Encyclopedia definitions including video images

ALARM RESPONSE - Any behavioral response indicative of fear or awareness of danger. A00720. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  mpg video 1,081 Comment  mpg video 1,301  Comment 

ALLOGROOMING - See Grooming. A00808. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 1,081 Comment 

AVOIDANCE - Prevention or neutralization of aversive stimulation by means of nonapproach, escape, appeasement or subordination, or appropriate operant response. A01616. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 2,203  Comment 

BELLOWING (cattle) - A general term for loud, repeated vocalizations of cattle. Bellowing may be an indication of excitement or distress (e.g., when expecting feed or water, when separated from group members, when in estrus) or a warning signal High incidence of bellowing may be associated with nymphomania or disease (e.g., rabies). B02203. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 1,005 Comment 

BULLER-RIDER SYNDROME - Frequent mounting of an animal by its peers. This syndrome develops more frequently when the animals are housed in large groups and/or crowded conditions (e.g., in a feedlot) and, if persistent, may cause the death of the mounted animal. B02712. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  mpg video 765KB Comment  mpg video 999KB Comment mpg video 1,179KB Comment 

BUTTING - Hitting an object or another organism with the forehead or horns. Butting is commonly displayed during aggression or as displacement behavior when directed toward some object other than an adversary. A mild butting during nursing (nursing butts) conducted by a suckling offspring is most common in bovines. B02804. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.   mpg video 1,213KB  Comment  mpg video 1,477KB Comment

DRINKING - Voluntary oral ingestion of liquids. D05607. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 521KB  Comment mpg video 1,477 Comment 

FLIGHT REACTION - Swift escape when an object perceived to be dangerous emerges within the limit of critical distance to the reacting organism. F07214. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  mpg video 1,157 KB Comment 

FOLLOWING RESPONSE - A response of an organism to the movement of another organism or object whereby the former travels at some relatively proximate distance behind the latter. F07305. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.   mpg video 1,755KB Comment 

GRAZING - The act of consuming standing vegetation. G07914. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 3,097KB  Comment   With weaning ring mpg video 1,767 MB Comment 

GROOMING - An act of integumentary care (e.g., licking, scratching) to remove parasites, smooth ruffled fur, remove dirt, etc. Grooming is subdivided into self-grooming (an animal grooming itself) and allogrooming (an animal grooming another animal). Grooming may also have a social function, appearing as conciliatory behavior (a subordinate animal grooms a dominant animal), reciprocal altruism (animals groom each other), or ritualized behavior performed during courtship or conflict. G08004. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 1,519 KB   Comment  mpg video 1,225 KB  Comment  

MOUTHING - Investigation of objects by manipulation with the mouth. Mouthing is most common in young animals. In some situations, mouthing nay develop into a persistent, stereotyped behavior pattern. M11703. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 834KB Comment 

NOSING - Making contact with an object or the body of another organism with the nose. Nosing is commonly displayed during investigation following sniffing, prior to suckling, and during courtship. N12403 Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.  mpg video 415KB Comment 

SITTING - Body position in which the posterior of the body trunk is in contact with the ground and supports most of the body weight. Also see specific sitting - MOTIONLESS. S16702. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 521KB Comment 

SNIFFING - A series of brief inhalations of air occurring during olfactory investigation. S16719. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 1,669KB Comment 

STAND - To assume or maintain an upright position on extended legs. The behavior patterns involved in standing up show a high degree of uniformity within species, but may be modified by environmental circumstances (e.g., restriction of movement, injury). If an animal has been lying for a long time, it may manifest leg stretching and ventroflexion, frequently followed by defecation, upon standing. S17415. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 1,477KB Comment 

SUCKLING - Acquiring milk by sucking on the teats of a lactating female or nursing device. The term generally refers to the acquisition of milk by young from their dam As a noun, suckling also refers to a preweaned mammal. Also see specific suckling - ADULT. S17901. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 2,405KB Comment  

TAIL SWISHING - Swinging of the tail so that the long hairs at the end of the tail brush against the body of the animal. Tail swishing is performed by horses and cattle and serves as a defensive action against flies. T18202. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995.   Hind legs Tail Swishing, mpg video 913KB   Comment  Stomach Tail Swishing mpg video 545KB  Comment  Back Tail Swishing mpg video 587KB Comment 

WALKING - Relatively low speed locomotion of an organism on the ground in which propulsive force derives from the action of legs. Also see specific walking - STALL. W19604. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 293KB  Comment mpg video 1,519 Comment

YAWN - An involuntary gaping of the mouth accompanied by inspiration of air and, often, stretching of the body, Y19906. Definition from Hurnik et al., 1995. mpg video 521KB   Comment

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Revised: April 18, 2008