NCR-131 Animal Care and Behavior EFAB video inclusion selection form #6

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1 of 107 INCOMMEASURABLE - Referring to two or more characteristics that cannot be classified with the same scale or unit (e.g., amount of feed consumed and speed of locomotion). I09315. KeepDelete
2 INCOORDINATION - Insufficient synchronization of motor activity of muscles causing incoherent locomotion and reduced body balance. I09317. KeepDelete  
3 INDECISION - Inability to choose a course of action or select between alternatives I09319. KeepDelete  
4 INDIVIDUAL DISTANCE - The distance an individual seeks to maintain between itself and other individuals, I09405. KeepDelete  
5 INDIVIDUAL DISTANCE ZONE - An area surrounding an individual defined by the distance the individual seeks to maintain between itself and other individuals. The size of this zone depends on circumstances existing at a given time, e.g., reproductive stage, social status, temperature. This term generally is used in the context of conspecific social interactions. Compare: Group Distance Zone. I09406. KeepDelete  
6 INDIVIDUALITY - A set of characteristics or qualities that distinguishes any given organism from its peers. I09407. KeepDelete  
7 INDUCED MOLTING - See Controlled Molting. I09408. KeepDelete  
8 INERTIA - A tendency to persist in a state of rest or equilibrium. With regard to the nervous system this tern denotes the time lag between a stimulus and he onset of a detectable response. I09410. KeepDelete  
9 INFANTICIDE - Killing of young by a conspecific adult Compare: Infantophagia. I09411. KeepDelete  
10 INFANTILE BEHAVIOR - Behavior of neonatal animals during the stage when hey are fully dependent on parental care. I09412. KeepDelete  
11 INFANTILISM - Stalled or regressed psychophysiological development of an organism to the degree that it psychologically and behaviorally approximates an infant. I09413. KeepDelete  
12 INFANTOPHAGIA - Eating of young by a conspecific adult. Compare infanticide. I09414. KeepDelete  
13 INFESTATION - Occurrence of large numbers of parasites within or on an organism. I09417. KeepDelete  
14 IN FOAL (horse) - Referring to a pregnant mare (colloquial term). I09502. KeepDelete  
15 INGESTIVE BEHAVIOR - Actions by which an organism takes substances into the body by swallowing. I09504. KeepDelete  
16 INHALATION - Inspiration of air together with an airborn substance such as medicine. Antonym: Exhalation. I09505. KeepDelete  
17 INHIBITION - Partial or complete suppression of a response in the presence of an eliciting stimulus. Also see specific inhibition - AFFERENT; ASSOCIATIVE; CONDITIONED; EXTERNAL; MEMORY; REACTIVE; REINFORCEMENT; RETROACTIVE. I09508. KeepDelete  
18 INITIATOR - An individual who incites imitative responses by other members f its group. I09509. KeepDelete  
19 INJURY, SPREADER - See Spreader Injury. I09510. KeepDelete  
20 IN MILK - Lactating. (colloquial term) I09511. KeepDelete  
21 INSEMINATION - Transfer of semen into the reproductive tract of a female. Also see specific insemination - ARTIFICIAL; NATURAL I09517. KeepDelete  
22 INSOMNIA - Extended inability to sleep. I09520. KeepDelete  
23 INSPIRATION - A segment of the respiration cycle, characterized by expansion of the chest and lungs causing air intake. I09521. KeepDelete  
24 INSTIGATOR - In a social context, an organism that initiates some action with regard to another organism (e.g., an animal instigating a fight). I09522. KeepDelete  
25 INSTINCT - An unlearned tendency to act in ways typical of a species. I09601. KeepDelete  
26 INSTINCTIVE BEHAVIOR - Any response that does not require a learning experience (frequently used synonymously with innate or inherited behavior). I09602. KeepDelete  
27 of 107 INTEGUMENTARY - Pertaining to the skin or its layers and accessory structures such as hair, horns, hooves, and skin glands. I09607. KeepDelete  
28 INTEGUMENTARY BEHAVIOR - Behavior directed toward the integument of the organism (e.g., grooming). I09608. KeepDelete  
29 INTENSITY - The quantitative aspect of a stimulus, sensation, or response I09610. KeepDelete  
30 INTENTION - Cognitive determination to perform a given action. I09611. KeepDelete  
31 INTENTIONAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior directed toward a goal. I09612. KeepDelete  
32 INTENTION MOVEMENT - An action that indicates the behavior in which an animal is about to engage. Frequently, such movements are merely preparatory to the subsequent behavior, or they may be the initial actions themselves. In conflict situations, an animal may display intention movements but not follow through with the behavior the intention movements suggest In such cases, the movements may indicate which motivations are in conflict. I09613. KeepDelete  
33 INTERFERENCE - A phenomenon in which an organism interrupts an aggressive encounter (threat or fight) among other organisms. Interference is most common in gregarious species. Compare : incitement I09616. KeepDelete  
34 INTERIM ACTIVITIES - Behavioral actions that are induced by application of an intermittent reinforcement schedule and are displayed during the period between intervals of reinforcement. I09617. KeepDelete  
35 INTRINSIC BEHAVIOR - Behavior that is mediated apparently by specific response mechanisms and is performed with minimal plasticity (e.g., eye blinking). I09715. KeepDelete  
36 INTROMISSION - Insertion or admission into something. In a biological context, the term is most commonly used in reference to insertion of the penis into the vagina. I09717. KeepDelete  
37 INVESIGATIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavior of an organism indicative of inspection of an object or surroundings. I09803. KeepDelete  
38 INVOLUNTARY BEHAVIOR - Any action that occurs without intention or volition (e.g., attention to an unexpected object). I09805. KeepDelete  
39 IRIS - A disc-shaped, pigmented membrane with a circular opening in its center (pupil) located in the anterior portion of the eye in front of the lens. By contracting or dilating, the iris can change the size of the pupil and control the amount of light entering the eye. I09807. KeepDelete  
40 IRRITABILITY - Ability to respond to stimulation. This term is used frequently to denote oversensitivity to stimulation. I09810. KeepDelete  
41 ITCH - An irritating sensation that arouses motivation to scratch, rub, or bite the affected area of the body. A clinical level of itching may result from conditions caused by external parasites (e.g., mange, lice) or internal disorders (scrapie, Aujeszky's disease). I09813. KeepDelete  
42 JENNY - A female ass. J09901. KeepDelete  
43 JERKING, HEAD - See Head Jerking. J09902. KeepDelete  
44 JIBBLING (horse) - To balk at or defer a required action. J09903. KeepDelete  
45 JOINTS, HYPERMOBILITY - See Hypermobility of Joints. J09904. KeepDelete  
46 JUMP - To spring from the ground or surface with the propulsive force being derived primarily from the action of the legs. J09905. KeepDelete  
47 JUMPER (horse) - A horse trained, exhibited, or competing in jumping events. Jumpers are judged according to faults, such as knock-downs, touches, falls, refusals, run-outs, loss of gait or circling, and time penalties. J09906. KeepDelete  
48 JUVENILE TEAT SUCKING - Habitual teat sucking occurring among juvenile, group-housed animals. Juvenile teat sucking can cause inflammation, abscesses, or stricture of the teat canals and subsequent inability to eject milk after parturition. J09910. KeepDelete  
49 KAINISM - Killing and eating of sibs. Compare: Fratricide. K09911. KeepDelete  
50 KASPAR-HAUSER ANIMAL - An animal that manifests behavioral abnormalities because of having been kept isolated for an extended period of time in an environment of very low complexity. K09913. KeepDelete  
51 KEY STIMULUS - A stimulus that, in a given situation, plays a predominant role in elicitation of behavior or behavioral sequences. K09914. KeepDelete  
52 KICKING - The act of delivering a powerful blow with one or both hind legs (e.g..by a horse). Habitual kicking is considered a dangerous vice, especially if directed toward humans or other animals. Also see specific kicking - STALL K10001. KeepDelete  
53 KID - A young goat up to one year of age. K10002. KeepDelete  
54 of 107 KIDDING - Parturition in goats. K10003. KeepDelete  
55 KINESIOLOGY - Study of different types of muscles, muscle-leverage systems, and muscle movement. K10005. KeepDelete  
56 KINESIS - Movement. K10006. KeepDelete  
57 KINKY-BACK (poultry) - Postural adjustment in chickens caused by deformity of the vertebral column. (colloquial term) K10010. KeepDelete  
58 KINOPSIS - A phenomenon in which individuals of a group are attracted to other group members by visual perception of their movement. K10011. KeepDelete  
59 KLINOKINESIS - Movement in changing direction. K10013. KeepDelete  
60 KNOCKING, STALL - See Stall Kicking. K10016. KeepDelete  
61 KYPHOSIS - Abnormal ventroflexion of the spine. Kyphosis may he a symptom of abdominal pain, rabies, or tetanus. K10101. KeepDelete  
62 LABOR - A period of time during which the fetus(es) is expelled from the body of the mother. Labor may be divided into distinct stages: dilatation, expulsion, and placental. The dilatation stage begins with the onset of regular uterine contractions and ends when the birth canal is completely prepared for passage of the fetus. The expulsion stage starts when the fetus begins to move through the birth canal and ends when it is completely expelled from the mother's body. The placental stage begins at the end of the expulsion stage and ends when the placenta and membranes have been expelled. L10102. KeepDelete  
63 LABORING ACTION (horse) - Locomotion performed with or requiring excessive effort. Compare: Free Going. L10103. KeepDelete  
64 LACRIMAL REFLEX - Increased production of tears in response to corneal irritation. L10105. KeepDelete  
65 LACTATION - The act of secretion of milk or the period of secretion of milk. L10106. KeepDelete  
66 LAMB - A young sheep up to one year of age L10110. KeepDelete  
67 LAMBING - Parturition in sheep. L10111. KeepDelete  
68 LAMENESS - Deviation from normal gaits caused by injury or disease (e.g., foot-and-mouth disease, laminitis, milk lameness, etc.). Lameness can be further subdivided into supportive or suspensory lameness, and sudden, progressive or chronic lameness. Also see specific lameness - CHRONIC; PROGRESSIVE; SUDDEN; SUPPORTIVE; SUSPENSORY. L10112. KeepDelete  
69 LANDAU INDEX - A procedure for quantifying a social hierarchy, calculated as the degree of deviation from a linear dominance order. L10201. KeepDelete  
70 LATERAL - Pertaining to a position to the side of the median part of a body. L10209. KeepDelete  
71 LATERAL GAIT - A gait in which the lateral pairs of legs move at the same time (e.g., pace). L10210. KeepDelete  
72 LATERAL RECUMBENCY - Lying characterized by full lateral contact of the body trunk, neck, head, and legs on one side with the ground. The neck, head, and legs are usually extended during lateral recumbency. The frequency of lateral recumbency varies among different species of farm animals and different age groups and may also be influenced by environmental circumstances (e.g., type of ground surface, ambient temperature, time of day). L10211. KeepDelete  
73 LAYING, EGG - See Oviposition. L10215. KeepDelete  
74 LD CYCLE - A cycle with alternating light and dark periods. LD 16:8 designates 16 hours of light alternating with 8 hours of darkness. LL and DD designate continuous illumination or continuous darkness, respectively. L10216. KeepDelete  
75 LEADERSHIP - The ability of an individual to control or direct the behavior of he members of a group. L10301. KeepDelete  
76 LEADING LEG - The foreleg in a canter or gallop that is not diagonally synchronized with one of the hind legs and lands last in the gait sequence. In an animal traversing a circle, the leading leg is typically that on the inside of the circle. L10302. KeepDelete  
77 LEANING - Partial support of the head or body on some object such as a wall, fence, or animal, achieved by shifting the center of gravity horizontally From a point of balance over the legs. L10303. KeepDelete  
78 LEARNED BEHAVIOR - Any action performed as a result of, or influenced by, experience. This does not mean that learning is independent of inheritance, since the ability to collect, memorize, and utilize information for the learning process is influenced by genotype. L10304. KeepDelete  
79 LEARNED HELPLESSNESS - A phenomenon that may occur when avoidance or reduction of some aversive stimulation is impossible or extremely difficult for the subject. Learned helplessness is manifested by continued acceptance of such stimulation even when the situation subsequently provides opportunity for an avoidance response. L10306. KeepDelete  
80 LEARNED PREFERENCE - Any preference influenced by a conditioning process. L10307. KeepDelete  
81 of 107 LEARNING - The ontogenic process of attainment and memorization of information. Also see specific learning - INCIDENTAL; INSIGHT; LATENT; MOTOR; OBSERVATIONAL; PERCEPTUAL; PREPROGRAMMED. L10308. KeepDelete  
82 LEARNING CURVE - Graphic illustration of changes in an animal' s responsiveness to the learning process, arranged according to consecutive units of practice. L10309. KeepDelete  
83 LEARNING DISPOSITION - A theoretical concept referring to propensity of an organism to acquire associations in a given situation. The learning disposition of an organism is determined by genetic makeup, psychological and physical condition, and prior learning. L10310. KeepDelete  
84 LEARNING SET - Mental representation of a principle common to a series of learning trials such that, although circumstances may differ between trials, the solution to each is governed by the common principle. An animal is considered to have acquired a learning set when it apprehends the principle. L10312. KeepDelete  
85 LEE-BOOT EFFECT - Suppression of initiation of estrous behavior by overcrowding of animals. L10313. KeepDelete  
86 LEG DROP (horse) - An action in which a horse rapidly tucks a leg under its body, and lowers itself somewhat toward the quarter with the tucked leg. The leg drop is performed to avoid bites directed at the legs in aggressive social encounters. L10314. KeepDelete  
87 LEG LEADING - See Leading Leg. L10401. KeepDelete  
88 LEG WEAKNESS SYNDROME - A clinical term for a variety of defects in the structure and function of the legs (e.g., broad hips, narrow lumbar area, hypermobility of joints, abnormal angulation of the foot, etc.). Behavioral symptoms are difficult rising from recumbency, staggering gait, inability to maintain positional balance, extended period of recumbency, and paresis. L10402. KeepDelete  
89 LEG YIELDING (horse) - A dressage maneuver in which the axis of the horse's body is maintained at about 30 degrees from the direction of movement. The head of the horse is slightly bent at the poll so that it points even farther from the direction of movement. L10403. KeepDelete  
90 LESION - Severe damage or loss of tissue characterized by discontinuity of the tissue's function. L10406. KeepDelete  
91 LETHARGY - A state of pronounced drowsiness or loss of desire to act. L10409. KeepDelete  
92 LETHISIMULATION - Complete temporary immobilization of an animal, visually approximating its death, induced by a sudden and inescapable exposure to a strong fear causing stimulus. L10410. KeepDelete  
93 LEVADE (horse) - A dressage exercise of the Spanish High Riding School in which the horse raises the anterior portion of its body (approx.30 degrees) with its hind legs spread apart and bent at the hocks, and the forelegs folded underneath the chest L10412. KeepDelete  
94 LIBIDO - Sexual motivation. The level of libido often is assessed from the reaction time between first detection of a sexual partner and first mounting attempt by the mate or display of receptivity posture by the female. L10414. KeepDelete  
95 LICKING - An action whereby the tongue is slid over the surface of an object. Licking may have a nutritional, gustatory, prophylactic, or social function and also may develop as a stereotyped behavior pattern. Licking consists of self-licking (an animal licks its own body) or social licking (an animal licks is sexual licking which occurs predominantly during courtship and estrus. Also see specific licking - SEXUAL; SOCIAL. L10415. KeepDelete  
96 LICKING SYNDROME - Excessive occurrence of social licking, assumed to be an indication of sodium deficiency. L10501. KeepDelete  
97 LIE - To assume or maintain a recumbent position. The behavior patterns involved in lying down show a high degree of uniformity within species, hut may be modified by environmental circumstances (e.g., restriction of movement, injury). The posture when lying can be categorized as lateral recumbency, semi-lateral recumbency, or ventral or sternal recumbency. The body position of a recumbent animal may reflect health status (e.g., unusual posture to prevent pressure on an injured or inflamed area), level of exhaustion (e.g., selecriveness of place to lie and tendency to adopt lateral recumbency), degree of thermal comfort (e.g., the area of exposed body surface), and level of relaxation (e.g., position of the head, eyelids, or limbs). L10502. KeepDelete  
98 LIFT, REAR-LEG (horse) - See Rear-leg Lift. L10505. KeepDelete  
99 LIGHT - Radiant energy in the range of frequencies that stimulates visual receptors. L10506. KeepDelete  
100 LIGHT REFLEX - Contraction of the pupil when exposed to light. L10508. KeepDelete  
101 LIGNOPHAGIA - The eating of wood or wooden substances.Lignophagia is commonly identified as wood gnawing. L10509. KeepDelete  
102 LIMITED FEEDING - Any feeding program that provides less feed than the animals would consume ad libitum. Such a program frequently is used to prevent excessive fattening of animals. Synonym: Restricted Feeding. L10513. KeepDelete  
103 LIMINAL SENSITIVITY - The lowest level of stimulation that evokes a detectable response. L10511. KeepDelete  
104 LIMITED FEEDING - Any feeding program that provides less feed than the animals would consume ad libitum. Such a program frequently is used to prevent excessive fattening of animals. Synonym: Restricted Feeding. L10513. KeepDelete  
105 LINE - A group of animals interrelated through an ancestor(s) and possessing some common genetic and phenotypic characteristics. L10514. KeepDelete  
106 LINEAR HIERARCHY - A type of social hierarchy formed as a straight rank. The highest ranking animal dominates all, the second highest all but the first, the third highest all but the first two, etc., down to the animal subordinate to all. L10515. KeepDelete  
107 LIP-CURLING - A response to pheromones, manifested by inhalation followed by distinct upward curling of the upper lip and dorsiflexion of the neck. Lip-curling is most noticeable in male ungulates when in proximity to estrous also be exhibited by female bovines when close to estrous peers. Synonym: Flehmen. L10604. KeepDelete