NCR-131 Animal Care and Behavior EFAB video inclusion selection form #9

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1 of 107 PIPPING - The first cracking of the egg shell by the hatching chick. P13715. KeepDelete
2 PIROUETTE (horse) - A dressage maneuver in which the forelegs follow a circle having a radius equal to the distance between the hindlegs and forelegs. Pirouette may be performed in collected walk, collected canter, or passage P13716. KeepDelete  
3 PLACENTOPHAGIA - Eating of own afterbirth by a postparturient female P13721. KeepDelete  
4 PLACER (horse) - In dressage, lateral flexion of the head in the direction of movement during performance of the half-pass. P13801. KeepDelete  
5 PLANT AVOIDANCE - A form of selective grazing in which animals avoid certain plants of the pasture flora. Compare: Defoliation, Progressive Defoliation, Patch Avoidance. P13802. KeepDelete  
6 PLAY BEHAVIOR - A set of activities experienced as pleasurable in themselves by the organism performing them. Play behavior might be directed either toward the surroundings or toward the body of the animal itself. Social play often imitates serious situations (e.g., social conflicts) but without the serious consequences of such situations. P13805. KeepDelete  
7 PLEASURE - An emotional state resulting from an enjoyable sensation. P13806. KeepDelete  
8 PLUMAGE - Feather coverage of a bird's body. P13810. KeepDelete  
9 POLLARD - A castrate, usually a female chicken whose ovary has been removed; also may refer to a hornless cow or sheep. P13904. KeepDelete  
10 POLLING - See Dehorning. P13905. KeepDelete  
11 PONY - A small horse not taller than 150 cm when mature. P13920. KeepDelete  
12 PORCINE - Swine or pertaining to swine. P14003. KeepDelete  
13 POST-LEGGED - Pertaining to animals with abnormally straight hind legs P14011. KeepDelete  
14 POST-NATAL - After birth. P14012. KeepDelete  
15 POSTPARTUM - The period of time following parturition. P14013. KeepDelete  
16 POSTPARTURIENT BEHAVIOR - Behavior of mammalian females displayed after delivery of their offspring. Postparturient behavior characteristically includes puerperal behavior and epimeletic behavior oriented toward off includes puerperal behavior and epimeletic behavior oriented toward offspring (neonatal licking, nursing, protection, play, parental training, and weaning). P14014. KeepDelete  
17 POSTURE - The attitude or position of the body. Also see specific posture -AMBIVALENT; HERDING. P14017. KeepDelete  
18 POULT - A young turkey up to the stage of secondary sexual differentiation. P14019. KeepDelete  
19 POULTRY - Birds bred for production of eggs or meat P14020. KeepDelete  
20 POUNDING (horse) - Defective leg action in which the contact of the hooves with the ground appears excessively heavy. P14101. KeepDelete  
21 PRECOCIAL - Refers to species whose individuals are sufficiently developed at birth or hatching to see, move in a coordinated fashion, and fend fairly well for themselves. Neonatal individuals of such species require much less parental care than those of altricial species. Compare ; Altricial. P14103. KeepDelete  
22 PRECONDITIONING - Preparation of an animal to cope with changes in environment (social or physical). This preparation may involve exposure to novel feeds, familiarization with different environments, handling, etc. Also see specific preconditioning - SENSORY . P14105. KeepDelete  
23 PREDATION - A form of interspecies relationship in which the attacker (predator) kilts and eats the victim (prey). P14106. KeepDelete  
24 PREDATOR - Any animal which preys upon other animals. P14107. KeepDelete  
25 PREENING - An act of integumentary care in birds similar in function to grooming in mammals. Preening is manifested as manipulation of feathers and distribution of secretions from the uropygial gland (preen gland) using the beak, and also as scratching of the body surface with claws or beak. P14110. KeepDelete  
26 PREFERENCE - Choice of a certain alternative over another alternative(s). This term generally is used in reference to a specific situation or the outcome of such a situation (e.g., preference test, natural preference, learned preference, spatial preference, social preference, feed preference, color preference, preference index, preference order, etc.). Also see specific preference - LEARNED; MATE; NATURAL; OFFSPRING; PARENTAL; SIBLING; SOCIAL P14111. KeepDelete  
27 of 107 PREHENSION - The act of grasping or seizing. Also, the action of the tongue and lips during feed intake of grazing animals. P14203. KeepDelete  
28 PREMATURE BIRTH - Birth after an abnormally short gestation. Offspring born prematurely tend to be underweight or underdeveloped in other ways and usually require special care to survive. P14204. KeepDelete  
29 PREPARTUM - Before parturition. P14206. KeepDelete  
30 PREPARTURIENT BEHAVIOR - Behavioral actions indicative of impending parturition. Typical preparturient behavior in farm animals comprises reduced ambulatory activity, avoidance of slippery floors, careful locomotion, search for delivery site, nest building in some species (e.g., swine, rabbits), search for delivery site, nest building in some species (e.g., swine, rabbits), and predelivery excitement followed by increased recumbency with high respiratory rate. P14208. KeepDelete  
31 PREPUCE SUCKING - Sucking on the prepuce of other individuals. It occurs in young group-housed bull calves. Prepuce sucking may lead to infection abscesses, or stricture of the prepuce causing difficult urination. P14211. KeepDelete  
32 PRESENTING - Exposure of external genitalia by a female in estrus to a male or sexually cooperative female. P14303. KeepDelete  
33 PRESSING - See specific pressing - CHIN HEAD. P14304. KeepDelete  
34 PREVENTIVE AGGRESSION - See Defensive Aggression. P14306. KeepDelete  
35 PROCEPTIVE BEHAVIOR - Solicitation of a male's attention by a sexually receptive female.Compare :Presenting. P14410. KeepDelete  
36 PROESTRUS - The first phase of the estrous cycle, characterized by rapid increase in the size of ovarian follicles and the occurrence of early signs of estrous behavior P14416. KeepDelete  
37 PROGRESSIVE DEFOLIATION - A form of selective grazing whereby animals preferentially consume the most palatable Parts of some plants before eating less palatable portions. Progressive defoliation is most obvious when pasture flora is inadequate in highly palatable plants. P14503. KeepDelete  
38 PROGRESSIVE LAMENESS - Lameness that gradually increases over time, usually caused by inflammation, degeneration of tissue, or neoplasia. P14504. KeepDelete  
39 PROLAPSE - Protrusion of an organ or part of an organ from its normal position due to inadequate strength of supportive tissue (e.g., anal, cloacal, or vaginal prolapse). P14507. KeepDelete  
40 PROPULSUS (cattle) - A segment of copulatory behavior in males, characterized by a distinct, powerful thrust immediately after intromission, and accompanied by ejaculation. P14515. KeepDelete  
41 PROXIMAL - Near or closer to a point of reference. Antonym: Distal. P14603. KeepDelete  
42 PSEUDOCONDITIONING - Development of association between an unconditioned stimulus and a previously neutral stimulus that is not paired with the unconditioned stimulus in time but, due to chance, sometimes appears close to it. As a result, a conditioned response becomes elicited upon the occurrence of the previously neutral stimulus. P14608. KeepDelete  
43 PSEUDOPREGNANCY - Occurrence of physiological and behavioral symptoms of pregnancy without conception. P14609. KeepDelete  
44 PSYCHOLOGICAL CASTRATION - Conditioned inhibition of sexual behavior. P14616. KeepDelete  
45 PSYCHOLOGICAL ESTRUS - Manifestation of alI behavioral signs of estrus, except tolerating mounting. P14617. KeepDelete  
46 PUBERTAL BEHAVIOR - Behavioral activities occurring typically during the period of development of secondary sexual characteristics and reproductive maturity. P14704. KeepDelete  
47 PUBERTY - The developmental stage of an organism when the gonads start to secrete hormones in amounts that are sufficient to cause maturation of genitalia and appearance of secondary sexual characteristics. In normal circumstances, the period is completed when the organism achieves the capability to produce viable gametes and displays behavior characteristic of sexual maturity. P14705. KeepDelete  
48 PUERPERAL BEHAVIOR - Behavior indicative of physical exhaustion immediately following Parturition. The characteristic behavioral state is recumbency. The duration of recumbency is influenced by species affiliation and delivery ease. P14706. KeepDelete  
49 PULLET - A female chicken close to sexual maturity. P14709. KeepDelete  
50 PULLING, FLEECE - See Fleece Pulling P14710. KeepDelete  
51 QUACKING (duck) - A vocalization of ducks, produced either as a single sound or, more typically, as a short series of low sounds, Q14804. KeepDelete  
52 QUADRIPLEGTA - Paralysis or paresis of all four limbs. Synonym: Tetraplegia. Q14805. KeepDelete  
53 QUIDDING - Abnormal eating behavior, characterized by a repeated sequence of food intake, attempt to chew, and expulsion of food from the mouth. It may be caused by a dental problem or an inability to swallow. Q14809. KeepDelete  
54 of 107 QUIESCENCE - Rest, absence of activity. Compare: Refractory Phase Q14810. KeepDelete  
55 QUIET ESTRUS - See Silent Estrus. Q14811. KeepDelete  
56 RACK (horse) - An artificially attained fast cadence, four-beat gait of five-gaited horses. Each leg leaves and hits the ground at regular intervals in the sequence, left hind, left fore, right hind, right fore. Synonym: Single Foot. R14905. KeepDelete  
57 RALES - Chest sounds produced during inspiration and expiration by an animal suffering from respiratory disease. R14908. KeepDelete  
58 RAM - A sexually mature male sheep. R14909. KeepDelete  
59 RAM BLOCKING - A tendency of some males to place themselves between estrous ewes and other males thus preventing them from mating. Ram blocking is commonly displayed by dominant males and in some situations can have an adverse effect on conception rates. R14910. KeepDelete  
60 RAMENER (horse) - In dressage, reduction of the angle between the head and neck while the poll is kept at the apex. R14911. KeepDelete  
61 RATE - Quantity of a variable in relation to some other variable or standard (e.g., number of behavioral events per given time period). Also see specific rate - HEART; RESPIRATION. R15007. KeepDelete  
62 REACTION TIME - Time between the beginning of stimulation and the initiation of response. Compare: Response Latency. R15013. KeepDelete  
63 REACTIVE INHIBITION - Diminishing learning rate or lessened response strength with increasing number of preceding responses in a given trial series. R15014. KeepDelete  
64 REAFFERENCE - Illusionary movement of objects in the visual field caused by discrepancy between the picture expected by the brain and the image on the retina R15015. KeepDelete  
65 REARING - Lifting of the anterior part of the body by shifting weight entirely to the hindlegs. Rearing is common in many species during play, aggression, or us a segment of mounting behavior. Rearing of a ridden horse may indicate refusal or be a startle response and if excessively high, may result in falling over backward, dangerous to both rider and horse. R15017. KeepDelete  
66 REAR-LEG LIFT (horse) - Partial lifting of a rear leg indicative of readiness to kick. Rear-leg lift is considered to be a threat signal. R15101. KeepDelete  
67 RECEPTIVE PHASE - The second phase of estrus, occurring prior to hut closely linked with ovulation. The receptive phase is characterized by willingness of an estrous female to engage in mating. R15102. KeepDelete  
68 RECUMBENCY - See Lie and specific recumbency - LATERAL; SEMILATERAL; VENTRAL R15105. KeepDelete  
69 REDUCTION - Transfer of behavior from the stimulus that motivates it to an alternative stimulus. Redirection may occur when some factor inhibits the animal's response toward the eliciting stimulus, and the behavior is then directed toward the alternate stimulus. R15106. KeepDelete  
70 REFUSAL (horse) - Disobedience (e.g., when the horse refuses to jump an obstacle). R15201. KeepDelete  
71 REGURGITATION - Flow of stomach contents back from the stomach to the mouth. Regurgitation facilitates remastication of boluses of feed in ruminants and provision of food for offspring in canids and some species of birds. R15203. KeepDelete  
72 RELAXATION - To enter into or maintain a restful state characterized by lessened work output, reduction of the level of tonus in tissue (e.g., muscular relaxation) or diminished level of mental arousal (mental relaxation). R15214. KeepDelete  
73 RELEARNING - Reinstitution, through a learning process, of previously learned acts which for some reason have become extinct. R15303. KeepDelete  
74 RENVERS (horse) - An inverse travers. R15306. KeepDelete  
75 REPRODUCTIVE BEHAVIOR - Behavioral actions involved in the sexual reproduction of an organism, including search for a mate(s), courtship, copulatory behavior, and parental care. R15312. KeepDelete  
76 RESPIRATION - Inspiration and expiration of air. R15317. KeepDelete  
77 REST - Interruption of training or work to avoid or recover from fatigue, exhaustion or overtraining. R15412. KeepDelete  
78 RESTING AREA - A location used regularly by one or more animals when resting. Characteristically, resting areas provide safety, protection against adverse weather conditions, or a good vantage point for surveillance of the surroundings. The term also is used to refer to animal holding facilities or pens designed to be used by animals when resting. R15414. KeepDelete  
79 RESTLESSNESS - A behavioral state characterized by sustained arousal and motor activity. Typical actions include short and repeated periods of pacing, scratching, ground scratching, head tossing or jerking, grooming or preening, higher occurrence of urination, frequent alteration between standing and lying, and increased ambulation. R15501. KeepDelete  
80 RESTRAINT - Any technique used to temporarily discourage or prevent unwanted movement. Restraint is used for examination, surgery, convalescence, breeding, and safe handling of animals. R15502. KeepDelete  
81 of 107 RESTRICTED FEEDING - See Limited Feeding. R15503. KeepDelete  
82 RETENTION - Persistence of information in the memory of an organism. R15505. KeepDelete  
83 RETRACTED EARS (horse) - Ears flattened along the dorsal portion of the head. Retraction of ears is a common display during agnostic encounters. R15508. KeepDelete  
84 RETURNED APPETITE - A clinical term for resumption of normal intensity of eating or normal feed intake after a period of inappetance or reduced appetite. R15511. KeepDelete  
85 REWARD - A stimulus or situation that occurs contingent upon performance of a particular behavior and that has pleasant or satisfying characteristics for a given organism. Also see specific reward-ADVENTITIOUS; PRIMARY; SECONDARY. R15513. KeepDelete  
86 RICOCHETAL LOCOMOTION - Locomotion conducted by jumps or hops. R15606. KeepDelete  
87 RIG - A cryptorchid horse. (colloquial term) R15607. KeepDelete  
88 RIGHT, PECKING - See Pecking Right. R15609. KeepDelete  
89 RITUALIZED BEHAVIOR - Behavior, often eclectic in nature, performed in a symbolic, stereotyped manner which is Part of behavior patterns typical of, and often specific to a species (e.g., courtship feeding in some birds). R15614. KeepDelete  
90 ROADSTER (horse) - A horse trained, exhibited, or competing in the pulling of bikes or road wagons. Roadsters are judged working at a walking pace and at slow, medium, and full speed trot. R15615. KeepDelete  
91 ROAR (horse) - A low to medium amplitude sound of variable duration (0.2 - 1.5 sec) emitted during breathing with the mouth slightly open. It is caused by reduced control of the vocal cords and may be a consequence of damage to the laryngeal nerve. Roaring may develop after severe pneumonia and can be corrected surgically. R15616. KeepDelete  
92 ROLLING (cattle) - See Tongue Rolling. R15704. KeepDelete  
93 ROLLING (horse) - An activity characterized by lying down and rolling onto the back accompanied by rubbing movement against the ground. Rolling is considered to be comfort related. The term also refers to side-to-side movement of the body during running in wide-fronted and wide-based horses. R15705. KeepDelete  
94 ROLLING (poultry) - See Egg Rolling. R15706. KeepDelete  
95 ROOST - Any elevated object used as a resting place by birds. In animal agriculture, any object constructed by humans for such use by birds. Also, the act of resting on such objects. R15707. KeepDelete  
96 ROOSTER - A mature male chicken. R15708. KeepDelete  
97 ROOTING (swine) - Digging the ground with the snout. R15709. KeepDelete  
98 ROPE-WALKING (horse) - Defective leg action in which the moving leg travels in a semicircle around the supporting leg and the hooves are planted too close to the horse's midline. R15710. KeepDelete  
99 ROTATION - A twisting or turning movement around the longitudinal axis of a body or limb R15711. KeepDelete  
100 ROUTE HORSE - A horse trained for long distance racing. (colloquial term) R15713. KeepDelete  
101 RUB - To press some portion of the body against a blunt object, or another portion of the body, and generate friction by moving one or the other while they are in sustained contact. Rubbing commonly is a component of integumentary care. Excessive rubbing may also occur in association with skin disease. In some circumstances, rubbing may become stereotyped and thereafter may lead to damage of the integument (e.g., tail-rubbing of horses). R15715. KeepDelete  
102 RUBBER, BODY - See Body Rubber. R15716. KeepDelete  
103 RUBBING - See Chin Pressing and specific rubbing - HOOF; TAlL. R15717. KeepDelete  
104 RUFFLING (chicken) - A postural display characterized by ruffled feathers, extended neck, and a short period of intense shaking of the whole body. Ruffling is considered to be a comfort movement R15718. KeepDelete  
105 RUNNING - Relatively fast locomotion of an organism on the ground in which propulsive force derives from the action of legs. R15804. KeepDelete  
106 RUNNING HORSE - A thoroughbred horse. R15805. KeepDelete  
107 RUNNING WALK (horse) - An artificially attained fast four-beat gait. The legs leave the ground at different times, and the cadence of all four beats should be even in the sequence, left hind, left fore, right hind, right fore (the running walk differs from the rack in lower action of all legs). R15806. KeepDelete