NCR-131 Animal Care and Behavior EFAB video inclusion selection form #7

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1 of 107 LIP SMACKING (horse) - A rhythmical smacking action of the lower lip toward the upper lip. Lip smacking is exhibited by some horses when under saddle or in unfamiliar environments. Lip smacking is thought to be indicative of mild excitement and is considered to be a nuisance vice. L10606. KeepDelete
2 LISTEN - To attend to sound stimuli. L10607. KeepDelete  
3 LITTER - A group of siblings born during one parturition period. Also see specific litter - DEEP. L10609. KeepDelete  
4 LIVESTOCK - Farm animals used for production purposes. L10610. KeepDelete  
5 LOCALITY MEMORY - The ability of an organism to identify particular areas. L10612. KeepDelete  
6 LOCOMOTION - The activity of an organism moving itself between points in space. Also see specific locomotion - DIGITIGRADE; PLANTIGRADE; RICOCHETAL. L10616. KeepDelete  
7 LOLLING, TONGUE - See Tongue Lolling. L10703. KeepDelete  
8 LOOSE HOUSING - A housing system where animals are not restricted in ambulation within a pen. L10705. KeepDelete  
9 LORDOSIS - Dorsiflexion of the spine occurring during the stage of sexual receptivity of females of some mammalian species. L10706. KeepDelete  
10 LOW SET - A term used to designate a short-legged animal L10708. KeepDelete  
11 LYING - Maintaining a recumbent position L10715. KeepDelete  
12 MAIDEN (horse) - A horse that has never won a race; a mare that has never been bred. M10803. KeepDelete  
13 MAINTENANCE BEHAVIOR - Any behavior through which an organism sustains its own physiological equilibrium or that of a dependent. In a broader sense, this term refers to activities required for essential physical and psychological comfort. M10804. KeepDelete  
14 MALADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR - Any behavior that directly or indirectly causes reduction or inhibition of the reproductive performance of a given organism. Compare: Maladjusted Behavior. M10806. KeepDelete  
15 MALADJUSTED BEHAVIOR - Any behavior that directly or indirectly reduces production performance, leads to health problems, or causes discomfort of a given organism. Compare: Maladaptive Behavior M10807. KeepDelete  
16 MALADJUSTMENT - Failure of an organism to cope effectively with its surroundings. M10808. KeepDelete  
17 MALSUCKING - Sucking directed toward other objects than mammary teats of a lactating female, or sucking directed toward the mammary teats but performed at an inappropriate age. Malsucking of inappropriate objects occurs frequently in early weaned or young, bucket-fed calves. Malsucking among adult animals is considered a serious social vice. M10812. KeepDelete  
18 MAMMILLA, OR MAMILLA - The nipple of a mammary gland. M10813. KeepDelete  
19 MANIA - A general term for behavioral disorders indicative of disease of the nervous system. Characteristic actions are excessive licking, chewing of unusual materials, perceptual incompetence, staggering gait, abnormal vocalization, and increased aggressiveness. M10815. KeepDelete  
20 MARE - A female horse that has foaled, or that is older than four years. M10903. KeepDelete  
21 MARKER ANIMAL - A hormonally masculinized female or a vasectomized or penectomized male used for identification of estrous cows. M10905. KeepDelete  
22 MARKING - Any deposition of scent compounds or other signs that serve to delineate territorial boundaries or trails, or to designate partners and group members. M10907. KeepDelete  
23 MASKING (horse) - Defecation or urination, generally by a stallion, on the feces of another horse. Masking is postulated to be an assertion of status or territory, or an attempt to mask olfactory stimuli from the feces of the other horse M10910. KeepDelete  
24 MASSAGING - Rhythmic and sustained mechanical manipulation of the integument and underlying tissues (e.g., manipulation of the mammaries of a sow by piglets prior to and after nursing) M10911. KeepDelete  
25 MASTICATION - The process of physically breaking down food in the mouth by tearing and grinding action of the teeth in preparation for swallowing and digestion. M10912. KeepDelete  
26 MASTURBATION - Sexual stimulation of the genitalia without coitus. Masturbation has been recorded in males of all mammalian farm animal species. Masturbation is conducted by rhythmic movements approximating pelvic thrusting (horses, cattle) or by self-licking of the penis (dogs, cats), M10914. KeepDelete  
27 of 107 MATE - An organism that is the sexual partner of an individual of the opposite sex. Such an association may be of short duration or may involve a pair bond over an extended period of time. As a verb, the term means to form a sexual partnership or, more specifically, to copulate. M10915. KeepDelete  
28 MATE PREFERENCE - A phenomenon manifested by some males and females of many polygamous and polyandrous species to favor specific sexual partners while avoiding or reducing interactions with others. Mate selection has been observed in horses, sheep, goats, and pigs. M10916. KeepDelete  
29 MATERNAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior of a dam directed toward the well-being and care of her dependent offspring or young. M11001. KeepDelete  
30 MATERNAL DEPARTURE - The phenomenon in which a dam temporarily leaves her offspring in some place (e.g., a nest), enabling her to conduct activities essential for survival (e.g., foraging for food). M11002. KeepDelete  
31 MATERNAL INADEQUACY - Inability of a dam to provide sufficient maternal care to her neonatal offspring. Maternal inadequacy usually is caused by agalactia or hypogalactia, undernourishment, poor health, excessive excitability, or exhaustion due to dystocia. Compare: Maternal Rejection. M11003. KeepDelete  
32 MATERNAL REJECTION - Social rejection of neonatal offspring by their dam Maternal rejection develops when, for some reason, normal primary socialization does not take place. It occurs in all species of farm animals, most frequently with primiparous dams or dams having infected or injured udders. Compare: Maternal Inadequacy, Kronism M11004. KeepDelete  
33 MATING - See specific mating - ASSORTATIVE; RANDOM. M11005. KeepDelete  
34 MATING BEHAVIOR - The component of sexual behavior closely associated with and including copulation. M11006. KeepDelete  
35 MATING STANCE - Posture of a female indicative of sexual receptivity. Most common characteristics of this stance in four-legged animals are slightly spread hind legs, extended neck with slightly lowered head, and laterally displaced tail. M11007. KeepDelete  
36 MATRIARCH - A female that is predominant in the social organization of a social unit Such predominance involves alpha social status and arises out of ancestry to other members of the unit. M11008. KeepDelete  
37 MEDIAN - A plane or point of division of some distribution into two equal parts. M11104. KeepDelete  
38 MEMORY - The entire set of information acquired and retained by an organism and potentially available for its use. Also see specific memory - LONG-TERM; SHORT-TERM. M11109. KeepDelete  
39 MENTAL - Pertaining to the cognitive state or activity of the brain. M11201. KeepDelete  
40 MICTION - See Urination. M11208. KeepDelete  
41 MICTURITION - See Urination. M11209. KeepDelete  
42 MICTURITION REFLEX - The sequence of activities controlling urination. The reflex center is located in the spinal cord but is also controlled by the brain. M11210. KeepDelete  
43 MIGRATION - Movement, often seasonal and distant, of Part or all of an animal population from one area to another. M11213. KeepDelete  
44 MILK EJECTION - A process, controlled by the hormone oxytocin, characterized by contraction of myoepithelal cells, alveoles, and small ducts of the mammary gland resulting in the expulsion of secreted milk. M11216. KeepDelete  
45 MILKING - Manual or mechanical extraction of milk from the mammary gland. M11218. KeepDelete  
46 MILKING HOBBLES (cattle) - A simple device used to prevent kicking. It consists of two metal pieces shaped to fit the hindlegs above the hocks and connected in front by a chain. At the present time, milking hobbles are seldom used during milking but occasionally are employed for the safety of a person conducting medical examination or treatment. M11219. KeepDelete  
47 MILKING PARLOR - An area specially designed for milking. M11301. KeepDelete  
48 MILK LETDOWN - Milk ejection. (colloquial term) M11302. KeepDelete  
49 MINCING - Circling around an adversary with the body hunched up and taking short, rapid steps. This behavior appears to be a combination of an attacking and of a defensive posture, commonly interpreted as a threat display. M11304. KeepDelete  
50 MISE EN MAIN (horse) - Relaxation of the jaw during ramener in dressage. M11306. KeepDelete  
51 "MM" VOCALIZATION (cattle) - A low-amplitude sound of variable duration (0.5 - 3.0 sec) produced with the mouth closed or only slightly open. It is emitted during social interactions with offspring and familiar peers (particularly young animals), during sexual interactions between females, or (directed toward a caretaker) while waiting for food or milking. It is thought that this vocalization promotes maintenance of herd cohesion. M11308. KeepDelete  
52 MOB - To engage as a group in harassment or attack of an individual(s). M11309. KeepDelete  
53 MOLTING - Seasonal shedding and regrowth of the pelage of mammals and the plumage of birds. Also see specific molting - CONTROLLED. M11315. KeepDelete  
54 of 107 MONOESTROUS FEMALES - Females that manifest only one estrous cycle per year. M11319. KeepDelete  
55 MONOGAMY - A reproductory arrangement in which two individuals of opposite sex form a primary and durable breeding unit. M11320. KeepDelete  
56 "MOOEH" VOCALIZATION (cattle) - A high amplitude call of intermediate duration (0.7 -1.2 sec) usually produced in a series of two to fifteen calls with the neck extended and mouth wide open, generally by sexually mature males This call is a threat signal when directed toward potential male adversaries at a distance or a greeting signal when oriented toward females or distant herdmates. M11407. KeepDelete  
57 "MOOH" VOCALIZATION (cattle) - A medium to high amplitude sound of intermediate duration (0.5 - 1.5 sec) produced as a single sound or a series of an animal is thirsty or hungry, separated from its calf, or threatened by a perceived danger, and is thought to be an indication of distress. M11408. KeepDelete  
58 MOON BLINDNESS (horse) - Equine periodic opthalmia, an eye disease. At an early stage it occurs periodically (approximately as often as every new moon thus, the name moon blindness). As the disease progresses, cataract formation leads to eventual blindness. M11409. KeepDelete  
59 "MOO" VOCALIZATION (cattle) - A medium amplitude sound of widely varying duration (0.5 - 4.0 sec) produced with neck partially extended and mouth open. It is emitted by animals seeking others or when hearing familiar sounds of feed delivery. It is thought that this call is an indicator of mild excitement. M11410. KeepDelete  
60 MORIBUND BEHAVIOR. - Behavior an animal performs when it is dying. M11507. KeepDelete  
61 MORTAR-EATING - Licking or pecking surfaces rich in minerals. It is assumed to be a sign of mineral deficiency in the diet. M11510. KeepDelete  
62 MOTHERING - See Maternal Care. (colloquial term) M11513. KeepDelete  
63 MOTHERING ABILITY - The ability of a dam to provide maternal care to her offspring. Various assessments of mothering ability commonly are used as criteria in breeding programs involving selection of female agricultural mammals. M11514. KeepDelete  
64 MOTILE - Capable of locomotion. M11515. KeepDelete  
65 MOTION ILLUSION - An illusion that an object is moving when it actually is motionless. M11516. KeepDelete  
66 MOTIONLESS SITTING - Maintaining a dog-sitting position for a long period of time with lowered head, semi-closed eyes, and apparently low level of alertness. The behavior occurs most often in pigs housed individually on concrete floors and fed concentrated diets. M11517. KeepDelete  
67 MOTIVATION - Urge to perform a given behavioral action. Motivation arises when a neural controlling mechanism that interprets incoming stimuli and assesses available alternatives selects an appropriate response. Compare: Drive. M11601. KeepDelete  
68 MOTIVATIONAL CORNERING - Cornering induced by some strong social or psychological attachment, and not because of physical restraint. (For example, a female in the presence of her offspring may not flee a predator, even if she could, hut may instead attack it.) Compare: Cornering. M11604. KeepDelete  
69 MOUNT - An event of mounting. M11612. KeepDelete  
70 MOUNTING - The act of an animal raising the anterior part of its body generally onto the posterior part of another animal. Mounting, while typically performed by a male as part of copulatory behavior, is also common in sexually homogeneous groups of animals. Mounting among females is usually a reliable sign of estrus. Also see Mounting Misalignment M11613. KeepDelete  
71 MOUNTING MISALIGNMENT - A heterosexual attempt to mount a female in a way that will not facilitate coital intromission of the male's penis: e.g., head mounting, or flank mounting. M11614. KeepDelete  
72 MOURNING - A state of psychological depression, caused by separation from strongly bonded organisms or objects, or by pain and illness. According to circumstances, behavioral indicators may include distress calls, lowered mobility, reduced appetite, and weakened attention to occurrences in its surrounding. M11701. KeepDelete  
73 MOUTH - The cavity in the head delineated by the jaws and pallet and containing the teeth and tongue. In birds the mouth includes the beak. At the anterior, the mouth opens to the external environment through the oral orifice (also called the mouth), and at the posterior connects with the nasal cavities, esophagus, and trachea. The mouth is adapted for the intake, gustation, mastication, and ingestion of food, facilitates vocalization and tactile stimulation, and may be used for breathing when the nasal passages are blocked or large volumes of air are required. In some species, the mouth also may serve as a weapon. Also see specific mouth - BROKEN. M11702. KeepDelete  
74 MOUTHING - Investigation of objects by manipulation with the mouth. Mouthing is most common in young animals. In some situations, mouthing nay develop into a persistent, stereotyped behavior pattern. M11703. KeepDelete  
75 MOVEMENT - Any spatial translocation of all or part of an organism. Also see specific movement - COMFORT; EXPRESSIVE; FETAL; INTENTION; SIGNAL; STEREOTYPED. M11704. KeepDelete  
76 "MRRH" VOCALIZATION (cattle) - A variable amplitude sound of a relatively short duration (0.5 -1.0 sec) produced with the mouth closed. It occurs when animals are resting, but may indicate muscular effort in a resting situation because it frequently is emitted when an animal adjusts its lying posture. In mature males, a similar sound often is emitted in conjunction with propulsus during copulation. M11705. KeepDelete  
77 MULE - The offspring of an ass sire (jack) and a horse dam. M11706. KeepDelete  
78 MULEY - A polled cow. M11707. KeepDelete  
79 MULTIPAROUS - Referring to females having undergone more than one cycle of pregnancy and parturition. Compare: Primiparous. M11709. KeepDelete  
80 MUSCLE FATIGUE - Inability or severely reduced ability of a muscle fiber to exert force when action potentials pass through the neuromuscular junction and spread over the fiber. Muscle fatigue develops as a consequence of prolonged and strong contraction of the muscle involved M11711. KeepDelete  
81 of 107 MUSCLING, DOUBLE - See Double Muscling M11712. KeepDelete  
82 MUSCONE (swine) - A phenomenal steroid produced in the sub-maxillary gland of mature boars and secreted through the prepuce. A synthetic form of this steroid is used as an estrus detection aid in swine. M11801. KeepDelete  
83 MUSTANG - A feral horse descended from horses brought by Spanish colonists to America. M11803. KeepDelete  
84 NAIVE - Lacking in experience. N11901 KeepDelete  
85 NAPPING (horse) - Serious disobedience of the rider's commands. Napping may be manifested in various forms, such as refusing to leave the home range territory, refusing to jump, or ignoring direction commands. N11903 KeepDelete  
86 NASAL REFLEX - Sneezing in response to irritation of the nasal membrane. N11907 KeepDelete  
87 NATURAL BREEDING - Breeding that takes place without direct human intervention. N11910 KeepDelete  
88 NATURAL INSEMINATION - Insemination achieved by copulation. N11911 KeepDelete  
89 NATURAL MATING - Natural insemination. N11915 KeepDelete  
90 NATURAL SERVICE - Natural insemination. N11919 KeepDelete  
91 NAVEL SUCKING - Sucking on the navel area of other individuals. It occurs often in young, early-weaned, group-housed, trough or bucket-fed calves. Navel suckling can cause serious damage to the affected tissue, resulting in infection and abscesses. N12002 KeepDelete  
92 NECK, ARCHED (horse) - See Arched Neck. N12004 KeepDelete  
93 NECK EXTENDING - Pronounced forward extension of the neck manifested by many animals, but most distinctly by geese. Neck extending in geese seems to have two meanings: a greeting signal when accompanied by gabbling, or a warning signal when accompanied by hissing. N12005 KeepDelete  
94 NEED - Any requirement that is necessary for an organism to develop normally and to maintain its physical and psychological health. Compare: Desire. N12008 KeepDelete  
95 NEEDLE TEETH (swine) - A pair of temporary tusks and a pair of comer incisors in the upper and the lower jaws of neonatal piglets. N12009 KeepDelete  
96 NEGATIVE REINFORCER - See Reinforcer. N12011 KeepDelete  
97 NEIGH (horse) - A medium to high amplitude, rapidly pulsed sound of relatively tong duration (1.0 - 3.0 sec). This sound is produced with the mouth partially open and nostrils slightly vibrating. The head usually is raised and the ears which it has a social bond (e.g., a dam separated from offspring, a horse separated from a permanent stablemate or sexual partner during estrus). It is thought to be an indication of excitement. N12012 KeepDelete  
98 NEONURSING - Nursing that occurs during and shortly after parturition, characterized by sporadic and socially unsynchronized suckling by neonatal piglets prior to establishment of a regular nursing cycle. N12014 KeepDelete  
99 NEOPHOBIA - The fear of novel stimuli. Many organisms exhibit neophobia, which is commonly induced by unfamiliar or altered surroundings or unusual events. N12015 KeepDelete  
100 NEST - A structure built by some animals for the purpose of depositing and hatching their eggs, delivering and protecting their offspring, or in some cases, housing themselves. N12106 KeepDelete  
101 NESTING - The process of building or occupying a nest. N12107 KeepDelete  
102 NIBBLING, WITHER - See Wither Nibbling. N12211 KeepDelete  
103 NICKER (horse) - A low to medium amplitude sound of relatively short duration (0.4 -1.0 sec). This sound is produced with the mouth closed and nostrils dilated by horses expecting food, by dams toward offspring (quiet nicker), and by stallions during courtship (forceful nicker). N12213 KeepDelete  
104 NONADAPTIVE BEHAVIOR - See Maladaptive Behavior N12301 KeepDelete  
105 NONRUMINANT - Animals without a rumen as part of their digestive tract (e.g., pigs and poultry). N12304 KeepDelete  
106 NORMAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior that qualitatively and quantitatively does not deviate from regular or stabilized form. Commonly interpreted as behavior of an animal that is healthy and free from pathological stress. N12309 KeepDelete  
107 NOSE - A facial structure of mammals having two external openings (nostrils) that lead to nasal cavities which in turn connect with the buccal cavity and the respiratory passages. The nose is used as a pathway for transfer of air to and from the lungs during breathing and the nasal cavities contain olfactory receptors which enable olfaction. N12314 KeepDelete