VACUUM ACTIVITY - A behavior, typically a modal action pattern, manifested in the absence of the stimulus which normally activates such behavior. For example pregnant sows close to Parturition engage in movements characteristic of nest building even if housed in farrowing crates without any nest material available. V19301. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VANDENBERG EFFECT - Enhancement of sexual maturation in a female by exposure to male pheromones. V19307. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VEAL CRATE - See Crate. V19401. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VEALER - A calf raised for slaughtering at an early age. V19402. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VEGETATIVE ACTION - A term occasionally used to refer to nonreproductive biological processes such as respiration, eating, or excretion. V19403. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VENTRIFLEXION - Bending movement induced by flexion of ventral muscles and relaxation of dorsal muscles, (e.g., lowering of an animal's head). Compare: Dorsiflexion V19408. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VICE - An undesirable habit of an animal. Dangerous vices can be harmful to the animal itself, to peers, or to humans. Nuisance vices are esthetically unpleasing to human V19413. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VIGILANCE - The characteristic or condition of being attentive to threat and danger. Behavioral signs of vigilance are raised head and sensory focusing to survey the surroundings. V19414. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VIGILANT BEHAVIOR - Any behavior indicative of alertness to potential danger. Compare: Sentinel Behavior. V19415. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VISION - Perception of light stimuli. Vision is mediated by the specialized structures and visual receptors in the eye. Synonym: Sight. V19501. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VISUAL CLIFF - Any situation in which an animal perceives a sudden drop-off in the substrate, even if the support under foot continues to be horizontal and solid. Such situations are used in the study of perception. Animals of some species or age will refuse to cross over onto a solid but transparent floor beyond a visual cliff. V19504. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VISUAL FIELD - The complete area, including all objects in it, visible to the eye at any given time. V19505. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VOCALIZATION - Production of sounds by the vibration of vocal cords in the larynx. The sounds may be modified by the organs and structures of the oral cavity. Also see specific vocalization - "MM"; "MOO"; "MooEH"; "MooH"; "MRRH" V19509. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VOLUNTARY BEHAVIOR - Any action mediated by volition. V19512. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

VOMIT - To eject gastrointestinal contents through the mouth. Vomiting is controlled by the vomiting center of the medulla and is elicited by simultaneous contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles, and relaxation of the esophageal sphincter, V19513. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

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Revised: April 18, 2008