NCR-131 Animal Care and Behavior EFAB video inclusion selection form #12

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1 of 103TIDBITTING (chicken) - Calls produced by mature males and broody females consisting of a series of regularly spaced, wide frequency range sounds. They are vocalized by males during courtship and aggressive encounters, and by females in an epimeletic context. T18612. KeepDelete
2TIE STALL - A stall within a housing unit where an animal is tethered except when released temporarily for exercise, grazing, milking, or examination. T18613. KeepDelete  
3TIME-SHARING - Alternation between two behavioral actions due to disinhibition and motivational competition. When the motivation for a dominant activity declines, the subdominant activity is disinhibited and is manifested until rising motivation for the dominant activity inhibits the subdominant activity through motivational competition. T18701. KeepDelete  
4TOE TRIMMING (poultry) - Removal of the distal portion of the phalanges, including the toenail. T18704. KeepDelete  
5TOLERANCE - The ability of an organism to survive in a given range of environmental conditions and maintain normal bodily functions. Also see specific tolerance-social T18705. KeepDelete  
6TOM - A mature male turkey or mature male cat. T18707. KeepDelete  
7TONGUE - A muscular, mobile structure attached at the ventral posterior of the mouth. The tongue is used for manipulation of food in the mouth during mastication, for licking, and to assist vocalization. The dorsal surface of the tongue has taste buds that contain gustatory receptors which mediate the sense of taste. T18708. KeepDelete  
8TONGUE, CURLED - See Curled Tongue. T18709. KeepDelete  
9TONGUE LOLLING - Protrusion of the tongue hanging from the oral cavity, not associated with eating, drinking, or searching for food. Tongue lolling may develop into a habit that, in show horses, is considered a nuisance vice. T18710. KeepDelete  
10TONGUE PLAYING - See Tongue Rolling T18711. KeepDelete  
11TONGUE ROLLING - Repeated extension of the tongue followed by rolling of the tip back into the mouth. Tongue rolling occurs more frequently in cattle fed a high concentrate diet and is considered to be a nuisance vice. T18712. KeepDelete  
12TONGUING - A distinct form of scratch reflex manifested in bovines as periodical insertion of the tongue into a nostril. T18713. KeepDelete  
13TONIC IMMOBILITY - Temporary inability to move manifested by an animal upon close exposure to, or handling by, some powerful fear-producing agent (e.g., "feigning of death" in the proximity of a predator), T18714. KeepDelete  
14TORPOR - A state of minimized metabolic and physical activity and sensation associated with lowered body temperature. Total inactivity. T18717. KeepDelete  
15TOSSING HEAD - See Head Tossing. T18718. KeepDelete  
16TOUCH - To come into contact with another organism, object, or part of the body. The term usually is used for situations in which the contact does not involve a great deal of force. T18801. KeepDelete  
17TRACE CONDITIONING - A type of classical conditioning in which the conditioned stimulus is presented and terminated prior to the onset of the unconditioned stimulus. T18803. KeepDelete  
18TRAIL - A pathway made by animals walking to pastures, water source, or shelters. Animals within an established group have strong tendency to follow each other and use the same route. T18806. KeepDelete  
19TRAINABILITY - Capacity of an organism to be trained to perform a given task. Trainability may refer to quantitative aspects of training (e.g., time required to reach a certain speed of response) or qualitative aspects (e.g., ability of response) T18807. KeepDelete  
20TRAINING Any procedure instituted to cause acquisition of a required action or inhibition of undesirable action by an animal that will enable the animal to make an appropriate response in a given circumstance. The term training also is used for progressive conditioning (e.g., behavior shaping in equine dressage) or physical exercise to improve some aspect of performance. Also see specific training - DISCRIMINATION; DISCRIMINATIVE; REWARD. T18808. KeepDelete  
21TREADING (chicken) - Behavior of males displayed in the copulatory mounting position prior to cloacal contact, characterized by several relatively fast treading movements of the legs. T18901. KeepDelete  
22TRILL (chicken) - High amplitude, repeated calls (~3 per second) produced by chicks in response to unfamiliar noises, strange objects and sudden changes in environment. Trilling appears to indicate a state of alarm T18908. KeepDelete  
23TRIUMPH CEREMONY (geese) - Symbolic attack toward an aversive stimulus followed by return either to the main body of the group or to partner or prospective mate, after which the group or pair engage in intense vocalization, neck stretching, and wing-flapping. T18909. KeepDelete  
24TROCAR - A sharp pointed stylet inside a metal tube that can penetrate abdominal muscles, peritoneum, and the wall of a rumen. When the stylet is withdrawn after penetration, the tube facilitates release of gases from a bloated digestive tract. T18910. KeepDelete  
2525TROT - A naturally developed regular two-beat gait with the leg movement synchronized diagonally. The sequence of hoof beats is left hind together with right fore followed by right hind together with left fore. T18915. KeepDelete  
26TROTTER (horse) - A horse that races using a two-beat diagonal gait called the trot. T18916. KeepDelete  
27TRUE ESTRUS - See Receptive Phase. T18917. KeepDelete  
28TUPPING (sheep) - Mating and insemination in sheep. (colloquial term) T19001. KeepDelete  
29TUSHES - Canine teeth in horses. T19002. KeepDelete  
30TUSKS - Canine teeth in the pig and a number of other mammalian species. T19003. KeepDelete  
31TWITCH (horse) - A simple restraint device consisting of a flexible loop (e.g., rope) connected to a short stick. The loop, when placed around a horse's lip, can be twisted gradually to squeeze the lip, thus controlling the horse's attention and promoting handling ease. T19005. KeepDelete  
32TWITTER - A relatively low-amplitude, repeated vocalization produced by chicks in response to certain novel or suddenly appearing stimuli. Generally, each element in a twitter series is characterized by short duration and rapidly ascending sound frequency. Twittering seems to indicate a state of mild arousal without apparent fear or distress. T19007. KeepDelete  
33UDDER - The mammary gland of females in some mammalian species. U19101. KeepDelete  
34ULCER - Any long lasting breach in the skin or in the membrane of the body cavity. U19102. KeepDelete  
35UNCONSCIOUS BEHAVIOR - Any behavioral action wherein the organism is aware of neither its performance nor its causation or function at the time of performing the action. This term is often inappropriately used for behaviors guided by subconscious (extraconscious) processes. U19109. KeepDelete  
36UNCONSCIOUS PROCESS - A process that is inaccessible to the conscious mind. U19110. KeepDelete  
37UNTAME - Referring to an animal that has not been familiarized with humans and thus is intractable, producing avoidance or aggressive responses in the presence of people. U19117. KeepDelete  
38UPSIDE-DOWN PRESENTATION - Fetal presentation in which the forelegs and the nose enter the birth canal while the dorsal part of the body of the fetus is oriented ventrally. U19119. KeepDelete  
39URINATION - Discharge of urine from the body. Animals, particularly male horses, spread apart their hindlegs and remain stationary during urination. Bovine males and boars may occasionally urinate while walking. Swine end to urinate in wet areas of the pen. Synonym: Micturition. U19203. KeepDelete  
40URINE SAMPLING - Nasal contact by males with the urine of urinating Females, usually Followed by lip curling. Urine sampling is most common in bovines. U19204. KeepDelete  
41UTERINE PROLAPSE - Partial eversion of the uterus from the vulva. Uterine prolapse occurs frequently in hens, more often in cattle than in horses, and very rarely in pigs. U19210. KeepDelete  
42VACUUM ACTIVITY - A behavior, typically a modal action pattern, manifested in the absence of the stimulus which normally activates such behavior. For example pregnant sows close to Parturition engage in movements characteristic of nest building even if housed in farrowing crates without any nest material available. V19301. KeepDelete  
43VANDENBERG EFFECT - Enhancement of sexual maturation in a female by exposure to male pheromones. V19307. KeepDelete  
44VEAL CRATE - See Crate. V19401. KeepDelete  
45VEALER - A calf raised for slaughtering at an early age. V19402. KeepDelete  
46VEGETATIVE ACTION - A term occasionally used to refer to nonreproductive biological processes such as respiration, eating, or excretion. V19403. KeepDelete  
47VENTRIFLEXION - Bending movement induced by flexion of ventral muscles and relaxation of dorsal muscles, (e.g., lowering of an animal's head). Compare: Dorsiflexion V19408. KeepDelete  
48VICE - An undesirable habit of an animal. Dangerous vices can be harmful to the animal itself, to peers, or to humans. Nuisance vices are esthetically unpleasing to human V19413. KeepDelete  
49VIGILANCE - The characteristic or condition of being attentive to threat and danger. Behavioral signs of vigilance are raised head and sensory focusing to survey the surroundings. V19414. KeepDelete  
50VIGILANT BEHAVIOR - Any behavior indicative of alertness to potential danger. Compare: Sentinel Behavior. V19415. KeepDelete  
51VISION - Perception of light stimuli. Vision is mediated by the specialized structures and visual receptors in the eye. Synonym: Sight. V19501. KeepDelete  
52VISUAL CLIFF - Any situation in which an animal perceives a sudden drop-off in the substrate, even if the support under foot continues to be horizontal and solid. Such situations are used in the study of perception. Animals of some species or age will refuse to cross over onto a solid but transparent floor beyond a visual cliff. V19504. KeepDelete  
53VISUAL FIELD - The complete area, including all objects in it, visible to the eye at any given time. V19505. KeepDelete  
54VOCALIZATION - Production of sounds by the vibration of vocal cords in the larynx. The sounds may be modified by the organs and structures of the oral cavity. Also see specific vocalization - "MM"; "MOO"; "MooEH"; "MooH"; "MRRH" V19509. KeepDelete  
55VOLUNTARY BEHAVIOR - Any action mediated by volition. V19512. KeepDelete  
56VOMIT - To eject gastrointestinal contents through the mouth. Vomiting is controlled by the vomiting center of the medulla and is elicited by simultaneous contraction of the diaphragm and abdominal muscles, and relaxation of the esophageal sphincter, V19513. KeepDelete  
57WALK (horse) - A naturally developed, evenly cadenced, four-beat gait. The sequence of hoof beats are left hind, left fore, right hind and right fore. Depending on the speed, two or three hooves may he touching the ground at any one time. W19603. KeepDelete  
58WALKING - Relatively low speed locomotion of an organism on the ground in which propulsive force derives from the action of legs. Also see specific walking - STALL. W19604. KeepDelete  
59WALLOWING - An activity (considered to be comfort related) characterized by partial submersion of the body into some wet substrate (e.g., puddle, mud, etc.). Among farm animals, wallowing is most common in swine and is positively correlated with environmental temperature. W19605. KeepDelete  
60WALTZING (chicken) - A postural display of males performed as a semicircular or circular locomotion around hens or male opponents. The outside wing is usually towered, sometimes so that its primaries touch the ground and produce a rasping sound. Waltzing can he a part of a threat or courtship behavior. W19606. KeepDelete  
61WARNING CALL - A vocal warning signal. W19609. KeepDelete  
62WARNING SIGNAL - Any signal broadcast by an organism to warn others of its presence and of its intent to be aggressive in the event of an incursion (e.g. territorial calling in the context of territorial maintenance) The term also includes threat signals directed toward an opponent(s) during a situation of social conflict. Compare: Threat Signal. W19610. KeepDelete  
63WATER BAG - The appearance of fetal membranes prior to parturition. (colloquial term) W19701. KeepDelete  
64WATERING - Delivery of drinking water to animals. W19702. KeepDelete  
65WATER SHYNESS - Excessive or persistent refusal to enter into water. This behavior is common h animals which have not had prior opportunity to investigate bodies of water. W19703. KeepDelete  
66WAXY-SEAL (horse) - Preparturient occurrence of waxy substances on the tips of the teats. Indicates impending parturition. (colloquial term) W19704. KeepDelete  
67WEANING - Permanent discontinuation of nursing of young mammals. W19705. KeepDelete  
68WEANLING - Any young animal that recently has been weaned. W19706. KeepDelete  
69WEAPON - Any organ of the body able to injure an adversary or prey. W19707. KeepDelete  
70WEAVING (horse) - Stereotyped transfer of body weight from one side to the other in conjunction with waving of the head back and forth. W19708. KeepDelete  
71WEAVING (swine) - Stereotyped, rhythmical swaying of the head. It occurs material when the animals are fed high concentrate diets. It is thought to be material when the animals are fed high concentrate diets. It is thought to he an indicator of boredom. W19709. KeepDelete  
72WETHER - A male sheep castrated before sexual maturity W19712. KeepDelete  
73WHETTING - A colloquial term occasionally used to refer to repeated stroking or rubbing actions of some parts of animal body (e.g., horns, teeth) against surrounding objects. W19713. KeepDelete  
74WHINING (chicken) - A type of call characterized by low sound frequency, pulse-like vocalization with an extended final tone in each sequence. It is assumed that whining calls have threat and sexual functions. W19714. KeepDelete  
75WHINNY (horse) - A medium amplitude, rapidly pulsating sound of intermediate duration (0.5 - 1.5 sec) and descending pitch. A horse begins the vocalization with its mouth closed but ends with it open. It is produced by horses that are separated from their peers and also may be a greeting signal, as it often is emitted upon sight of a peer or a caretaker. The whinny is thought to be a sign of mild excitement. W19715. KeepDelete  
76WHISTLING - A sound during respiration caused by inflammation or thickening of mucus membranes lining the pharynx. W19716. KeepDelete  
77WHITE SCOUR - See Colibacillosis W19717. KeepDelete  
78WHITTEN EFFECT - A phenomenon occurring when presence of a male has a positive, stimulatory effect on manifestation of estrus in conspeciflc females. W19801. KeepDelete  
79WHITTEN PHENOMENON - See Whitten Effect. W19802. KeepDelete  
80WIND SUCKING - See Cribbing. W19804. KeepDelete  
81WING-FLAPPING (chicken) - A postural display of birds performed as rapid, and often loud, synchronized movement of wings. Wing-flapping occurs on hot humid days and most frequently immediately after mating. W19806. KeepDelete  
82WINGING-OUT (horse) - Excessive paddling. W19807. KeepDelete  
83WING SHOULDER - A postural adjustment to minimize weight pressure on lateral digits of the feet. It may be a symptom of laminitis or hypophosphataemia. W19808. KeepDelete  
84WING STRETCHING (chicken) - Simultaneous extension of the wing and leg on the same side of the body, assumed to be a comfort movement. W19809. KeepDelete  
85WINKING (horse) - Rhythmical contraction and relaxation of vulval labia and eversion of the clitoris. Winking occurs most frequently during estrus and, normally, for a short time after urination. W19810. KeepDelete  
86WITCH'S MILK - Milk secretion that occurs occasionally in small amounts by neonates - (colloquial term) W19812. KeepDelete  
87WITHER NIBBLING (horse) - Reciprocal allogrooming jointly performed between horses facing in opposite directions. Both partners gently bite and lip stroke each other's withers and other dorsal areas of their bodies, W19814. KeepDelete  
88WOBBLER (horse) - A young horse that shows swaying action of the hindquarters, stumbling, and distorted movements, particularly when trotting. Spinal injury is the main cause of these locomotory defects. W19816. KeepDelete  
89WOOD GNAWING - Gnawing of wooden fences, partitions, or other fixtures by horses, cattle, pigs, and rabbits. Wood gnawing is a fairly common behavior of farm animals but its occurrence is increased when animals are fed high concentrate diets, W19817. KeepDelete  
90WOOL PICKING - See Fleece Pulling. W19901. KeepDelete  
91WOOL PULLING - See Fleece Pulling. W19902. KeepDelete  
92WORK (horse) - Activity of a horse directed by humans (e.g., pulling equipment, rounding up cattle, etc.). W19903. KeepDelete  
93WRY-NECK - Deformity in a horse or cattle fetus characterized by rigidly curved neck that resists intrauterine effort to straighten it and generally prevents passage of the fetus through the birth canal. W19905. KeepDelete  
94YAWN - An involuntary gaping of the mouth accompanied by inspiration of air and, often, stretching of the body, Y19906. KeepDelete  
95YEANING - The process of giving birth in sheep and goats. Synonym: Kidding, Lambing. Y19907. KeepDelete  
96YEANLING - A young sheep or goat. Y19908. KeepDelete  
97YEARLING - An animal in its second year of life. Y19909. KeepDelete  
98YOKED CONTROL - The individual in a yoked experiment that receives reinforcement contingent on a given operant response of another individual(s~, while its own performance of the same response does not result in its reinforcement Y19914. KeepDelete  
99YOKED EXPERIMENT - An experiment in which the technique of yoked reinforcement is used, generally to separate the effect of reinforcement frequency from the effects of other variables. Y19915. KeepDelete  
100YOKED REINFORCEMENT - Reinforcement of one or more organisms that is contingent on a given operant response by another organism. For example, if an animal located in one compartment performs a given response, an :animal in a second compartment is presented with a reinforcement, regardless of its own responses. Y19916. KeepDelete  
101ZEITGEBER - See Time Setter. Z20001. KeepDelete  
102ZONE - See specific zone--COMFORT; GROUP DISTANCE; INDIVIDUAL DISTANCE; THERMAL COMFORT; THERMONEUTRAL. Z20001. KeepDelete  
103ZOOPHOBIA - An excessive fear of animals by humans. Z20004. KeepDelete