WALK (horse) - A naturally developed, evenly cadenced, four-beat gait. The sequence of hoof beats are left hind, left fore, right hind and right fore. Depending on the speed, two or three hooves may he touching the ground at any one time. W19603. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WALKING - Relatively low speed locomotion of an organism on the ground in which propulsive force derives from the action of legs. Also see specific walking - STALL. W19604. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 293KB  Comment mpg video 1,519 Comment

WALLOWING - An activity (considered to be comfort related) characterized by partial submersion of the body into some wet substrate (e.g., puddle, mud, etc.). Among farm animals, wallowing is most common in swine and is positively correlated with environmental temperature. W19605. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WALTZING (chicken) - A postural display of males performed as a semicircular or circular locomotion around hens or male opponents. The outside wing is usually towered, sometimes so that its primaries touch the ground and produce a rasping sound. Waltzing can he a part of a threat or courtship behavior. W19606. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WARNING CALL - A vocal warning signal. W19609. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WARNING SIGNAL - Any signal broadcast by an organism to warn others of its presence and of its intent to be aggressive in the event of an incursion (e.g. territorial calling in the context of territorial maintenance) The term also includes threat signals directed toward an opponent(s) during a situation of social conflict. Compare: Threat Signal. W19610. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WATER BAG - The appearance of fetal membranes prior to parturition. (colloquial term) W19701. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WATERING - Delivery of drinking water to animals. W19702. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WATER SHYNESS - Excessive or persistent refusal to enter into water. This behavior is common h animals which have not had prior opportunity to investigate bodies of water. W19703. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WAXY-SEAL (horse) - Preparturient occurrence of waxy substances on the tips of the teats. Indicates impending parturition. (colloquial term) W19704. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WEANING - Permanent discontinuation of nursing of young mammals. W19705. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WEANLING - Any young animal that recently has been weaned. W19706. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WEAPON - Any organ of the body able to injure an adversary or prey. W19707. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WEAVING (horse) - Stereotyped transfer of body weight from one side to the other in conjunction with waving of the head back and forth. W19708. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WEAVING (swine) - Stereotyped, rhythmical swaying of the head. It occurs material when the animals are fed high concentrate diets. It is thought to be material when the animals are fed high concentrate diets. It is thought to he an indicator of boredom. W19709. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WETHER - A male sheep castrated before sexual maturity W19712. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WHETTING - A colloquial term occasionally used to refer to repeated stroking or rubbing actions of some parts of animal body (e.g., horns, teeth) against surrounding objects. W19713. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WHINING (chicken) - A type of call characterized by low sound frequency, pulse-like vocalization with an extended final tone in each sequence. It is assumed that whining calls have threat and sexual functions. W19714. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WHINNY (horse) - A medium amplitude, rapidly pulsating sound of intermediate duration (0.5 - 1.5 sec) and descending pitch. A horse begins the vocalization with its mouth closed but ends with it open. It is produced by horses that are separated from their peers and also may be a greeting signal, as it often is emitted upon sight of a peer or a caretaker. The whinny is thought to be a sign of mild excitement. W19715. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WHISTLING - A sound during respiration caused by inflammation or thickening of mucus membranes lining the pharynx. W19716. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WHITE SCOUR - See Colibacillosis W19717. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WHITTEN EFFECT - A phenomenon occurring when presence of a male has a positive, stimulatory effect on manifestation of estrus in conspeciflc females. W19801. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WHITTEN PHENOMENON - See Whitten Effect. W19802. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WIND SUCKING - See Cribbing. W19804. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WING-FLAPPING (chicken) - A postural display of birds performed as rapid, and often loud, synchronized movement of wings. Wing-flapping occurs on hot humid days and most frequently immediately after mating. W19806. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WINGING-OUT (horse) - Excessive paddling. W19807. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WING SHOULDER - A postural adjustment to minimize weight pressure on lateral digits of the feet. It may be a symptom of laminitis or hypophosphataemia. W19808. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WING STRETCHING (chicken) - Simultaneous extension of the wing and leg on the same side of the body, assumed to be a comfort movement. W19809. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WINKING (horse) - Rhythmical contraction and relaxation of vulval labia and eversion of the clitoris. Winking occurs most frequently during estrus and, normally, for a short time after urination. W19810. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WITCH'S MILK - Milk secretion that occurs occasionally in small amounts by neonates - (colloquial term) W19812. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WITHER NIBBLING (horse) - Reciprocal allogrooming jointly performed between horses facing in opposite directions. Both partners gently bite and lip stroke each other's withers and other dorsal areas of their bodies, W19814. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WOBBLER (horse) - A young horse that shows swaying action of the hindquarters, stumbling, and distorted movements, particularly when trotting. Spinal injury is the main cause of these locomotory defects. W19816. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WOOD GNAWING - Gnawing of wooden fences, partitions, or other fixtures by horses, cattle, pigs, and rabbits. Wood gnawing is a fairly common behavior of farm animals but its occurrence is increased when animals are fed high concentrate diets, W19817. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WOOL PICKING - See Fleece Pulling. W19901. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WOOL PULLING - See Fleece Pulling. W19902. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WORK (horse) - Activity of a horse directed by humans (e.g., pulling equipment, rounding up cattle, etc.). W19903. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

WRY-NECK - Deformity in a horse or cattle fetus characterized by rigidly curved neck that resists intrauterine effort to straighten it and generally prevents passage of the fetus through the birth canal. W19905. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.

EFAB HOME

Send comments or suggestions to LIRU Webmaster
Revised: April 18, 2008