The time of people in North America generally
is divided into five cultural periods, all of which are represented
at Lubbock Lake Landmark.
The first, the Paleoindian Period, is divided into:
Clovis (11,500-11,000 years ago)
Folsom (10,800-10,300 years ago)
Plainview (10,000 years ago) and;
Firstview (8,600 years ago)
Then follows the:
Archaic Period (8,500-2000 years ago)
Ceramic (2,000-500 years ago)
Protohistoric (500-300 years ago) and;
Historic (300 years ago to modern times)
Material from the Clovis Period has been found on
a gravel bar of the once active stream in the ancient river valley.
Excavations have uncovered the remains of several extinct animals:
mammoth, two types of horse, camel, ancient bison, giant short-faced
bear, and giant pampathere (armadillo-like animal). This material
has been recovered from an area where secondary butchering of parts
of carcasses tool place and mammoth bones were broken to secure
pieces to use or make into tools. Folsom and later Paleoindian peoples
hunted and killed ancient bison around the ponds and marshes in
the draw. Locations where bison were both killed and butchered are
called kill/butchering locales.
The Archaic Period of the Southern High Plains is
poorly understood. Several bone beds containing bison and pronghorn
antelope remains have been found in the windblown and stream deposits
of this stratum at the Landmark. A bison kill dating from the Early
Archaic and a baking "oven" dating to the Middle Archaic
have been discovered. This oven actually was a large oval pit that
contained burned rock and ash. The absence of bone has led researchers
to believe it was used for processing vegetal matter. Radiocarbon
dating has determined the oven to be about 5,000 years old. Several
Late Archaic camps have been uncovered. A camp generally is represented
by hearths (campfires), scattered hearthstones, discarded tools,
and scattered remains of small animals consumed as food.
Broken Puebloan and Mogollon tradeware pottery have
been found in the Ceramic levels. Archaeological features include
camp sites with scattered stone tools, flakes (small segments of
stone that are the result of tool making), broken bones, and hearths.
Excavation of processing stations from this period have produced
the remains of modern bison, coyote, wolf, and pronghorn antelope.
The Protohistoric Period is a transitional one. It
extends from the time just prior to contact through first contact
with Europeans. Spanish explorers were in the area during the later
Protohistoric Period, but their presence had no detectable influence
on the native cultures or archaeological remains. The Apaches are
known to have been in the area from at least 1450 to the mid-1700s.
The Historic Period represents the time of full contact
with, and influence by, Europeans. Excavated Historic deposits indicate
the presence of modern horse, as well as metal and glass. The Apache
were displaced from the area by the Comanches who roamed the Southern
High Plains from the mid-1700s to the 1870s. Information derived
through excavation of sites from these time periods can be compared
to historical records to provide a clearer understanding of the
lifeways and population movements of these native peoples.
Evidence of Anglo-American habitation has been found in the most
recent archaeological deposits. Some of these artifacts reflect
the use of this area by the buffalo hunters in the 1870s. Artifacts
such as rifle cartridges, metal hardware, square nails, buttons,
and a ginger beer bottle represent George Singer's store and home
of the early 1880s.
The Singer Store was the first commercial business for the area.
Located at the edge of what was then called Long Lake and the crossing
of two military trails, the store was built near the springs as
a trading post for early settlers and cattle ranchers in the area.
It was in operation from 1881-1886 when it burned down; the store
was rebuilt further downstream. The Singer Store represents the
founding of the community of Lubbock.