NCR-131 Animal Care and Behavior EFAB video inclusion selection form #2

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1 of 106BEHAVIOR - The observable action of a living organism, either instigated by the organism or imposed by external circumstances (e.g., contraction of a muscle, locomotion, vocalization, social interaction, movement as a result of being pushed, etc.). Many Behaviors listed. B01909. KeepDelete
2BEHAVIORAL ACTION - Any observable behavioral state or event. In a more specific context, the term refers to operationally intrinsic and simple actions which are an integral part of some more complex behavioral pattern. B02001. KeepDelete  
3BEHAVIORAL ANALYSIS - The process of separation of behavioral activities including to their basic features (e.g., cause, function, or history of acquisition). B02002. KeepDelete  
4BEHAVIORAL CATEGORY - A class of behavioral activities, usually based on some essential or fundamental consideration (e.g., learned or instinctive behavior in a classification according to origin; social or territorial behavior in a functional classification). B02003. KeepDelete  
5BEHAVIORAL INVENTORY A list comprising the range of documented behavioral actions performed by an individual, breed, or species. Compare: Behavioral Repertoire. B02010. KeepDelete  
6BEHAVIORAL REPERTOIRE - The full range of behavioral actions manifested by an individual breed or species. Compare: Behavioral inventory. B02015. KeepDelete  
7BELLOWING (cattle) - A general term for loud, repeated vocalizations of cattle. Bellowing may be an indication of excitement or distress (e.g., when expecting feed or water, when separated from group members, when in estrus) or a warning signal High incidence of bellowing may be associated with nymphomania or disease (e.g., rabies). B02203. KeepDelete  
8BELLY SUCKING - A term applied jointly to navel sucking, prepuce sucking. B02204. KeepDelete  
9BILLING (poultry) - Mutual contact of beaks between two birds, often displayed between monogamous partners. B02212. KeepDelete  
10BILL WIPING - Periodic vigorous lateral movements of the head by which a bird rubs its beak on some object. Bill wiping increases in frequency during or after feeding. B02213. KeepDelete  
11BIRTH - Emergence of an organism from the body of its dam. Also see specific birth - PREMATURE. B02308. KeepDelete  
12BITING - Grasping and applying pressure to an object with the teeth or beak to hold, puncture, or shear it. Biting may occur as a component of ingestive behavior, sexual behavior, or aggressive behavior. Habitual aggressive biting is considered a dangerous vice. Also see specific biting - BAR; EAR. B02310. KeepDelete  
13BLATT (sheep) - A general term for the vocalization of sheep and goats. A medium amplitude sound of variable duration (0.5 - 2.0 sec) produced with the mouth open. This sound is emitted when an animal becomes separated from its herdmates. In the case of dam-offspring separation, the duration of the dam's blatts is longer than usual. It is thought that short blatts aid herd cohesion and loud, repeated blatts indicate distress. B02313. KeepDelete  
14BLOAT - A digestive disorder in ruminant animals characterized by excessive accumulation of gases in the rumen. The term also is used to describe generalized distention of the abdomen. B02403. KeepDelete  
15BLOW (cattle) - Forceful expulsion of air through the nasal cavity and nostrils. It is produced during olfactory investigation with the head extended toward the object being investigated. In a louder version, it is apparently a threat signal directed toward a nearby adversary or other aversive stimulus. B02408. KeepDelete  
16BLOW (horse) - A sound of approximately 0.1 - 0.20 sec duration with a broad frequency range. It is emitted often during investigation and is assumed to indicate anxiety. B02409. KeepDelete  
17BOAR - A sexually mature male pig. B02410. KeepDelete  
18BODY RUBBER - A simple device, usually a suspended bag, chain, line, or post, against which an animal can rub itself. Body rubbers are occasionally equipped for automatic application of pesticides to control ectoparasites. B02412. KeepDelete  
19BOLTING - Swallowing of food with very little or no chewing action. Bolting can cause digestive problems and typically reduces the efficiency of feed conversion. Habitual bolting is considered a dangerous vice. B02413. KeepDelete  
20BOLTING (horse) - Uncontrolled running by the horse which is dangerous to the rider and the horse. B02414. KeepDelete  
21BOSS ANIMAL - "Alpha" animal. (colloquial term) B02501. KeepDelete  
22BOVINE - A cattle-beast or pertaining to cattle. B02504. KeepDelete  
23BOWIE (sheep) - A clinical term for leg deformity in lambs. It may lead to severe lameness and inability to walk. B02506. KeepDelete  
24BRANDING - Marking the surface of an organism's body for the purpose of individual identification by causing a permanent and visible scar to form. The branding destroys melanocytes in the skin and permanently changes the color of hairs growing on the affected areas. B02601. KeepDelete  
25BREAKING-IN (horse) - The first stage of training of a young horse. B02602. KeepDelete  
26BREATHING - See Respiration. B02603. KeepDelete  
27BREECH PRESENTATION - Fetal presentation in which the posterior enters the birth canal with the hind legs directed toward the head of the fetus. B02604. KeepDelete  
28BREEZE (horse) - To run a horse at a moderate speed. B02608. KeepDelete  
29BRIDLING (ducks) - A postcopulatory action pattern of male ducks characterized by periodic pulling of the head and neck towards the hack interspersed with occasional vocalizations. B02609. KeepDelete  
30BROADCAST SIGNAL - A signal that is emitted to convey information to any appropriate individual(s) that may be within range (e.g., crowing by roosters). Compare: Directed Signal. B02613. KeepDelete  
31BROILER - A meat type chicken raised for marketing at an early age (approximately 5 to 7 weeks) B02614. KeepDelete  
32BROKEN MOUTH - A condition occurring when a sheep loses its incisor teeth thus causing difficulties in grazing and feed intake (colloquial term) B02615. KeepDelete  
33BROKEN PENIS - Morphological abnormality of the penis caused by rupture or tearing of its tissues. The damage may occur as a consequence of a sudden rapid movement (e.g., collapse) of the female during copulation, or misdirection of the penis during strong propulsus. B02616. KeepDelete  
34BROODINESS - Maternal tendency of birds to hatch eggs in a nest and raise neonates. B02702. KeepDelete  
35BRUSHING (horse) - Inappropriate movement of the legs causing the median side of the moving hoof to knock against the median side of the opposite leg. B02705. KeepDelete  
36BUCK - A sexually mature male goat, rabbit, or deer. B02707. KeepDelete  
37BUCKING (horse) - The act of leaping with arched hack and lowered head lands on stiff forelegs, attempting to dislodge the rider. B02708. KeepDelete  
38BULL - A sexually mature bovine male. B02711. KeepDelete  
39BULLER-RIDER SYNDROME - Frequent mounting of an animal by its peers. This syndrome develops more frequently when the animals are housed in large groups and/or crowded conditions (e.g., in a feedlot) and, if persistent, may cause the death of the mounted animal. B02712. KeepDelete  
40BULLING (cattle) - Mounting and chin-pressing of peer cows by a cow, usually when the instigator is close to or in estrus (colloquial term) B02714. KeepDelete  
41BUMPING - A traditional technique used to detect pregnancy in cows during the latter stage (last four months) of gestation. It is conducted by placing a hand against the right flank of the abdomen and then applying one or more pushes in an attempt to feel the fetus. The accuracy of this technique increases with advancing stage of pregnancy and experience of the tester. B02716. KeepDelete  
42BUNTING - See Butting. B02801. KeepDelete  
43BUNT ORDER - Social rank order in pigs, sheep, goats, and cattle (colloquial term). B02802. KeepDelete  
44BURROWING - To dig into and make passageways through some material (e.g., a rabbit burrowing through soil or straw). B02803. KeepDelete  
45BUTTING - Hitting an object or another organism with the forehead or horns. Butting is commonly displayed during aggression or as displacement behavior when directed toward some object other than an adversary. A mild butting during nursing (nursing butts) conducted by a suckling offspring is most common in bovines. B02804. KeepDelete  
46CAESAREAN DELIVERY - Surgical removal of a fetus from the uterus usually at the approximate time when parturition would occur normally. C02807. KeepDelete  
47CALF - In some mammalian species (such as cattle, elephants, whales, etc.), an animal before it reaches puberty. C02810. KeepDelete  
48CALL - See specific calls - ABANDONMENT ALARM; DISTRESS; SEPARATION; WARNING. C02811. KeepDelete  
49CALVING (cattle) - Natural parturition in cattle. C02902. KeepDelete  
50CAMPAGNE (horse) - Elementary dressage training, consisting of collection, neck arching, weight shifting on hindlegs, riding in a straight line, turning, and lateral movements C02906. KeepDelete  
51CANINE - A member of the family Canidae, or pertaining to dogs, coyotes, wolves, etc. C02907. KeepDelete  
52CANNIBALISM - The practice of consuming the tissue of conspecifics. This term also is used colloquially for the killing or serious injury of conspecifics by biting or pecking. Compare: Kronism. C02908. KeepDelete  
53CANTER - A naturally developed three-heat gait. The sequence of hoof beats, with the right foreleg as the leading leg, is left hind, right hind together with left fore, then right fore followed by complete suspension in the air. The diagonal pair changes with change of the leading leg. When taking a curve, the leading leg is the one on the inside of the curve. Compare: Disunited Canter; Counter Canter. C02909. KeepDelete  
54CAPON - A castrated male chicken. C02911. KeepDelete  
55CAPRILLIC - Referring to goats, particularly goat odor. C02912. KeepDelete  
56CAPRIOLE (horse) - A dressage exercise of the Spanish High Riding School. The horse leaps into a ballotade, kicks powerfully with both hind legs to reach a horizontal level, then lands on all four hoofs simultaneously near the place the leap was initiated. C02914. KeepDelete  
57CARE-GIVING BEHAVIOR - See Epimeletic Behavior. C02919. KeepDelete  
58CARE-SEEKING BEHAVIOR - See Et-epimeletic Behavior. C02920. KeepDelete  
59CARNIVOROUS - Pertaining to meat-eating species. C02921. KeepDelete  
60CAST - To cause an animal to fall to the ground. Casting can be done physically or with drugs and can be used to restrain animals for certain types of examination or treatment. C03001. KeepDelete  
61CASTRATION - Surgical removal of or rendering nonfunctional an animal's gonads. Also see specific castration-psychological. C03005. KeepDelete  
62CATATONIA - Muscular rigidity that temporarily suppresses locomotion. Organisms in a catatonic state seem to be fully aware of their surroundings and able to visually monitor moving objects. Catatonia is considered the consequence of psychological disorder. C03008. KeepDelete  
63CATTLE - Domesticated bovine animals. C03011. KeepDelete  
64CAUDAL - Pertaining to or located in the direction of the posterior end of an animal's body. C03013. KeepDelete  
65CENTER - The middle point of a body; a conglomerate of integrated neurons that fulfill specific perceptual functions (e.g., auditory, gustatory, olfactory, visual center) or control and coordinate specific activities (e.g., respiratory, thermoregulatory, vocalization, micturition, defecation, vomiting center). C03018. KeepDelete  
66CEPHALO-, CEPHAL- - Pertaining to the head. C03103. KeepDelete  
67CEREMONY - A synchronized display involving two or more individuals characterized by a standardized sequence of behavioral actions. Visual, auditory, and tactile modes of communication usually are part of ceremonies. Compare: Ritualized Behavior C03115. KeepDelete  
68CHAIN REFLEX - An uninterrupted sequence of reflexes activated by a specific stimulus. Each subsequent reflex is induced by its predecessor. C03204. KeepDelete  
69CHAMPING - Repetitious, strong opening and closing action of the mouth which produces sounds when the teeth hit together. Champing in swine may be a threat signal, but also is performed by boars during courtship and mating. C03205. KeepDelete  
70CHANT-DE-COEUR (swine) - See Courtship Grunts. C03207. KeepDelete  
71CHARGING - A threatening lunge toward or attack on a human by an animal. Charging most commonly refers to an aggressive action of a stallion, bull boar, or ram towards an attendant. C03209. KeepDelete  
72CHESTNUT (horse) - A hornlike growth on the medial side of the leg. On the forelegs, chestnuts are located above the knee, on the hind legs, below the hocks. The term chestnut also may refer to horse coat color. C03212. KeepDelete  
73CHEW - To masticate food or other substances. C03213. KeepDelete  
74CHEWING - See specific chewing - HAIR; SHAM. C03214. KeepDelete  
75CHICK - A young chicken. C03216. KeepDelete  
76CHIN PRESSING - Positioning of the chin on the dorsal area of a peer. Chin pressing is performed most frequently by bovine males during precopulatory behavior but also by estrus and periestrous cows. Chin pressing is usually oriented toward the withers and the rump. Chin pressing also may he performed as chin rubbing. C03219. KeepDelete  
77CHIN RUBBING - See Chin Pressing. C03220. KeepDelete  
78CHIRRUP (swine) - A short vocalization sound (0.1 - 0.2 sec) of young piglets characterized by rapidly varying pitch. It occurs during the first two months of life. C03221. KeepDelete  
79CHOICE - Selection from two or more alternatives. C03301. KeepDelete  
80CHOICE POINT - A place in a discrimination apparatus where the organism is expected to choose the direction in which to proceed. C03302. KeepDelete  
81CHUTE - A narrow passage designed to direct and regulate the movement of animals. Chutes are used to facilitate loading, unloading, medical treatment, weighing, inspection of animals, etc. C03315. KeepDelete  
82CIRCADIAN - Referring to cyclic rhythmically corresponding closely to a 24-hour interval. C03318. KeepDelete  
83CIRCLE (horse) - A dressage maneuver in which the horse follows a circle larger than 6 m in diameter. C03401. KeepDelete  
84CIRCLING - Any repeated circular locomotion. Circling may be stereotypic behavior or a symptom of a neural disease (e.g., meningoencephalitis, listeriosis, etc.). Circling can also be induced by conditioning, C03402. KeepDelete  
85CIRCLING DISPLAY - Circular movement of sexual partners in a synchronized head-to-back position; considered to be a courtship activity. C03403. KeepDelete  
86CLINCH POSITION - Body position of two fighting adversaries, characterized by mutual insertion of the head between the hind legs of the opponent. The clinch position occurs more frequently when the duration of the fight is long and is assumed to provide each animal with an opportunity to rest while in partial control of its opponent. C03415. KeepDelete  
87CLINICAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior indicative of disease or injury. C03417. KeepDelete  
88CLIQUE - A group within a group that operates as a cooperative unit to gain specific advantages for its members. The formation and exploitation of clique affiliation is occasionally called "pactive behavior." C03418. KeepDelete  
89CLONUS - Rapid, successive contraction and relaxation of muscles. C03420. KeepDelete  
90CLUTCH - A set of eggs laid on consecutive days. C03502. KeepDelete  
91COAT MOUTHING - See Hair Chewing. C03505. KeepDelete  
92COCK - A male chicken more than one year old. Synonym: Rooster. C03508. KeepDelete  
93COCKEREL - A male chicken less than one year old. C03509. KeepDelete  
94COGNITION - A process of perception, reasoning, and development of expectations. C03510. KeepDelete  
95COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior that results from a process of reasoning. C03511. KeepDelete  
96COITAL LOCK - Powerful contraction of the vulva around the bulb of an inserted penis which temporarily prevents separation of copulating partners. Coital lock is common in copulating dogs. C03515. KeepDelete  
97COITUS - Intromission of the penis into the vagina and per vaginal connection between male and female. Coitus facilitates natural transfer of ejaculated semen from the male reproductive tract to the female reproductive tract. C03516. KeepDelete  
98COITUS INCOMPLETE, COITUS INTERRUPTUS - Coitus which is terminated before semen ejaculation. C03517. KeepDelete  
99COLT - A young male horse. C03610. KeepDelete  
100COMFORT BEHAVIOR - See Comfort Movement. C03615. KeepDelete  
101COMFORT MOVEMENT - Any movement performed to temporarily relieve muscular tension or integumentary irritation (e.g., grooming, preening, scratching, wing flapping, shaking, stretching, etc.). C03616. KeepDelete  
102COMPENSATION - Counterbalancing of a defect in body structure or in surroundings by behavioral adjustment or alternate behavior. C03704. KeepDelete  
103COMPETITIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior manifested to render an animal effective, relative to other animals, in the acquisition of some resource (e.g., aggression, mating calls and displays, foraging strategy, territoriality). C03706. KeepDelete  
104COMPROMISE BEHAVIOR - Behavior that is expressive of motivational conflict. The animal may manifest actions simultaneously that are indicative of different motivations, or may alternate quickly between actions consistent with different motivations. C03714. KeepDelete  
105COMPULSION - An irresistible impulse or tendency to perform an act. C03715. KeepDelete  
106COMPULSIVE MOVEMENT - A clinical term for stereotypic behavior, e.g. circling, body twisting, pressing against a wall or pulling on a halter. C03716. KeepDelete