NCR-131 Animal Care and Behavior EFAB video inclusion selection form # 3

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1 of 107COMPULSIVE ROLLING - Serious disturbance of postural reflexes characterized by excessive wallowing on the ground and difficulty or inability to stand up. Compulsive rolling is an indicator of brain damage. C03717. KeepDelete
2CONCILIATORY BEHAVIOR - Behavior directed toward other organisms that tends to promote favorable social relationships. Subordination signals, greeting signals, and appeasement signals are the most common displays of greeting signals, and appeasement signals are the most common displays of conciliatory behavior. C03805. KeepDelete  
3CONFLICT - A psychological state which occurs when an animal is simultaneously motivated to manifest two or more mutually incompatible responses (e.g., approach-approach conflict, when the organism has to make a choice between two or more attractive stimuli; approach-avoidance conflict when the organism is in a situation where attraction and aversion are inseparably linked with the stimulus; avoidance-avoidance conflict, when the organism has to make a choice between two or more aversive stimuli). Compromise or displacement behavior may occur when the conflicting motivations are equal in strength. C03906. KeepDelete  
4CONGENITAL - Acquired during development prior to birth or hatching. C03908. KeepDelete  
5CONNATE - Appearing at birth or shortly thereafter C03910. KeepDelete  
6CONSPECIFIC - Pertaining to individuals belonging to the same species. C04004. KeepDelete  
7CONSUMMATORY ACT - An act by which an organism satisfies its interests. C04007. KeepDelete  
8CONSUMMATORY BEHAVIOR - Behavior consisting of consummatory responses manifested during the consummatory phase of an operant behavioral cycle. C04008. KeepDelete  
9CONTACTUAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior characterized by bodily contact. C04014. KeepDelete  
10CONTAGIOUS BEHAVIOR - See Allelomimetic Behavior. C04015. KeepDelete  
11CONVULSION - Violent muscular contractions affecting all or part of the body. Convulsions may be a symptom of encephalomyelitis, brain edema, tumor, epilepsy, lesion, or parasitic injury to the nervous system, or may be associated with hysteria, high fever, or parturition. C04108. KeepDelete  
12COOPERATIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior by which two or more organisms work together to achieve a goal (e.g., coordination of behavior during mating, territorial defense, or feeding of offspring). C04111. KeepDelete  
13COPULATION - See Coitus. C04116. KeepDelete  
14COPULATION, FORCED - See Forced Copulation. C04117. KeepDelete  
15COPULATORY BEHAVIOR - Behavioral actions directly involved in copulation. These include cooperative posture of a female and mounting, intromission, thrusting, ejaculation and dismounting of a male. Copulatory behavior is preceded by precopulatory behavior (e.g., search for sexual partner, courtship) and followed by postcopulatory behavior (e.g., grooming, resting,etc.). C04118. KeepDelete  
16CORNERING - A behavioral phenomenon in which an organism cannot escape a threatening adversary without instigating an attack on the adversary. C04202. KeepDelete  
17COSSET - A lamb raised without its dam. C04212. KeepDelete  
18CORNEAL REFLEX - Rapid closure of the eyelids when the cornea is irritated. Also called blink reflex or lid reflex. C04201. KeepDelete  
19COUGH REFLEX - A reflex mediated by the medulla oblongata through the vagus nerve, instigated by the presence of obstructing matter in, or irritation of, the respiratory pathways. Coughing is performed as one or several relatively powerful bursts of air expelled from the respiratory tract to remove the obstruction or alleviate the irritation. Repeated coughing when not engaged in eating may be an indication of respiratory disease. C04303. KeepDelete  
20COUNTER CANTER (horse) - The counter canter occurs when the horse takes a right curve with the left foreleg being the leading leg, or vice versa. Compare: Canter. C04304. KeepDelete  
21COUPLING (swine) - A term referring to mating in swine. C04306. KeepDelete  
22COURBETTE (horse) - A dressage exercise of the Spanish High Riding School in which the horse makes several forward leaps in the Pessage posture. C04307. KeepDelete  
23COURTSHIP - Specialized behavior patterns that occur as preliminaries to mating and contribute to the psychophysiological synchronization of breeding partners C04308. KeepDelete  
24COURTSHIP GRUNTS (swine) - Low frequency rhythmical sounds produced by mature boars when exposed to gilts or sows. Synonym: Chant-de-coeur. C04310. KeepDelete  
2525COVERING - Mating in horses. (colloquial term) C04311. KeepDelete  
26COW - A bovine female after delivery of her first calf. C04312. KeepDelete  
27COYNESS - A ritualized short distance fight of females manifested as Part of precopulatory displays and which generally stimulates a following response by males. C04313. KeepDelete  
28CRATE - A housing compartment that permits lying down and standing up but prevents the animal from turning around or leaving the crate. As a housing system, crates presently are used mainly in swine production units during overlying of piglets (farrowing crates). Crates are also used to house veal calves (veal crate), and for examination, weighing, and transportation of animals. C04402. KeepDelete  
29CRECHE - An aggregation of juvenile animals, typically birds, that have left their parental nests and band together. C04405. KeepDelete  
30CRIBBING - Frequent biting on boards, pipes, and other structural materials used for confinement of animals, assumed to be indicative of boredom, pain, or nutritional deficiency. In horses, the term cribbing also refers to swallowing of air through the open mouth when biting on an object (also called crib biting or wind sucking). C04410. KeepDelete  
31CROSS-FIRING (horse) - Defective leg action occurring in pacers when the hoof of the hind-leg hits the fore-leg on the opposite side of the body C04503. KeepDelete  
32CROSS-SUCKING - Sucking performed by young, preweaned mammals but directed towards the mammary of lactating female other than their own dam. C04505. KeepDelete  
33CROUCHING - Lowering of the body by bending the legs. C04506. KeepDelete  
34CROUCH, SEXUAL - See Sexual Crouch. C04507. KeepDelete  
35CROUPADE (horse) - A dressage exercise of the Spanish High Riding School Performed as a vertical leap from the Pessage position. While off the ground, the horse folds its forelegs and draws up its hind legs before landing simultaneously on all fours at the same spot from which it leaped. C04508. KeepDelete  
36CROUP PRESENTATION - Fetal presentation when the posterior Part of the body enters the birth canal while all legs are folded below the body of the fetus. C04509. KeepDelete  
37CROWDING - An unusually high spatial density of animals which may cause discomfort to some or all animals in the group, but not serious deprivation or injury. Reduced individual distance zones, for the most Part, still can he maintained, and all animals are able to rest at the same rime, stand up and lie down freely, extend their limbs without interference, and have adequate opportunity for eating and drinking. Compare: Overcrowding. C04510. KeepDelete  
38CROWING (chicken) - A type of vocalization produced by males which has frequency oscillations of relatively wide amplitude, distinct breaks and a duration of approximately two seconds. It is assumed that crowing has a territorial and sexual function, and its frequency of occurrence bears a positive relation to social status in the flock. Crowing commences after six weeks of age. C04512. KeepDelete  
39CRURAL - Pertaining to the leg or thigh C04513. KeepDelete  
40CRYPTIC BEHAVIOR - Any behavior that appears to be performed for the purpose of minimizing conspicuousness of an organism. C04514. KeepDelete  
41CRYPTORCHID - A male whose testes fail to descend into the scrotum. C04516. KeepDelete  
42CUD - A bolus of regurgitated feed to be remasticated and swallowed again. C04517. KeepDelete  
43CUD-DROPPING - Tendency to drop regurgitated feed from the mouth. Cud-dropping is one of the behavioral symptoms of pharyngeal paralysis. C04519. KeepDelete  
44CURIOSITY - A tendency to approach and investigate novel stimuli or situations and become familiar with their attributes or implications. C04603. KeepDelete  
45CURLED TONGUE (turkey) - Deformity of the tongue in young poults that causes feeding difficulties C04604. KeepDelete  
46CYCLICAL NURSING - Nursing conducted at a regular time interval. C04608. KeepDelete  
47DAM - The female parent. D04610. KeepDelete  
48DEBEAKING (poultry) - Beak trimming (colloquial term) D04706. KeepDelete  
49DECLAWING - Surgical removal of claws from the feet of birds, cats, and dogs, to prevent scratching and injuring others. D04710. KeepDelete  
50DEFECATION - Elimination of feces from the body. During defecation, healthy animals raise the tail head and may also move the tail slightly to one side. Horses, cattle, sheep and goats may defecate in a stationary position or while walking. Swine normally remain stationary and tend to deposit feces ill specific areas of a pen, such as in a comer, in a place where feces already have been deposited or in wet areas. D04715. KeepDelete  
51DEFENSIVE AGGRESSION - Aggression by a victim or potential victim directed toward an instigator or perceived instigator of an aggressive interaction. Defensive aggression characteristically is manifested to prevent or reduce some annoyance or loss . D04717. KeepDelete  
52DEFENSIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior performed to prevent or neutralize a real or perceived aversive stimulus. According to the circumstances, such behavior may encompass aggression, avoidance, or signs of appeasement and subordination. D04801. KeepDelete  
53DEHORNING - Surgical removal of horns or any treatment which prevents the development of horns in farm animals. D04809. KeepDelete  
54DEPRESSION - In a behavioral sense, a state of severe emotional dejection characterized by various behavioral disorders. Also see specific depressions - AGITATED; ENZOOTIC; STUPOROUS. D04910. KeepDelete  
55DESIRE - Motivation of an organism to acquire, control, or experience some feature of its environment (e.g., water, feed, space, social contact, escape from aversive stimuli, etc.). Desires are interpreted operationally from observed behavior and may, in turn, be indications of underlying needs. Compare: Need. D04913. KeepDelete  
56DESNOODING (turkey) - Surgical removal of the snood in neonatal poults. Such a treatment is performed to reduce subsequent incidence of cannibalism. D04914. KeepDelete  
57DETRACTION - In a strict behavioral sense, lowering attention or concentration without shifting the point of focus. D05005. KeepDelete  
58DEWATTLING (poultry) - Surgical removal of a fowl's wattles. D05007. KeepDelete  
59DEXTRAL - Pertaining to the right side of the body. Antonym: Sinistral. D05008. KeepDelete  
60DIAGONAL GAIT - A gait in which the diagonal legs move at the same time (e.g., trot). D05010. KeepDelete  
61DIESTRUS - A relatively short period of sexual inactivity between two estrus cycles in polyestrous animals. D05015. KeepDelete  
62DIGGING - See Excavation. D05101. KeepDelete  
63DIRECT REFLEX - A type of reflex in which the receptor and effector are Located on the same side of the body. D05112. KeepDelete  
64DISHING (horse) - Defective leg action when the leg is thrown inward during the extension phase D05207. KeepDelete  
65DISINHIBITION - Reoccurrence of suppressed response to the original eliciting stimulus due to motivational interference of another, previously irrelevant stimulus. D05209. KeepDelete  
66DISPLACEMENT - Behavior that is seemingly irrelevant to the situation being to perform actions appropriate to the circumstances, or when it apparently to perform actions appropriate to the circumstances, or when it apparently experiences conflict among motivations for different actions. It is also postulated that displacement involves motivational disinhibition. D05214. KeepDelete  
67DISPLAY - See specific display - BEHAVIORAL; CONFLICT THEORY OF; DIVERSIONARY D05215. KeepDelete  
68DISTAL - Remote or farther from a point of reference. In an anatomical sense, the point of reference might be the central part of an animal's body Antonym: Proximal. D05302. KeepDelete  
69DISTRESS - An emotional state of an organism resulting from excessive fear, loss of companion or object with which it has a strong psychological bond, physical discomfort, food or water deprivation, pain etc. Compare: Suffering. D05310. KeepDelete  
70DISUNITED CANTER (horse) - A three-beat gait which differs from the normal canter in the second beat when the movement of the legs is synchronized laterally rather than diagonally. Compare: Canter. D05315. KeepDelete  
71DIURESIS - Increased formation of urine. D05316. KeepDelete  
72DOCILE - Obedient or submissive. D05406. KeepDelete  
73DOCKING - Partial or complete amputation of the tail. D05407. KeepDelete  
74DOE - A female goat, deer, or rabbit after delivery of its first offspring. D05409. KeepDelete  
75DOG-SITTING POSITION - Resting on the caudal part of the body observed in pigs, cattle, and horses. It is often, but not always, indicative of disease (e.g., partial paralysis due to a vitamin or mineral deficiency, abdominal pain, etc.). D05411. KeepDelete  
76DOG-SITTING PRESENTATION - Fetal presentation when all four limbs and the nose enter the birth canal concurrently. D05412. KeepDelete  
77DOMINANCE - See Social Dominance. D05417. KeepDelete  
78DOMINANT ACTIVITY - A behavioral action which in motivational competition superimposes alternative action. The dominant action controls the expression of these alternative actions through inhibition or disinhibition. D05505. KeepDelete  
79DORSAL - Pertaining to, or in the direction of, the dorsum (back) of an organ. D05508. KeepDelete  
80DORSIFLEXION - Bending upward toward the dorsum (or forward in leg motion). D05510. KeepDelete  
81DRAKE - A sexually mature male duck. D05601. KeepDelete  
82DRESSAGE (horse) - A set of standardized exercises developed through a training program which stresses locomotory coordination of the horse, as well harmony between horse and rider. Also see Piaffe; Pirouette; Travers. D05604. KeepDelete  
83DRINKING - Voluntary oral ingestion of liquids. D05607. KeepDelete  
84DROP, LEG - See Leg Drop. D05610. KeepDelete  
85DROPPED ELBOW - Radial paralysis. (colloquial term) D05611. KeepDelete  
86DROWSING - Being in a somnolent state characterized by reduced attention, eye closure, muscular relaxation, and immobility. D05612. KeepDelete  
87DRUMMING - A rapid series of repeated nonvocal sounds. Geese may produce such sounds by vigorous flapping of the wings. D05613. KeepDelete  
88DUBBING (poultry) - Trimming of the comb. Such a treatment is performed, generally on neonatal birds, to reduce subsequent incidence of cannibalism and comb injuries. D05617. KeepDelete  
89DUCK - A mature female duck. D05618. KeepDelete  
90DUCKLING - A young duck D05619. KeepDelete  
91DUMMY SYNDROME - A clinical term occasionally used to refer to decreased or diminished awareness of an obstruction in the path of movement. D05621. KeepDelete  
92DUST-BATHING (chicken) - A behavior pattern that is a component of integumentary care characterized by lying on the side and making a small depression in the floor surface while head rubbing, bill raking, wing shaking, and scratching on the floor. During dust bathing, birds throw particles of floor material over their bodies and the surrounding area. The dust bathing event ends with ruffling and preening. Synonym: Sand bathing, Litter bathing. Also see specific dust bathing - SHAM. D05622. KeepDelete  
93EAR BITING - Biting or chewing on the ears of other animals. It occurs most frequently in early-weaned, trough- or bucket-fed young mammals, particularly calves and piglets. Ear biting can be substantially reduced if the young animals are fed through artificial nipples. Ear biting may lead to serious injury of the victim's ear(s). E05711. KeepDelete  
94EAR FLAPPING - Rapid rotatory oscillation of the head causing the ears to flap and strike against the face. Ear flapping is relatively common in swine, and it is conjectured to be a display of mild excitement, a threat signal, or a response to irritation of the ear caused by parasites or specific sounds. E05802. KeepDelete  
95EAR FLICKING - Quick, light movements of one or both ears. E05803. KeepDelete  
96EARS, RETRACTED (horse) - See Retracted Ears. E05805. KeepDelete  
97EAR SUCKING - Sucking of the ears of littermates or conspecifics. Ear sucking occurs frequently in early-weaned, trough- or bucket-fed piglets or calves, or piglets of hypogalactic dams. It may cause lesions of the ear and in crowded pens may lead to serious abscesses. E05806. KeepDelete  
98EATING - Voluntary oral ingestion of solids and semi-solids. E05807. KeepDelete  
99EATING, EGG - See Egg Eating. E05808. KeepDelete  
100ECHOPRAXIA - Imitation of the movement of another organism. E05811. KeepDelete  
101EGG BEATER (horse) - A horse having very light and coordinated leg action. (colloquial term) E05903. KeepDelete  
102EGG EATING (poultry) - A vice characterized by penetration of the egg shell by pecking and partial consumption of the egg content. E05904. KeepDelete  
103EGG LAYING (poultry) - See Oviposition. E05905. KeepDelete  
104EGG ROLLING (poultry) - Retrieval of eggs to the nest or periodic movement of incubating eggs in the nest by breeding birds. E05906. KeepDelete  
105EJACULATION - A sudden discharge, commonly referring to the expulsion of semen during male orgasm. Also see specific ejaculation - PREMATURE. E05909. KeepDelete  
106ELBOW, DROPPED - See Dropped Elbow. E05914. KeepDelete  
107ELECTROEJACULATION - Any ejaculation artificially induced by electrical stimulation. Electroejaculation is occasionally used for the purpose of semen collection. E05916. KeepDelete