE LOLLING - Protrusion of the tongue hanging from the oral cavity, not associated with eating, drinking, or searching for food. Tongue lolling may develop into a habit that, in show horses, is considered a nuisance vice. T18710. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TONGUE PLAYING - See Tongue Rolling T18711. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TONGUE ROLLING - Repeated extension of the tongue followed by rolling of the tip back into the mouth. Tongue rolling occurs more frequently in cattle fed a high concentrate diet and is considered to be a nuisance vice. T18712. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TONGUING - A distinct form of scratch reflex manifested in bovines as periodical insertion of the tongue into a nostril. T18713. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TONIC IMMOBILITY - Temporary inability to move manifested by an animal upon close exposure to, or handling by, some powerful fear-producing agent (e.g., "feigning of death" in the proximity of a predator), T18714. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TORPOR - A state of minimized metabolic and physical activity and sensation associated with lowered body temperature. Total inactivity. T18717. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TOSSING HEAD - See Head Tossing. T18718. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TOUCH - To come into contact with another organism, object, or part of the body. The term usually is used for situations in which the contact does not involve a great deal of force. T18801. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TRACE CONDITIONING - A type of classical conditioning in which the conditioned stimulus is presented and terminated prior to the onset of the unconditioned stimulus. T18803. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TRAIL - A pathway made by animals walking to pastures, water source, or shelters. Animals within an established group have strong tendency to follow each other and use the same route. T18806. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TRAINABILITY - Capacity of an organism to be trained to perform a given task. Trainability may refer to quantitative aspects of training (e.g., time required to reach a certain speed of response) or qualitative aspects (e.g., ability of response) T18807. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TRAINING Any procedure instituted to cause acquisition of a required action or inhibition of undesirable action by an animal that will enable the animal to make an appropriate response in a given circumstance. The term training also is used for progressive conditioning (e.g., behavior shaping in equine dressage) or physical exercise to improve some aspect of performance. Also see specific training - DISCRIMINATION; DISCRIMINATIVE; REWARD. T18808. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TREADING (chicken) - Behavior of males displayed in the copulatory mounting position prior to cloacal contact, characterized by several relatively fast treading movements of the legs. T18901. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TRILL (chicken) - High amplitude, repeated calls (~3 per second) produced by chicks in response to unfamiliar noises, strange objects and sudden changes in environment. Trilling appears to indicate a state of alarm T18908. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TRIUMPH CEREMONY (geese) - Symbolic attack toward an aversive stimulus followed by return either to the main body of the group or to partner or prospective mate, after which the group or pair engage in intense vocalization, neck stretching, and wing-flapping. T18909. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TROCAR - A sharp pointed stylet inside a metal tube that can penetrate abdominal muscles, peritoneum, and the wall of a rumen. When the stylet is withdrawn after penetration, the tube facilitates release of gases from a bloated digestive tract. T18910. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TROT - A naturally developed regular two-beat gait with the leg movement synchronized diagonally. The sequence of hoof beats is left hind together with right fore followed by right hind together with left fore. T18915. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TROTTER (horse) - A horse that races using a two-beat diagonal gait called the trot. T18916. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TRUE ESTRUS - See Receptive Phase. T18917. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TUPPING (sheep) - Mating and insemination in sheep. (colloquial term) T19001. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TUSHES - Canine teeth in horses. T19002. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TUSKS - Canine teeth in the pig and a number of other mammalian species. T19003. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TWITCH (horse) - A simple restraint device consisting of a flexible loop (e.g., rope) connected to a short stick. The loop, when placed around a horse's lip, can be twisted gradually to squeeze the lip, thus controlling the horse's attention and promoting handling ease. T19005. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

TWITTER - A relatively low-amplitude, repeated vocalization produced by chicks in response to certain novel or suddenly appearing stimuli. Generally, each element in a twitter series is characterized by short duration and rapidly ascending sound frequency. Twittering seems to indicate a state of mild arousal without apparent fear or distress. T19007. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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