NCR-131 Animal Care and Behavior EFAB video inclusion selection form #8

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1 of 107 NOSE LEAD (cattle) - A small device that can be inserted into an animal's nostrils and squeezed by hand to pinch the nasal septum and thus facilitate handling. N12401 KeepDelete
2 NOSING - Making contact with an object or the body of another organism with the nose. Nosing is commonly displayed during investigation following sniffing, prior to suckling, and during courtship. N12403. KeepDelete  
3 NOSING CALLS (swine) - High frequency sounds of irregular duration produced by piglets during the nosing stage of the nursing event. N12404 KeepDelete  
4 NOTCHING - Cutting of notches in the ears of animals for the purpose of permanent identification. N12405 KeepDelete  
5 NUDGING - Relatively gentle pushing generally using the head. Nudging is displayed by cattle, sheep, goats, and swine during play and most typically by males during sexual courtship or immediately before mounting the female. N12408 KeepDelete  
6 NURSING - The act of releasing milk to suckling young. Also see specific nursing - CYCLICAL N12411 KeepDelete  
7 NURSING CYCLE - A series of nursing-related activities culminating in ejection of milk by the nursing dam and ingestion of such milk by suckling young. Swine exhibit a complex nursing cycle consisting of several phases: Assembly phase (gathering of piglets around the sow and assumption of the nursing posture by the sow). Nosing phase (massage of the mammary glands by the piglets, accompanied by nosing calls and occasional suckling attempts); Slow suckling phase (noningestive suckling conducted at a rate of approximately I pulse per second); True suckling phase (ingestive suckling conducted at a rate of approximately 3 pulses per second); and Departure phase (sporadic massaging, suckling, and occasional resting, followed by complete separation of piglets from the mammary glands). N12412 KeepDelete  
8 NURSING GRUNT (swine) - One of an extended rhythmic series of grunts produced by a sow just prior to and during the nursing cycle. The rate of grunting changes from slow (approx. 1 per sec) before milk letdown to fast (approx. 3 per sec) during milk letdown and then gradually decreases when milk letdown ceases. Nursing grunts alert piglets to the imminent onset of milk availability and appear to help coordinate their suckling activity. N12413 KeepDelete  
9 NYSTAGMUS - Periodic, apparently involuntary vertical, horizontal, or rotatory eye movement. The eye movement usually proceeds slowly, hut when the endpoint of the motion is reached, there is a quick return of the eye to its original orientation. N12506 KeepDelete  
10 OBESITY - Excessive accumulation of body fat resulting in abnormally high body weight. O12507. KeepDelete  
11 OBSERVATIONAL LEARNING - Learning by observing the behavioral responses and reinforcement of other individuals. Observational learning also 5 called vicarious learning. O12514. KeepDelete  
12 OCCUPATIONAL VACUUM - A state of seriously thwarted motivation of an organism to interact with its environment, caused either by diminished novelty or unarousing surroundings. Occupational vacuum can also be generated by inability of the organism to interact with its surroundings due to extended physical or psychological restraint, O12607. KeepDelete  
13 ODDITY TRAINING - A series of discrimination trials in which the correct solution is characterized by being different from a group of alternatives. The learning set to be acquired involves the principle that the correct alternative learning set to be acquired involves the principle that the correct alternative to choose has features not shared by any other alternative. O12611. KeepDelete  
14 ODOR - Sensation caused by chemical stimulation of receptors in the mucous membranes of the nasal cavities. Also see specific odor - GROUP. O12612. KeepDelete  
15 OESTRUS - See Estrus. O12613. KeepDelete  
16 OFFENSIVE AGGRESSION - Unprovoked aggression. In a social context, offensive aggression is not manifested in response to aggression instigated by another individual, but is an attempt to gain some resource at the expense of the individual toward which it is directed. O12614. KeepDelete  
17 OFF FEED - Referring to loss of appetite for food. (colloquial term) O12615. KeepDelete  
18 OFF SIDE (horse) - See Far Side. O12616. KeepDelete  
19 OFFSPRING PREFERENCE - Preference of a young animal to associate with and receive care from a particular adult(s). Such a preference may be expressed at more than one level, e.g., preference for a parent versus another adult, or for one parent versus the other. O12614. KeepDelete  
20 OILING - A component action of preening in which a bird uses its beak to spread oil secreted by the uropygial gland over its plummage. Oiling helps to keep the feathers in good condition. O12702. KeepDelete  
21 OMEGA ANIMAL - An animal that ranks lowest socially in its group Compare: Alpha Animal. O12711. KeepDelete  
22 OMNIVOROUS - Subsisting on feed of both plant and animal origin. O12712. KeepDelete  
23 OPEN-FIELD BEHAVIOR - Behavior manifested and(or)studied in an open-field test situation. O12716. KeepDelete  
24 OPEN-FIELD TEST - Exposure of an organism to some standardized environmental arrangement, apart from that where it normally resides, in order to study its approach-avoidance responses or signs of emotionality. O12717. KeepDelete  
25 OPERANT CONDITIONING - A type of conditioning in which reinforcement is contingent on a given operation (e.g..bar pressing). In operant conditioning it is unimportant what technique the animals use to conduct such an operation; the response may be somewhat variable as long as the operation is performed. O12720. KeepDelete  
26 OPTHALMIA - Contagious inflammation of the eye, affecting mainly sheep and goats O12803. KeepDelete  
27 of 107 ORAL - Pertaining to the mouth. O12807. KeepDelete  
28 ORAL TENDENCY - Tendency to examine objects using the mouth. Normally, oral tendencies are common in very young mammals. Artificially, they can be induced by bilateral temporal lobectomy. O12808. KeepDelete  
29 ORGASM - The culminating point of sexual excitement associated with distinct physiological and behavioral characteristics such as high vasopression rhythmic muscular contractions, and semen ejaculation (in males). O12815. KeepDelete  
30 ORTS - The remains of feed in a trough or feeder that an animal(s) refrains from eating. O12903. KeepDelete  
31 OUTDOOR HOUSING - A housing system where animals are kept predominantly or continuously outdoors. Outdoor housing facilities usually have simple shelters to provide protection against weather extremes. O12912. KeepDelete  
32 OVERCROWDING - An excessively high spatial density of animals due to some abnormal environment (e.g., inadequate space caused by physical constraint or avoidance of an inhospitable area). Overcrowding compels breakdown of individual distance zones and, in extreme circumstances, extend their limbs without interference, or have adequate opportunity for extend their limbs without interference, or have adequate opportunity for eating or drinking- The consequences of overcrowding depend on its intensity and duration, and thus may range from frustration, boredom, elevated competition for space, and towered cleanliness in the pen to serious behavior anomalies (stereotypy, lethargy, learned helplessness), high levels of aggression, nutritional deprivation, inability to maintain effective thermoregulation and increased mortality. Compare: Crowding. O13014. KeepDelete  
33 OVERINCLUSION - Inability to inhibit an undesirable response associated with a particular stimulus. O13001. KeepDelete  
34 OVERLEARNING - Continuation of learning trials beyond the stage necessary for required retention. O13002. KeepDelete  
35 OVERLYING (swine) - Incidental lying down by a sow onto piglets, causing their injury or death. O13003. KeepDelete  
36 OVER REACH (horse) - Defective leg action causing the hoof of the hind leg to touch the heel of the foreleg. O13004. KeepDelete  
37 OVINE - Sheep or pertaining to sheep. O13009. KeepDelete  
38 OVIPOSITION - The act of expulsion of fully developed eggs from the body. O13011. KeepDelete  
39 OX - A castrated male bovine used in draft work. O13014. KeepDelete  
40 PACE (horse) - A two-beat gait with the leg movement synchronized laterally. The sequence of hoof beats is left hind together with left fore followed by right hind together with right fore. Generally, the pace is an artificially attained gait in horses. Compare: Natural Pacer. P13101. KeepDelete  
41 PACER (horse) - A horse that races using a two-beat lateral gait called the pace. Also see specific pacer - NATURAL. P13102. KeepDelete  
42 PACING - Stereotyped, short-distance walking back and forth, or side to side, typically manifested by animals kept in close confinement. P13103. KeepDelete  
43 PADDLING (horse) - Defective leg action in which the leg is thrown outward during the extension phase. P13105. KeepDelete  
44 PAIN - Unpleasant sensation, usually localized, resulting from noxious stimulation or injury. P13106. KeepDelete  
45 PAIN SYMPTOM - Any sign or behavioral display indicative of distinct discomfort due to the experience of pain, such as lack of or reduced eye movement, puckered eyelids, dilated nostrils, ears pulled back (horse), teeth grinding (swine), reduced or lack of tonguing (cattle), head turning and kicking toward affected part of the body, distress vocalization, abnormal postures, frequently changing body position, pawing with the feet, head pushing toward the wall, sensitivity to palpation of the affected area, etc. P13107. KeepDelete  
46 PAIRING - Any voluntary or imposed grouping of two individuals. Typical pair formations can be observed between sexual partners, between mutually investigating adversaries, etc. P13109. KeepDelete  
47 PALATABILITY - Relative acceptability of feed as influenced by factors such as taste, smell, structure, color, or other nonnutritional attributes. P13110. KeepDelete  
48 PALSY - Paralysis. P13115. KeepDelete  
49 PANTING - Increased breathing characterized by polypnea or hyperpnea and generally performed with an open mouth and distinct thoracic movements. Panting primarily serves to increase oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange or to increase evaporative heat loss. P13202. KeepDelete  
50 PARALLEL MOVEMENT - Completely synchronized movement of dual organs. This term is most commonly applied to movement of the eyeballs when focussing on distant objects. P13206. KeepDelete  
51 PARALYSIS - Partial or complete loss of muscle functions caused by injury or neural disfunction. P13207. KeepDelete  
52 PARENTAL - Pertaining to parents, to adults displaying parental care, or to the generation of parents as a whole. P13214. KeepDelete  
53 PARENTAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior of parents, foster parents, or other adults characterized by assistance, cooperation, leadership or training of offspring or young conspecifics prior to weaning. P13215. KeepDelete  
54 of 107 PARENTAL REJECTION - Social rejection of offspring by a parent. P13301. KeepDelete  
55 PARENTAL PREFERENCE - Preference of a parent to care for or associate with a particular young individual or group of such individuals. Such a preference may be expressed at several levels, e.g., preference for offspring versus other young, for neonatal offspring versus older offspring, or for certain individuals versus others in a litter. P13217. KeepDelete  
56 PARTURITION - The process of giving birth. P13309. KeepDelete  
57 PARTURITION PERIOD - A period of time starting with the first symptoms of labor and ending when the afterbirth is eliminated from the mother's body. P13310. KeepDelete  
58 PASO (horse) - A smooth four-beat gait of Paso horses. The lateral legs are lifted al most simultaneously, but the hindhoof contacts the ground shortly before the forehoof. The sequence of leg movements is similar to that of the stow gait in five-gaited horses, but the action is not as high and the cadence may be faster. P13311. KeepDelete  
59 PASSAGE (horse) - A dressage gait, performed as a collected and highly rhythmical trot with even beats between diagonally synchronized legs. P13312. KeepDelete  
60 PATCH AVOIDANCE - A form of selective grazing whereby animals avoid small circular areas of pasture marked by excreta of other grazing animals. P13316. KeepDelete  
61 PATCHING - Patch avoidance by grazing animals. (colloquial term) P13317. KeepDelete  
62 PATELLAR REFLEX - Extension of the limb in response to a mild blow to the patellar tendon. P13318. KeepDelete  
63 PATERNAL - Pertaining to the male parent or sometimes to ancestors on the sire's side. P13319. KeepDelete  
64 PARENTAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior of parents, foster parents, or other adults characterized by assistance, cooperation, leadership or training of offspring or young conspecifics prior to weaning. P13215. KeepDelete  
65 PARENTAL REJECTION - Social rejection of offspring by a parent P13402. KeepDelete  
66 PARTURITION - The process of giving birth. P13309. KeepDelete  
67 PARTURITION PERIOD - A period of time starting with the first symptoms of labor and ending when the afterbirth is eliminated from the mother's body. P13310. KeepDelete  
68 PASO (horse) - A smooth four-beat gait of Paso horses. The lateral legs are lifted almost simultaneously, but the hindhoof contacts the ground shortly before the forehoof. The sequence of leg movements is similar to that of the slow gait in five-gaited horses, but the action is not as high and the cadence may be faster. P13311. KeepDelete  
69 PASSAGE (horse) - A dressage gait, performed as a collected and highly rhythmical trot with even beats between diagonally synchronized legs. P13312. KeepDelete  
70 PATCH AVOIDANCE - A form of selective grazing whereby animals avoid small circular areas of pasture marked by excreta of other grazing animals. P13316. KeepDelete  
71 PATCHING - Patch avoidance by grazing animals. (colloquial term) P13317. KeepDelete  
72 PATELLAR REFLEX - Extension of the limb in response to a mild blow to the patellar tendon. P13318. KeepDelete  
73 PATERNAL CARE - Epimeletic behavior of a sire directed toward dependent offspring or young P13320. KeepDelete  
74 PATERNALISM - Control over satisfaction of needs and desires of an individual on its behalf, rather than allowing it to attempt to fulfill such needs and desires itself. P13401. KeepDelete  
75 PATERNAL REJECTION - Social rejection of neonatal offspring by their sire P13402. KeepDelete  
76 PATHOGNOMONIC BEHAVIOR - Any behavioral sign symptomatic of a pathological condition of an organism. P13404. KeepDelete  
77 PATRIARCH - A male that is predominant in the social organization of a given social unit. Such predominance involves alpha social status and arises out of ancestry to other members of the unit. P13407. KeepDelete  
78 PATTERN, ACTION - See Action Pattern. P13408. KeepDelete  
79 PAVLOVIAN CONDITIONING - See Classical Conditioning. P13410. KeepDelete  
80 PAWING - A scooping leg movement, generally on the ground. Animals may display pawing in play situations, as warning signals, when searching for food in snow-covered terrain, when in pain, or when frustrated. P13412. KeepDelete  
81 of 107 PECKING - Making contact with an object or the body of another organism using the tip of the beak. Pecking is performed with a short, quick forward motion of the head and is displayed during investigation following visual inspection, during feeding, during fighting, and during courtship. Also see specific pecking - FEATHER. P13413. KeepDelete  
82 PECKING RIGHT (poultry) - A term occasionally used to refer to unreciprocated pecks directed towards group peers. Pecking right is assumed to be a sign of rigid social dominance or despotism. P13414. KeepDelete  
83 PECK ORDER - Social hierarchy in domestic birds. P13415. KeepDelete  
84 PEEP - A high-amplitude repeated vocalization produced repetitively by young domestic poultry (and young of a variety of wild avian species) in response to physical discomfort or separation from conspecifics. Each peep is characterized by relatively short duration and primarily descending sound frequency. The peep vocalization also is referred to as a distress call or separation call P13416. KeepDelete  
85 PELVIC THRUSTING - See Thrusting. P13418. KeepDelete  
86 PEN - Any housing unit within a barn, separated from others by barriers, which can he occupied by one animal (individual pen) or several animals (group pen). Also see specific pen - FLOOR. P13501. KeepDelete  
87 PENECTOMY - Surgical removal of a part of a penis. This term also refers to surgical displacement of the penis to prevent natural insemination. P13502. KeepDelete  
88 PENIS, BROKEN - See Broken Penis. P13503. KeepDelete  
89 PERCH - Any elevated object upon which a bird stands or sits. Also, the act of standing or sitting on such an object P13509. KeepDelete  
90 PERIPARTURIENT BEHAVIOR - Behavioral activities related to and occurring around the time of parturition. P13512. KeepDelete  
91 PERSONAL DISTANCE - See Individual Distance. P13517. KeepDelete  
92 PERSONAL SPACE - See Individual Distance Zone. P13518. KeepDelete  
93 PESSAGE (horse) - A dressage exercise of the Spanish High Riding School in which the horse raises the anterior portion of its body by supporting itself on its hindlegs which are spread apart and slightly bent at the hocks, and the forelegs are folded underneath the chest. The pessage is performed in the same way as the levade except that the anterior of the horse is raised higher. P13602. KeepDelete  
94 PHALLECTOMY - Surgical trimming or amputation of the penis to prevent intromission. Phallectomy is used to develop teaser bulls for estrus detection. P13603. KeepDelete  
95 PHEROMONE - A chemical substance secreted and perceived by individuals of the same species. Pheromones are of two types: signaling pheromones, which induce a behavioral response, and priming pheromones, which induce physiological changes. Pheromones are important in sexual behavior. P13608. KeepDelete  
96 PHOBIA - An excessive, persistent and apparently unsubstantiated fear specific to given stimuli, situations, or circumstances. P13611. KeepDelete  
97 PHORETIC BEHAVIOR - The use of one organism by another organism as a means of transport. P13613. KeepDelete  
98 PIAFFE (horse) - A dressage gait performed as a highly rhythmical trot on the spot with even beats between diagonally synchronized legs. P13702. KeepDelete  
99 PICA - Abnormal appetite for unusual and often inappropriate feed, e.g., dirt, hair, feces, etc. P13704. KeepDelete  
100 PIEBALD (horse) - A black coated horse with white spots. P13705. KeepDelete  
101 PIG - Young swine, usually below 75 kg body weight. This term is being used increasingly for all categories of swine. P13707. KeepDelete  
102 PIGLET - A young pig during its first two months of life. P13708. KeepDelete  
103 PIGLET SCOUR - See Colibacillosis. P13709. KeepDelete  
104 PILING (poultry) - Extremely dense accumulation of individuals in a small area so that some may be buried under others. Piling is observed primarily in poultry and is caused by a serious environmental inadequacy, such as inappropriate temperature, strong draft, or limitation of an essential resource, or by events inducing fear and escape responses, such as unusual light or unfamiliar noise, a predator, or an action of a careless attendant. Piling, if not immediately corrected, leads to suffocation of the buried individuals. P13710. KeepDelete  
105 PILOERECTION - Erection of hair. Piloerection commonly is a thermoregulatory response and also may be observed during aggressive interactions. P13711. KeepDelete  
106 PINTO (horse) - A horse with spotted, piebald, or mottled coat color. P13713. KeepDelete  
107 PIPPED EGG (poultry) - An egg that is visibly cracked or perforated by the beak of its hatching chick. P13714. KeepDelete