NCR-131 Animal Care and Behavior EFAB video inclusion selection form #1

Your Name *Required

1 of 107 ABANDONMENT CALL - See Separation Call. A00301. KeepDelete
2 ABDUCTION - Movement away from the median plane. A00303. KeepDelete  
3 ABERRANT BEHAVIOR - See Abnormal Behavior. A00304. KeepDelete  
4 ABERRATION - Deviation from that which is typical, regular, common, or standard. A00305. KeepDelete  
5 ABIENT - Avoiding or moving away from the source of stimulation. Antonym adient. A00306. KeepDelete  
6 ABILITY - Competence of an organism to perform a given task. Also see specific ability - MOTHERING. A00307. KeepDelete  
7 ABNORMAL - Deviating from a norm. The term has many applications, the most objective being a statistical interpretation focusing on qualitative or quantitative deviations from expected frequencies, means, or intervals. A00309. KeepDelete  
8 ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior that deviates in form, frequency, or sequence from a defined, comparable standard. Such a standard may be a behavioral inventory typical for a given genotype, age group, sex, nutritional level, housing condition, or management system, etc. A00310. KeepDelete  
9 ABORAL - The region of the body considered opposite to the mouth, or in a direction of movement away from the mouth (e.g., along the digestive tract). A00311. KeepDelete  
10 ACCEPTANCE, SOCIAL - See Social Acceptance A00317. KeepDelete  
11 ACCIDENTAL REINFORCEMENT - See Incidental Reinforcement. A00320. KeepDelete  
12 ADVENTITIOUS REWARD - A reward that is unplanned by the experimenter, or not under the experimenter's control, but that influences the behavior of he test organism. A00601. KeepDelete  
13 ADVERTISEMENT - Any form of communication displayed to attract conspecifics (typically potential sexual partners) or to distract, warn, or threaten potential rivals or adversaries. A00602. KeepDelete  
14 AEROPHAGIA - The swallowing of air. Excessive aerophagia, commonly occurring during habitual cribbing in horses, can lead to serious digestive problems and is considered a dangerous vice. A00603. KeepDelete  
15 AFFECTION - Behavior that indicates positive feelings toward other organisms of the same or different species. A00604. KeepDelete  
16 AFTERBIRTH - The placenta and placental membranes expelled from the uterus following parturition. A00609. KeepDelete  
17 AGGREGATION - Clustering of organisms independently attracted to some environmental resource (e.g., feed, water, temperature, etc.) Aggregation is distinguished from grouping induced by social factors. Compare Flocking, Herding A00616. KeepDelete  
18 AGGRESSION - Any purposive action of an organism toward another organism with the actual or potential result of harming, limiting, or depriving it. In special cases, a nonliving object or the instigator itself may be the focus of the aggressive action. Also see specific aggressions -- DEFENSIVE; DOMINANCE; OFFENSIVE; REINFORCED; SEXUAL; TERRITORIAL. A00617. KeepDelete  
19 AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR - See Aggression. A00618. KeepDelete  
20 AGITATION - Relatively strong emotionality, nervousness, or restlessness. A00702. KeepDelete  
21 AGNOSIA - Inability to perceive; generally used in reference to specific sensory modalities, such as auditory, gustatory, olfactory, tactile, or visual agnosia. A00704. KeepDelete  
22 AGONISTIC - Refers to any activity performed in the context of an aggressive interaction. It encompasses the actions of both the instigator and the victim. A00706. KeepDelete  
23 AGONISTIC BEHAVIOR - Any behavior indicative of social conflict such as; threat, attack, and fight; or escape, avoidance, appeasement, and subordination. A00707. KeepDelete  
24 AGONY - A state of extreme suffering and distress often associated with moribund behavior. A00708. KeepDelete  
25 AHEMERAL CYCLE - A light-dark cycle other than 24 hours in length. A00712. KeepDelete  
26 AIR PECKING (poultry) - Pecking movements toward no obvious target. A00715. KeepDelete  
27 of 107 ALARM CALL - A vocal alarm signal. A00717. KeepDelete  
28 ALARM SIGNAL - A signal emitted by an organism to alert other individuals in the vicinity of the presence of danger. The signal has a high arousal potential for conspecifics, and often for other animals as well. A00719. KeepDelete  
29 ALARM RESPONSE - Any behavioral response indicative of fear or awareness of danger. A00720.   mpg video 1,081 KeepDelete  
30 ALERT - The state characterized by high attentiveness and responsiveness to stimuli Compare: Consciousness, Awareness. A00721. KeepDelete  
31 ALLELOMIMETIC BEHAVIOR - Behavioral activities that have strong components of social facilitation, imitation, and group coordination. Synonym: Allomimetic Behavior. A00805. KeepDelete  
32 ALLIANCE (horse) - A form of cooperation between stallions in a multi-male bands of feral horses. One stallion may confront an approaching male from another band, while the other stays with his group. On the next such confrontation the roles of the two stallions might change. A00806. KeepDelete  
33 ALLOCHTHONOUS BEHAVIOR - A term arising out of the concept of action-specific energy. Allochthonous behavior is that which is driven by energy that has sparked over from some other drive due to thwarting of the expression of behavior specific to the latter drive. In this conceptual system, displacement activities could be considered allochthonous behaviors. Compare: Autochthonous Behavior. A00807. KeepDelete  
34 ALLOGROOMING - See Grooming. A00808. KeepDelete  
35 ALLOLICKING - See Licking. A00810. KeepDelete  
36 ALLOMIMETIC BEHAVIOR - See Allelomimetic Behavior. A00811. KeepDelete  
37 ALL-OR-NONE RESPONSE - A response that is either elicited or not and, if elicited, shows no grading. A00817. KeepDelete  
38 ALPHA ANIMAL - The animal that ranks highest socially in its group (Animals in an established linear social hierarchy are often designated with letters of the Greek alphabet according to their rank.) Compare Omega Animal. A00820. KeepDelete  
39 ALTRUISTIC BEHAVIOR - Behavior by which an organism manifests altruism. A00904. KeepDelete  
40 ALTRUISM - A phenomenon in which one organism does something to the benefit of another organism(s), usually at some cost to itself. In the context of human conduct altruistic moral philosophy asserts that morality cannot be based exclusively on satisfaction of self-interest. A00903. KeepDelete  
41 AMATORY BEHAVIOR - A term occasionally used to refer to activities indicative of the development and maintenance of attachment between animals. Behavioral signs include allogrooming, muzzling, licking, and social play. A00905. KeepDelete  
42 AMBIVALENT POSTURE - A form of compromise behavior in which an animal adopts a posture having separate elements suggestive of the influence of different motivations. A00909. KeepDelete  
43 AMBLE (horse) - A variation of the pace gait that is distinguished by a slight hesitation between the placing of the hooves of the front and rear legs on the same side of the horse. The amble is a slower gait than is the pace, but it is easier for the rider. A00910. KeepDelete  
44 AMBULATION - Walking. A00912. KeepDelete  
45 AMBLYOPIA - Reduced clarity of vision. A00911. KeepDelete  
46 ANADIPSIA - Intense thirst A00913. KeepDelete  
47 ANALOGOUS BEHAVIOR - Behavior manifested by different species that is similar in function but does not originate from common ancestry. Compare: Homologous Behavior. A00917. KeepDelete  
48 ANAL REFLEX - Spasmodic contraction of the anus in response to tactile stimulation. A01002. KeepDelete  
49 ANAPHIA - Lack of sense of touch. A01004. KeepDelete  
50 ANESTRUS - A relatively long period of sexual inactivity in females of reproductive age, generally occurring in response to seasonal change. Compare: Seasonal Breeding. A01009. KeepDelete  
51 ANNOUNCING (chicken) - A vocalization emitted frequently after oviposition. Synonym: Cackling. A01107. KeepDelete  
52 ANNOYER - An unpleasant stimulus. A01108. KeepDelete  
53 ANOMALOUS BEHAVIOR - See Abnormal Behavior. A01109. KeepDelete  
54 of 107 ANOREXIA - Chronic inappetance or reduced appetite for food. A01109. KeepDelete  
55 ANTE PARTUM - Before parturition, or more specifically, before onset of labor. A01110. KeepDelete  
56 ANTERIOR - Situated in front of, or in the direction of, the head of the body, A01106. KeepDelete  
57 ANTERIOR PRESENTATION - Fetal presentation in which the forelegs and nose jointly enter the birth canal. There are also two variations of anterior presentation partially anterior presentation and cranial presentation. A01117. KeepDelete  
58 ANTICIPATORY REACTION - A response to a stimulus before its actual occurrence. A01120. KeepDelete  
59 ANTIPREDATOR BEHAVIOR - Any action having the purpose of reducing attacks by predators or diminishing their harm to an individual or group. Antipredator behavior includes cryptic behavior, vigilance, avoidance or escape, grouping, temporary group dispersion, defensive formation, selection of protective nest site, distraction of the predator from the nest site or offspring, threat display, discharge of noxious substances, and attack. A01201. KeepDelete  
60 ANURIA - Absence of or complete retention of urine. Compare: Oliguria. A01202. KeepDelete  
61 APATHY - Listless and indifferent behavior; commonly a reaction to persistent and insurmountable frustration. A01204. KeepDelete  
62 APHAGIA - Refusal to eat. A01206. KeepDelete  
63 APHRODISIA - Exaggerated sexual desire or unusually frequent display of sexual behavior A01207. KeepDelete  
64 APNEA - Lack of respiration. An apneic period occurs in newborns prior to initiation of regular pulmonary activity (neonatal apnea). Apnea also occurs as a consequence of neural malfunction (sleep apnea), or intense traumatic experience (traumatic apnea). A01208. KeepDelete  
65 APOPATHETIC BEHAVIOR - Behavior influenced by the presence of conspecifics, but not directed toward them. A01210. KeepDelete  
66 APOSEMATIC - Conspicuous display of colored structures that increase the effect of threat and benefit self-defense capacity of animals. A01212. KeepDelete  
67 APOSIA - Refusal to drink A01213. KeepDelete  
68 APOSITIA - Aversion to food. A01214. KeepDelete  
69 APPARENT MOVEMENT - Subjective and illusionary visual perception of movement in the absence of real movement. Apparent movement can he generated by rapid succession of motionless stimuli that mimic the changes that occur in true movement. A01216. KeepDelete  
70 APPEASEMENT - Conciliation directed toward an aggressor or potential aggressor. A01217. KeepDelete  
71 APPEASEMENT SIGNAL - Any behavioral display indicative of conciliatory intent. Appeasement signals often are manifested toward threatening conspecifics when escape is either difficult or impossible. A01218. KeepDelete  
72 APPERCEPTION - The process of conscious perception of events and full awareness including self awareness. A01219. KeepDelete  
73 APPETITE - Desire for some commodity that can be neutralized by specific consummatory responses. The term generally is used in reference to recurrent desires related to physiological processes. Also see specific appetites - DIMINISHED; PERVERTED; REDUCED; RETURNED; VARIABLE. A01301. KeepDelete  
74 APPETITIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior manifested during the initial phase of an operant behavioral cycle indicative of desire to attain a certain goal (e.g., searching for food, pressing bar, broadcasting attraction signals, etc.). A01302. KeepDelete  
75 APPREHENSIVE BEHAVIOR - Any behavior indicative of an organism' s anticipation of some adverse experience. The most common indicators include high level of alertness, intense sensory focusing on fear-causing stimulus(i), lowered "Flight or Fight" thresholds, defensive posture, and threat display. A01305. KeepDelete  
76 ARCHED NECK (horse) - Distinct flexion of the neck displayed during agnostic encounters between males and during courtship when a male is approaching a female. A01311. KeepDelete  
77 ARREST - Sudden cessation. This term is used frequently in reference to the activities or the function of specific organs (e.g., maturation arrest, cardiac arrest). A01316. KeepDelete  
78 ARTIFICIAL BREEDING - Breeding which artificially replaces or by-passes one or more steps of natural breeding. A01319. KeepDelete  
79 ASEXUALITY - Long lasting or permanent absence of sexual excitability and sexual activity. A01402. KeepDelete  
80 ASYMMETRIC GAIT - A gait in which the action of one or more legs is not synchronized with that of another leg. Also see specific gaits -CANTER; COUNTER CANTER; DISUNITED CANTER; GALLOP. A01411. KeepDelete  
81 of 107 ASYMMETRY - In a biological context, any incomplete identity between two sides of the body; or differences in levels of activity between pairs of organs located on either side of the body. A01412. KeepDelete  
82 ATTACK - A violent, generally sudden, punishing action by one animal toward another. A01504. KeepDelete  
83 ATTENTION - Adjustment of sense organs and central nervous system to allow for maximal perception of a particular stimulus. Also see specific attention-selective. A01505. KeepDelete  
84 ATTITUDE - The characteristic manner in which an organism tends to react toward another organism. This term also is used to denote body posture or position, particularly in reference to specific situations, (e.g., defensive attitude, forced attitude, stereotyped attitude). A01506. KeepDelete  
85 ATTRACTION - The phenomenon of being stimulated to focus attention on, and in some cases to approach, some object, organism, or action because of its inherent characteristics. Antonym: Repulsion. A01508. KeepDelete  
86 ATTRACTION SIGNAL - Any vocal, visual, olfactory, or other sign, or combination of such signs, broadcast by an organism to attract other organisms into its spatial proximity. A01509. KeepDelete  
87 AUDIBILITY RANGE - The range between the lowest and highest frequency of sound perceivable to an individual, group, or species A01512. KeepDelete  
88 AURICLE - The portion of the external car that surrounds the meatus and extends out from the side of the head. The structure of the auricle is specialized to channel sound waves into the meatus. A01601. KeepDelete  
89 AURICLE REFLEX - Movement of the ears in response to auditory stimuli. A01602. KeepDelete  
90 AUTOCHTHONOUS BEHAVIOR - A term arising out of the concept of action-specific energy. AUTOCHTHONOUS behavior is that which is driven by its own action-specific energy. In this conceptual system vacuum activities could be considered autochthonous behaviors. Compare: Allochthonous Behavior. A01604. KeepDelete  
91 AVERSION - A strong or fixed dislike. Also see specific aversions-SIGNAL; TASTE. A01612. KeepDelete  
92 AVERSIVE STIMULUS - A noxious stimulus that an organism tends to remove or avoid. A01614. KeepDelete  
93 AVOIDANCE - Prevention or neutralization of aversive stimulation by means of nonapproach, escape, appeasement or subordination, or appropriate operant response. A01616. KeepDelete  
94 AWAKE - A state of full consciousness and readiness to perform voluntary activities. Antonym: Sleep. A01701. KeepDelete  
95 BALANCE - Maintenance of an upright posture through appropriate adjustment of muscle tonus. In a more general sense, the term is used to define a state of equilibrium or homeostasis (e.g., nutritional balance, thermal balance). B01711. KeepDelete  
96 BALKING - The refusal of an animal to move from a spot or the disobedience of directive commands from the rider or handler. B01713. KeepDelete  
97 BALLOTADE (horse) - A dressage exercise of the Spanish High Riding School similar to the Croupade except that the hind legs instead of being drawn up below the body are extended backward exposing the hoofs before the horse lands on all four feet simultaneously on the same spot from which it leaped. B01714. KeepDelete  
98 BAR BITING - Stereotyped biting, gnawing, or sliding of the mouth on accessible parts (usually metal bars) of an enclosure. This type of behavior occurs relatively often in swine housed in close confinement, particularly farrowing or gestation crates, or on concrete floors without bedding material and with a concentrated diet. Bar biting is considered to be an indicator of boredom, but since its occurrence is increased prior to farrowing, it also may be a component of vacuum nest building or a displacement activity linked to predelivery discomfort. Also see Cribbing. B01802. KeepDelete  
99 BAND (horse) - A natural group of horses consisting generally of a stallion, several mares, and several sexually immature individuals of various ages. B01801. KeepDelete  
100 BARED TEETH (horse) - Contraction of lips displaying incisor teeth. Bared teeth is a threat signal and is an integral part of aggressive biting. B01803. KeepDelete  
101 BARK (swine) - A short (0.05 - 0.2 sec), sharp vocalization produced with an open mouth as a single sound or a short series of repeated sounds by a surprised pig. The amplitude of a bark is highest at the beginning of the sound and falls sharply thereafter. The pitch is usually between 2 and 3 kHz. Barks appear to be both threat and alarm calls, having a high arousal effect on other pigs, particularly preweaned young. Other animals react to barking with quick orientation, followed by a brief period of immobility and silence. B01805. KeepDelete  
102 BARKER SYNDROME (swine) - A rare respiratory disease of pigs. Behavioral symptoms are difficult breathing, repeated barking sounds, and uncoordinated locomotion. B01806. KeepDelete  
103 BARREN ENVIRONMENT - An environment of very low complexity. B01811. KeepDelete  
104 BARROW - A young castrated male pig. B01813. KeepDelete  
105 BATTERY CAGE - One in a series of identical or similar cages for housing of animals, all equipped with waterers and feeders. Battery cages usually are stacked in several horizontal tiers and most commonly are used for housing of laying hens. The number of hens housed in each cage depends on its size, but generally varies between 3 and 10 birds. B01817. KeepDelete  
106 BAWL (cattle) - A loud vocalization made when cattle are apparently distressed or disturbed. B01901. KeepDelete  
107 BEAK TRIMMING (poultry) - Removal of the distal portion of the beak to curtail injuries due to pecking among birds housed in groups. Since the beak is innervated, the ethical validity of beak trimming has been questioned. B01903. KeepDelete