NCR-131 Animal Care and Behavior EFAB video inclusion selection form #11

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1 of 107 SOCIAL FAMILIARIZATION - Acquisition of information about conspecifics, or members of other animal species, facilitating their subsequent correct identification. The process of social familiarization among adult domestic animals starts characteristically with distal investigation (visual, auditory, olfactory) followed by an approach response and proximal investigation (tactile, gustatory). Among neonatal animals, social familiarization begins with proximal investigation. Compare: Socialization. S16815. KeepDelete
2 SOCIAL LICKING - See Licking. S16907. KeepDelete  
3 SOCIAL RANK - See Social Status. S16910. KeepDelete  
4 SOCIAL REJECTION - Exclusion of an individual from a social unit by persistent manifestation of aversion toward it or refusal to provide care. S16912. KeepDelete  
5 SOCIAL RANK ORDER - See Social Hierarchy. S16911. KeepDelete  
6 SOCIAL SEPARATION - Voluntary or imposed severance of physical contacts between two or more individuals. Compare: Social Isolation; Social Segregation. S16917. KeepDelete  
7 SOCIAL STATUS - The rank in the social hierarchy attained by an individual as a consequence of its interactions with other members of its social group. Synonym: Social Hierarchy Status. S17001. KeepDelete  
8 SOCIOGRAM - An ethogram of social behavior indicating preferences and aversions as well as dominance-subordinance relationships among members of a group. S17010. KeepDelete  
9 SOLITARY - A term referring to an individual which characteristically lives alone and infrequently associates with other conspecifics. The same term may be applied in a general sense to a species whose individuals are typically solitary. Antonym: Gregarious. S17014. KeepDelete  
10 SOMNOLENT MALE - A sexually hypoactive male. When exposed to an estrous cow, a somnolent bull may lay his chin on the hindquarters of the cow and stay behind her with closed eyes without any attempt to mount. S17103. KeepDelete  
11 SONG - Vocalization consisting of a species-specific sequence of notes. This term most commonly refers to vocalizations of animals having some distinct social context (e.g., courtship song). S17104. KeepDelete  
12 SONOGRAM - Record of a sound registering tone amplitude, frequency, and intensity. S17105. KeepDelete  
13 SOPOR - A deep or profound sleep. S17107. KeepDelete  
14 SORREL (horse) - A yellowish-brown or yellowish-red shade of chestnut coat color. S17109. KeepDelete  
15 SOUND - Sensation mediated by the auditory sense mode due to vibratory stimulation caused by pressure waves (sound waves) transmitted through air or some other medium. Also see specific sound - STENOSIS. S17111. KeepDelete  
16 SOW - A female swine after delivery of her first litter of offspring. S17112. KeepDelete  
17 SPACING BEHAVIOR - Behavioral activities by which organisms establish and maintain appropriate distances among group members or between adjoining groups. Compare: Social Distance, Individual Distance Zone, Group Distance Zone. S17113. KeepDelete  
18 SPASM - Convulsive contraction of muscles. S17201. KeepDelete  
19 SPECIES-SPECIFIC BEHAVIOR - Behavior that is specific to a particular species of animal. Vocalizations, threat signals, and reproductive behavior patterns frequently are species-specific. S17207. KeepDelete  
20 SPEEDY CUTTING (horse) - Defective leg action in which the hoof of the foreleg hits the pastern or fetlock of the hindleg. S17210. KeepDelete  
21 SPLAY-FOOTED - Characterized by the feet pointing to the side (outwards). This walking defect is also called toe-out or slew-foot. S17303. KeepDelete  
22 SPLAY LEG (swine) - Myofibrial hypoplasia of neonatal piglets, characterized by paralysis of the hind legs or, occasionally, aIl four legs. (colloquial term) S17304. KeepDelete  
23 SPLIT ESTRUS - A term used to refer to extended period of estrus interrupted by short intervals of anestrus. Split estrus occurs most commonly in mares. S17306. KeepDelete  
24 SPONTANEOUS ACTIVITY - See Spontaneous Response. S17308. KeepDelete  
25 SPONTANEOUS BEHAVIOR - Behavior induced by endogenous stimulation without detectable external causation. S17309. KeepDelete  
26 SPONTANEOUS RESPONSE - A response initiated without observable stimulation S17312. KeepDelete  
27 of 107 SPREADER INJURY - Injury caused when the forelegs or hindlegs splay laterally beyond their normal range of motion. Spreader injuries are more likely to occur when flooring is slippery, particularly if animals are caused to move too quickly or to make sudden movements and changes in direction. S17313. KeepDelete  
28 SPRINGER - A female in an advanced stage of pregnancy. (colloquial term) S17314. KeepDelete  
29 SPUR (poultry) - A horn-like protuberance occurring in males and some females on the inner side of the shank and occasionally used as a weapon. S17315. KeepDelete  
30 SQUATTING STANCE - See Mating Stance. S17317. KeepDelete  
31 SQUAWKING (chicken) - A variety of calls made by adult birds in response to predators or when trapped or handIed in such a way as to cause fear. Squawking differs between sexes and breeds, but usually is produced as a relatively high frequency sound of variable duration. S17318 KeepDelete  
32 SQUEAL (horse) - A high amplitude sound of intermediate duration (0.5 -1.5 sec.). This sound frequently is emitted during agnostic interactions and is produced with the mouth open and retracted at the corners, ears laid back, and head raised or turned sideways toward the opponent and often immediately precedes striking out with the legs. S17319. KeepDelete  
33 SQUEAL (swine) - An extended sound (0.5 - 2.0 sec) of both high amplitude and high frequency produced with an open mouth, indicative of a high level of excitement, fear, or pain. Squeals are more frequent in young animals. S17401. KeepDelete  
34 SQUEEZE - A device used to mechanically immobilize conscious animals for a short time to allow some treatment to be performed on them, e.g., dehorning, hoof trimming, branding. S17402. KeepDelete  
35 STAG - A castrated mature male exhibiting secondary sexual characteristics. S17404. KeepDelete  
36 STALE - An animal that has not been used for work for a lengthy period of time so that its physical condition or ability to obey commands have become substandard. S17405. KeepDelete  
37 STALL, FREE - See Free Stall. S17407. KeepDelete  
38 STALL - A place in a barn designed to be occupied by a single animal or, exceptionally, a dam with her neonatal offspring. S17406. KeepDelete  
39 STALL, TIE - See Tie Stall. S17408. KeepDelete  
40 STALLION - A full-grown sexually mature male horse. S17409. KeepDelete  
41 STALL KICKING (horse) - Repeated kicking with hindlegs or forelegs against walls, doors, or other parts of a stall. Stall kicking generates a disturbing noise in the barn and is considered to be a dangerous vice as it often leads to leg injuries. Synonym: Stall Knocking S17410. KeepDelete  
42 STALL KNOCKING (horse) - See Stall Kicking. S17411. KeepDelete  
43 STALL WALKING - Pacing or stereotyped circling in a stall. Primarily referring to such behavior in horses. Stall walking is considered to be a nuisance vice. S17412. KeepDelete  
44 STAMPING - Striking of the sole of a forefoot on the ground. Stamping is performed by sheep and goats and is a threat signal. S17413. KeepDelete  
45 STANCE, MATING - See Mating Stance. S17414. KeepDelete  
46 STAND - To assume or maintain an upright position on extended legs. The behavior patterns involved in standing up show a high degree of uniformity within species, but may be modified by environmental circumstances (e.g., restriction of movement, injury). If an animal has been lying for a long time, it may manifest leg stretching and ventroflexion, frequently followed by defecation, upon standing. S17415. KeepDelete  
47 STARVATION - Food deprivation. S17505. KeepDelete  
48 STENOSIS SOUND - Any of a variety of sounds produced during breathing as a result of partial obstruction of air flow in the upper respiratory tract. Stenosis sounds often are indicators of inflammatory constriction of respiratory pathways. The sounds may consist of hissing, purring, roaring, snorting, snuffling, or whistling. S17513. KeepDelete  
49 STEREOTYPED BEHAVIOR - Behavior repeated in a very constant way. The term generally is used to refer to behavior that develops as a consequence of a problem situation such as extended social isolation, low level of environmental complexity, deprivation, etc. Stereotypy also may arise from genetic predispositions, or from disease of, or damage to, the brain. S17517. KeepDelete  
50 STEREOTYPED MOVEMENT - Any motor activity classified as being an integral part of stereotyped behavior. S17518. KeepDelete  
51 STIMULATION - Generation of neural activity by a stimulus. In the context of experimental behavior, The term simulation also applies to an attempt to generate such neural activity. Also see specific stimutation - ENDOGENOUS; EFAFFERENT; EXOGENOUS; REAFFRENT; VESTIBULAR. S17513. KeepDelete  
52 STOCK - A general term for livestock. Also to place animals in facilities set aside for their use. S17609. KeepDelete  
53 STOTTING - A type of locomotion, occasionally displayed by sheep and some wild species of ungulates, in which movement forward is conducted in a series of long jumps with all four legs leaving the ground at the same time (or almost at the same time). S17702. KeepDelete  
54 of 107 STRETCHING - A muscular activity, characterized by brief, forceful extension of limbs or other parts of the body. Stretching is considered to he a comfort movement. S17709. KeepDelete  
55 STRIDE - The distance between midpoints of two consecutive prints of the same foot. S17711. KeepDelete  
56 STRIDOR - A high-pitched sound produced during respiration and indicative of deformed laryngeal configuration or partial obstruction of the respiratory pathways. S17712. KeepDelete  
57 STRINGHALT (horse) - Sudden, excessive contraction of the flexor muscles of the hock causing the hindleg to rise higher than normal for a given gait. It occurs more frequently in older horses (over 5 years of age) and usually starts to develop us a light jerk of the limb when the animal is turning. S17713. KeepDelete  
58 STRUTTING (chicken) - A threat display characterized by a chase with raised ruff and tail feathers, and trailed wings. S17804. KeepDelete  
59 STUPOR - A state of complete or substantial diminution of sensitivity. S17805. KeepDelete  
60 SUBORDINANCE - See Social Subordinance. S17815. KeepDelete  
61 SUBORDINATION SIGNAL - Any behavioral display or sign performed by an organism that is indicative of acceptance of subordinance to another organism. Common subordination signals are spatial avoidance, avoidance of visual or tactile contact, allogrooming of the dominant individual, exposure of vulnerable areas of the body, frozen posture, readiness to accept punishment, or escape from the scene of a threatening encounter or fight. S17816. KeepDelete  
62 SUBSTITUTE ACTIVITY - See Displacement. S17817. KeepDelete  
63 SUCKING - Grasping an object in the mouth and creating a partial vacuum in the oral cavity by coordinated actions of the lips, tongue, and buccal muscles. Also see specific sucking - BELLY; EAR; NAVEL; PREPUCE; SCROTUM. S17818. KeepDelete  
64 SUCKLING - Acquiring milk by sucking on the teats of a lactating female or nursing device. The term generally refers to the acquisition of milk by young from their dam As a noun, suckling also refers to a preweaned mammal. Also see specific suckling - ADULT. S17901. KeepDelete  
65 SUCKLING REFLEX - The sequentially synchronized movements of the tongue and buccal muscles that create a sucking action. S17902. KeepDelete  
66 SUDDEN LAMENESS - Lameness that occurs instantly as a consequence of injury to a limb or limb-related tissues (e.g., injured tendon, ligament, or muscle, dislocated joint, bone fissure or fracture, claw lesion, etc.). S17904. KeepDelete  
67 SUN BATHING - Basking in the sun to utilize solar radiation for the purpose of thermoregulation and comfort. S17907. KeepDelete  
68 SUPPLEMENTAL LIGHTING - Any augmentation in level or duration of ambient illumination (e.g., artificial lighting of a barn interior). S17913. KeepDelete  
69 SUPPORTIVE LAMENESS - Lameness that occurs when transfer of weight generates pain in the supporting limb. As a result, an ambulating animal will lift this limb sooner than normal and increase the length of the supportive phase of the opposing limb. It also may place more weight on the opposing limb. S17914. KeepDelete  
70 SWALLOWING REFLEX - A complex set of actions that controls swallowing of food and liquids and prevents food from entering the respiratory tract. S18004. KeepDelete  
71 SWAY BACK (sheep) - A disease of neonatal lambs caused by cerebral demyelination, behaviorally manifested by paralysis beginning in the hind legs. S18006. KeepDelete  
72 SWIMMING - Locomotion of an organism through water or liquids. S18008. KeepDelete  
73 SYMMETRIC GAIT - A gait in which the action of each leg is synchronized with another leg. Also see Trot; Pace. S18015. KeepDelete  
74 TAIL BITING (swine) - Aberrant behavior consisting of playful mouthing, chewing, or rigorous biting of the tails of other pigs. Tail biting very often leads to serious injury and death of victimized animals. T18113. KeepDelete  
75 TAIL FLAPPING - See Tail Wagging T18115. KeepDelete  
76 TAIL RESTRAINT (cattle) - Mild twisting of the base of the tail by hand to control an animal's attention and promote handling ease. T18116. KeepDelete  
77 TAIL RUBBING - Stereotyped rubbing of the tail against walls and other objects n a stall. Primarily used in reference to such behavior in horses. Tail rubbing often is an indication of parasites or skin disease, but also can be a sign c>f boredom. Tail rubbing is considered to be a nuisance vice. T18201. KeepDelete  
78 TAIL SWISHING - Swinging of the tail so that the long hairs at the end of the tail brush against the body of the animal. Tail swishing is performed by horses and cattle and serves as a defensive action against flies. T18202. KeepDelete  
79 TAIL WAGGING - Rapid, swinging of the tail from side to side. Tail wagging is performed in a number of contexts by different species, e.g., by suckling lambs or kids, by dogs when experiencing excitement and pleasure. The action is thought to function as a signal communicating the motivational state of the animal performing the behavior. Tail wagging in goats is also a sign of sexual receptivity during estrus. Occasionally it may he performed by nonestrous goats when approached by a mature male. It may also be performed by juvenile does prior to sexual maturity in response to sniffing or mounting attempts by male penmates. T18203. KeepDelete  
80 TAIL WAGGING (ducks) - A postural display characterized by depressed tail feathers that are rapidly moved from side to side. T18204. KeepDelete  
81 of 107 TAKE - Cooperation by a female with the sexual advances, including mounting, of a male. T18206. KeepDelete  
82 TAME - Referring to an animal that has been familiarized with humans so as to be tractable. T18207. KeepDelete  
83 TASTE To perceive stimuli through the gustatory sense mode. Also, the particular gustatory characteristics of a substance. T18209. KeepDelete  
84 TEASER - In agricultural sense, a conspecific animal used for detection of females in estrus, or an animal that serves as a mounting object during semen collection T18214. KeepDelete  
85 TEASING - A process of testing females for readiness to mate. T18301. KeepDelete  
86 TEAT DIPPING - Partial submersion of the teats of lactating animals into a disinfecting fluid to prevent infection. T18302. KeepDelete  
87 TEAT ORDER - A numerical system to designate the position of teats along an udder. In a looser sense, the term is used for the order of littermates along an udder during a suckling event. T18303. KeepDelete  
88 TEAT SAMPLING (swine) - A tendency of neonatal piglets to seek out successive teats on the dam's udder and suckle briefly from them. Teat sampling occurs during the neonursing phase on the day of birth soon after the piglet encounters its first teat and before the development of teat specificity. It is thought to enable the piglet to assess the relative quality of each teat. T18304. KeepDelete  
89 TEAT SPECIFICITY - The tendency of a preweaned mammal to suckle consistently from a particular teat in the dam's udder. T18305. KeepDelete  
90 TEAT SUCKING, JUVENILE - See Juvenile Teat Sucking. T18306. KeepDelete  
91 TEETH, BARED (horse) - See Bared Teeth. T18308. KeepDelete  
92 TEG - A two-year-old sheep. T18309. KeepDelete  
93 TEMPERAMENT - A simplified generalization of an organism according to its excitatory or inhibitory reactions, persistent habits, level of motor activity, emotionality, alertness, curiosity, etc., T18317. KeepDelete  
94 TEMPLATE, BEHAVIORAL - See Behavioral Template. T18402. KeepDelete  
95 TENDENCY, ORAL - See Oral Tendency. T18404. KeepDelete  
96 TERRITORIAL BEHAVIOR - Behavioral actions performed by an individual, pair, or group to establish or maintain a territory (e.g., boundary marking, vocalization, visual displays, aggression, and avoidance of neighboring territories). T18410. KeepDelete  
97 TEST STIMULUS - An experimental stimulus. This term is most commonly used in generalization studies to determine the ability of animals to differentiate between a novel stimulus and the original stimulus. T18416. KeepDelete  
98 TETHER - The instrument or device used to tie animals to one specific location (e.g., a barn stancheon), but permitting free feed intake, standing, and lying down. Also, to tie an animal with a tether. T18418. KeepDelete  
99 TEXAS GATE - A grid having intrabar spaces large enough for a hoof to pass through, placed over a ditch across a roadway at the entrance to a fenced-off area. A Texas gate will allow wheeled vehicles to pass through the entrance, but will contain horses or cattle within the enclosure because they will refuse to step on the gate. T18420. KeepDelete  
100 THIGMOTAXIC BEHAVIOR - Tendency to stay close to or in contact with walls or objects and to avoid open areas. This tendency is relatively common in many species of animals during shelter seeking and resting. T18512. KeepDelete  
101 THIRST - An uncomfortable sensation induced by deprivation of liquids. Thirst generally is associated with increased appetite for liquids, provided the du ration of such deprivation has not resulted in lethargy. T18514. KeepDelete  
102 THREAT - Indication of intent to harm directed toward an adversary. Functionally, threat provides an opportunity for the threatened individual to resolve the situation by escape, avoidance, or display of submission. T18602. KeepDelete  
103 THRESHOLD - The minimum or maximum stimulus intensity that an organism is able to sense. Also see specific threshold - DIFFERENCE; EMIGRATION; STIMULUS. T18606. KeepDelete  
104 THRIFTY - Of robust health and vigor. (colloquial term) T18607. KeepDelete  
105 THROW - The act of causing an animal to fall to the ground for the purpose of branding or some other treatment. T18608. KeepDelete  
106 THRUSTING - Repeated, forceful movement forward followed by slower retraction. Such action may be performed with the pelvis, head, tongue, etc. T18609. KeepDelete  
107 THUMPING (rabbit) - Simultaneous striking of both hindpaws on the ground. Thumping is considered to be a warning signal. T18610. KeepDelete