NCR-131 Animal Care and Behavior EFAB video inclusion selection form #5

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1 of 106GASPING TURKEY SYNDROME - Gasping accompanied by spreading of wings and often unsteady gait, occurring most commonly in heavy turkeys after 10 weeks of age. Turkeys predisposed to gasping appear to have lowered tolerance to excitement and exercise and are prone to sudden death when moved or during handling and semen collection. G07701. KeepDelete
2GATE, TEXAS - See Texas Gate. G07702. KeepDelete  
3GATHERING AREA - A location where animals frequently aggregate, usually near water sources, feeders, shelters, or gates. Gathering sites are easily recognizable by damaged vegetation, trampled ground and accumulations of excreta. The term also is used to refer to locations within animal holding facilities designed to collect groups of animals. G07703. KeepDelete  
4GELDING - A castrated male horse. G07704. KeepDelete  
5GENITAL - Of or pertaining to the organs of reproduction G07804. KeepDelete  
6GEOPHAGIA - Eating soil or earthy substances. G07807. KeepDelete  
7GESTURE - A movement or expression displayed for the purpose of visual communication. G07815. KeepDelete  
8GETAWAY CAGE - A cage for laying hens, designed to provide higher environmental complexity than battery cages. In addition to water and feeder, these cages also have a nesting box, sand-bathing box, and roosts. G07806. KeepDelete  
9GILT - A young female swine up to the time of first farrowing. G07817. KeepDelete  
10GNAWING, WOOD - See Wood Gnawing. G07902. KeepDelete  
11GOBBLING (turkey) - Vocalization of mature male turkeys, produced usually as a series of 3 - 7 sounds, accompanied in most cases by moderate head movements. G07904. KeepDelete  
12GOOSE-STEPPING (swine) - Unusually high action of the legs accompanied by slower locomotion; it may he a symptom of deficiency of pantothenic acid. G07908. KeepDelete  
13GOSLING - A young goose prior to sexual maturation. G07909. KeepDelete  
14GRASPING REFLEX - Reflexive holding onto an object. Reflexive grasping of the body of the mother is very common in neonates. Grasping also occurs in adults during copulation. G07912. KeepDelete  
15GRAVID - Referring to a female carrying an embryo or fetus; pregnant. G07913. KeepDelete  
16GRAZING - The act of consuming standing vegetation. G07914. KeepDelete  
17GREETING SIGNAL - Any auditory, visual, tactile, or other sign, or combination of such signs, displayed by an organism upon becoming aware of the presence of another organism and indicating acknowledgment of its presence and friendly intention toward it. G07917. KeepDelete  
18GREGARIOUS - Referring to an individual that characteristically lives in association with conspecifics in a group, herd, or flock. The same term may be applied in a general sense to a species whose individuals are typically gregarious. Antonym: Solitary. G08001. KeepDelete  
19GROAN (horse) - A vocalization of approximately 0.5 second duration, having a broad sound frequency range. It is assumed to be indicative of discomfort and frustration. G08002. KeepDelete  
20GROAN (sheep) - A low amplitude sound of intermediate duration (0.5 - 1.2 sec) produced with a slightly open mouth. Groans are characteristically emitted by animals that are ill, those apparently suffering from pain, or occasionally by healthy animals adjusting posture when recumbent. G08003. KeepDelete  
21GROOMING - An act of integumentary care (e.g., licking, scratching) to remove parasites, smooth ruffled fur, remove dirt, etc. Grooming is subdivided into self-grooming (an animal grooming itself) and allogrooming (an animal grooming another animal). Grooming may also have a social function, appearing as conciliatory behavior (a subordinate animal grooms a dominant animal), reciprocal altruism (animals groom each other), or ritualized behavior performed during courtship or conflict. G08004. KeepDelete  
22GROUND-SCRATCHING (poultry) - A sequence of rapid foot movements performed to manipulate the ground surface. It occurs frequently during food gathering and to a lesser degree in frustrating situations. G08007. KeepDelete  
23GROUP - A collection of animals. Generally the term is applied to situations in which the animals are of the same species and the composition of the group is relatively stable over time. Also see specific group -HETEROGENEOUS; HOMOGENEOUS. G08008. KeepDelete  
24GROUP DISTANCE ZONE - An area surrounding a group of organisms defined by the distance the group seeks to maintain between itself and other groups. The size of this zone depends on circumstances existing at a given time, such as population density, group size, season, availability of feed resources. This term generally is used in the context of nonspecific social interactions. Compare: Individual Distance Zone. G08011. KeepDelete  
2525GROUPING - The formation of a group of animals by natural means (e.g., herd formation as a result of social attraction) or by human action, (e.g., allocation of a number of animals to a given pen or grouping of dairy cows according to milking performance). G08102. KeepDelete  
26GROUP SIZE DEPENDENCE - A phenomenon in which the expression of a behavior is affected by the number of animals in a group (e.g., time necessary to establish a social hierarchy). Compare: Density Dependence. G08104. KeepDelete  
27GRUNT (sheep) - A low amplitude sound of short duration (0.3~0.75 sec) produced with a closed or slightly open mouth. It is emitted during re-establishment of contact between peers and is indicative of greeting. G08109. KeepDelete  
28GRUNT (swine) - The most common vocalization of mature swine produced as a sound of low to medium amplitude. Grunting may consist of single grunts, but more commonly occurs as a series of repeated sounds produced with mouth closed or only slightly open. The pitch of grunts is usually between 1 and 4 kHz. According to the duration of individual sounds they can be subdivided into short, medium, or long grunts. Short grunts (0.1 - 0.2 sec) appear to be a sign of mild excitement and often are produced when a pig is frustrated or greeting another individual. Mid-length grunts (0.2 - 0.4 sec) are often produced during interactions with familiar peers and also during the milk ejection phase of a normal nursing cycle of a sow. Long grunts (0.4 - 1.2 sec) are produced in response to tactile stimulation such as occurs during courtship and the nursing cycle (particularly the nosing and slow suckling phases). Also see specific grunt - COURTSHIP; NURSING. G08110. KeepDelete  
29GUARDING (cattle) - The maintenance of close proximity by a bull to a cow in proestrus and estrus. G08111. KeepDelete  
30GYMKHANA (horse) - Popular horseback games consisting of a combination of barrel racing, polebending, keyhole race, and stake. G08201. KeepDelete  
31GYNADOMORPH - An organism that possesses both male and female characteristics. G08202. KeepDelete  
32HABIT - A persistent pattern of behavior. H08203. KeepDelete  
33HABIT BREAKING - A conditioning process focusing on extinction of habitual forms of behavior. H08205. KeepDelete  
34HAIRBALL - A ball of hair in the digestive tract, developed most frequently in bovines as a consequence of excessive integumentary licking. H08208. KeepDelete  
35HAIR CHEWING - Chewing or nibbling on the pelage of conspecifics. It occurs in animals of all ages in free stalls or tie stalls, particularly if the animals are fed high concentrate diets. H08210. KeepDelete  
36HALF-PASS (horse) - A dressage maneuver in which the horse moves on a 45 degree angle from its median lane. Half-pass is principally a Traverse executed in a semi-lateral direction. H08211. KeepDelete  
37HALT (horse) - A dressage position in which the horse stands motionless with apparently equal distribution of weight on all four legs. The neck is raised with the front of the head close to vertical and the ears indicating attention. H08214. KeepDelete  
38HALTER - A device made of leather straps or rope that closely fits the shape of an animal's head and commonly is used to tie and handle large farm animals. H08301. KeepDelete  
39HALTER-PULLING (horse) - An action in which a tethered horse pulls backward powerfully on its halter. The horse may have it's hindhooves slip, causing it to fall and roll, or if the halter breaks, the horse may tumble backward and risk injury. Halter-pulling may become habitual in some horses and is considered a dangerous vice. H08303. KeepDelete  
40HALTER SLIPPING - Intentional escape from a halter restraint. Some animals become skilled at halter slipping. To prevent this behavior, once it becomes a habit, specially designed haIters must be used. H08302. KeepDelete  
41HAND BREEDING - Human-controlled and time-limited pairing of sexual partners for the purpose of mating. H08304. KeepDelete  
42HAPTOMETER - An instrument for measuring touch sensitivity. H08309. KeepDelete  
43HARASSMENT - Persistent, intentional disturbance of an individual by another individual or group. H08310. KeepDelete  
44HAREM - A group of sexually mature females dominated by and mating with one male. H08311. KeepDelete  
45HATCHING - The process whereby an organism emerges from the egg laid by its dam. H08314. KeepDelete  
46HAUTE ECOLE (horse) - Advanced dressage focusing on refined execution of required movements. H08316. KeepDelete  
47HEAD DIPPING - A period of rhythmical submergings of the head and part of the neck in water, manifested by some waterfowl during courtship. H08317. KeepDelete  
48HEAD JERKING - Voluntarily controlled short, quick, single movements of the head H08401. KeepDelete  
49HEAD NYSTAGMUS - Oscillatory head movement that occurs after the body of an animal has been subjected to rotation. H08402. KeepDelete  
50HEAD PRESSING - Extended and repeated leaning forward and pushing of the head against a wall, fence post, or other fixed objects. Head pressing commonly is a symptom of brain damage (due to, e.g., encephalomyelitis, hepatic encephalopathy or elevated intracranial pressure). H08403. KeepDelete  
51HEAD SCRATCHING - A comfort movement oriented toward the head area. Generally it is a response to skin irritation or a symptom of mild excitement. H08405. KeepDelete  
52HEAD SHAKING (poultry) - A rapid series of side-to-side nicking movements of the head H08406. KeepDelete  
53HEAD-SHY (horse) - Refers to a horse that resists close approach to its head or having a bridle put on its head. H08407. KeepDelete  
54HEAD TOSSING - A vigorous and often repetitive vertical movement of the head. Head tossing often can be observed in horses under saddle or in unfamiliar environments. It is thought to be a sign of mild excitement or improperly fitting equipment H08408. KeepDelete  
55HEART RATE - The number of contractions of the heart muscle in a given time, commonly one minute. H08411. KeepDelete  
56HEAT - A sensation resulting from simultaneous stimulation of thermal receptors in the skin. Colloquially, the word heat refers to estrus. H08412. KeepDelete  
57HEAT, STANDING - See True Estrus H08413. KeepDelete  
58HEAT DETECTOR - See Estrus Detector. H08414. KeepDelete  
59HEIFER - A female bovine younger than 3 years that has not delivered a calf. H08419. KeepDelete  
60HELPLESSNESS, LEARNED - See Learned Helplessness H08421. KeepDelete  
61HEN - A sexually mature female turkey or chicken. H08505. KeepDelete  
62HERD - A socially coordinated group of ungulates. In an agricultural sense, a herd is a group of horses, cattle, goats, or swine considered as one managerial unit. H08509. KeepDelete  
63HERDING - The formation and maintenance of socially coordinated groups by mammals. Compare: Aggregation. H08510. KeepDelete  
64HERDING POSTURE - A stance adopted by stallions manifested as a lowered head and neck with ears laid back. It often is performed when the stallion drives females from one place to another. Rams and bucks may perform a similar behavior pattern but in a less elaborated form and less frequently. H08511. KeepDelete  
65HERMAPHRODITISM - The presence of male and female sexual organs in the same organism. H08516. KeepDelete  
66HETEROSEXUALITY - Sexual attraction to individuals of the opposite sex H08522. KeepDelete  
67HIDDEN TESTES - See Cryptorchid. H08603. KeepDelete  
68HIDE - To engage in cryptic behavior. H08604. KeepDelete  
69HIDROSIS - Extreme sweating. H08605. KeepDelete  
70HIERARCHY - See specific hierarchy - COMPLEX; LINEAR; LINEAR-TENDING; SOCIAL. H08606. KeepDelete  
71HIERARCHY LOOP - Any nonlinearity in a dominance-subordinance ranking scale. This may occur in groups of three or more animals (e.g., animal one dominates animal two, animal two dominates animal three, but animal three dominates animal one). H08607. KeepDelete  
72HIGH-GAITED (horse) - Referring to leg action in which there is high raising of the hooves from the ground and great flexion of the hocks. H08608. KeepDelete  
73HIGH-STEPPING (chicken) - A postural display of males characterized by semicircular movement performed with high, slow steps around an opponent. The bird holds its head and tail high, thrusts out its chest and slightly trails its wings. High-stepping is a threat signal. H08610. KeepDelete  
74HINNY - Offspring of a stallion and a jenny. H08613. KeepDelete  
75HISSING (geese) - A sibilant sound, up to several seconds long, produced as a threat signal by geese. This term also refers to similar activities in other species such as cats and some reptiles. H08614. KeepDelete  
76HOARDING - The storage of food or other materials in a cache(s) located within an animal's home range. H08618. KeepDelete  
77HOBBLE - Any leather band or rope placed around an animal's leg(s) to restrain it. H08619. KeepDelete  
78HOBBLES - See specific hobbles - BREEDING; MILKING. H08620. KeepDelete  
79HOCK TWITCH (cattle) - A flexible loop placed above the hock. When tightened with a short stick, the loop compresses the Achilles tendon and prevents kicking. H08701. KeepDelete  
80HOGGET - A young sheep from weaning to first shearing. H08703. KeepDelete  
81HOME RANGE - A locality where an individual(s) conducts all its principal activities. H08708. KeepDelete  
82HOMOLOGOUS BEHAVIOR - Behavior in different species that is similar in form, but not necessarily in function. The behavior is similar as a result of the species' common phylogenetic origin. Compare: Analogous Behavior. H08712. KeepDelete  
83HOMOSEXUALITY - Sexual attraction for individuals of the same sex. H08713. KeepDelete  
84HONKING (geese) - One of the vocalizations of geese, consisting of rhythmical loud sounds. Honking is typically produced when geese are flying or excited. H08716. KeepDelete  
85HOOF RUBBING (horse) - Chafing of the crown of one hindleg by habitual resting of the hoof of the other hindleg on it. This may lead to leg injury, particularly if the horse wears shoes that have sharp edges. H08801. KeepDelete  
86HORNING (cattle) - Digging or churning the ground using the horns or forehead. This type of behavior is generally displayed by males and is assumed to be a sign of excitement and a warning signal. H08804. KeepDelete  
87HORSE LAUGH - Lip-curling (Flehmen) in horses. (colloquial term) H08805. KeepDelete  
88HOT WALKER - A person or mechanical device that leads horses in a circle at a slow walk to cool them after training. H08806. KeepDelete  
89HUDDLING - Maintaining close bodily contact with other members of a group. The term huddling is used for situations in which the bodily contact is initiated voluntarily by the individuals involved. H08808. KeepDelete  
90HUNGER - An uncomfortable sensation induced by fasting. Hunger generally is associated with increased appetite for food, provided the duration of fasting has not resulted in lethargy. H08812. KeepDelete  
91HUNTER (horse) - A horse trained, exhibited, or competing in the maintenance of an even hunter pace and good jumping style. Hunters are judged working natural obstacles such as hedges, stone walls, and board fences that are 1.0 - 1.5 m high. H08814. KeepDelete  
92HYBRIDIZATION - Sexual reproduction in which gametes originate from animals of different species. H08817. KeepDelete  
93HYSTERIA - A state characterized by extensive use of defense mechanisms and by a variety of symptoms associated with high levels of fear, anxiety, restlessness, and general irritability. H09111. KeepDelete  
94IDLING - Being stationary for extended periods of time while apparently not engaged in any other activity, such as rumination or sleep. Idling occurs predominantly in environments where an animal has relatively limited opportunity or stimulation to perform diverse behavioral activities and may be difficult to distinguish from resting, except that it is performed for more time than is actually required for resting. I09206. KeepDelete  
95ILLUSION - An object hypothesis that distinctly misrepresents reality. Illusions may involve different sense modes (e.g., optical, motion, temperature, taste, or auditory illusions). Also see specific illusion - OPTICAL; MOTION; VISUAL I09207. KeepDelete  
96IMITATIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior of an organism that mimics that of other organisms. I09209. KeepDelete  
97IMMOBILITY - Lack of movement. Also see specific immobility - TONIC. I09210. KeepDelete  
98IMMOBILIZE - To render incapable of movement using physical restraint or an immobilizing agent, e.g. etorphine. I09211. KeepDelete  
99IMPRINTING - Rapid learning to identify, approach, and follow some object (typically a parent). Imprinting occurs in some animal species during a critical period of development early in life and is strongly genetically predisposed. I09216. KeepDelete  
100INAPPETENCE - Failure to manifest the appetitive and consummatory phases of a behavioral cycle. The term generally is used in reference to food. I09304. KeepDelete  
101INATTENTION - Lack of attention or a state of unselective attention I09305. KeepDelete  
102INBORN - Present in the organism at birth. Synonym: Innate. I09306. KeepDelete  
103IN CALF (cattle) - Referring to a pregnant cow (colloquial term) I09308. KeepDelete  
104INCIDENTAL LEARNING - Learning that occurs without a detectable learning process or without ascertainable motivation. I09310. KeepDelete  
105INCIDENTAL REINFORCEMENT - Reinforcement that occurs unpredictably and rarely and is unplanned. Also called accidental reinforcement or spurious reinforcement. I09311. KeepDelete  
106INCITEMENT - A phenomenon in which an organism causes another to instigate an attack on a third organism. For example a female in the proximity of a male may show a threat display toward an approaching conspecific female, which may lead to the male driving the intruder away. Incitement generally is most common in monogamous species. Compare: Interference I09313. KeepDelete