The Lubbock Lake Landmark is an archaeological preserve containing evidence of peoples on the Southern High Plains for almost 12,000 years. Due to its nearly complete record of human activity within well-stratified and well-dated geological deposits, the Lubbock Lake Landmark is one of the most important archaeological sites in North America.

An archaeological site is any area that has an indication of activity by peoples of the past.

An archaeological site represents a piece of cultural and natural heritage of a region and the nation. Through survey and excavation, researchers attempt to reconstruct the ways in which people lived and adapted to their surroundings. Researchers study artifacts (objects made and modified for use by people) as well as plant, animal, and geologic specimens from excavations that might reveal information about the ways past peoples lived within the past landscapes and natural history.

Archaeology is important for the knowledge it unearths of societies and peoples unknown to today's population, past climates, and the natural history of a region. The placement, or context, in which archaeological evidence is found is very important for interpretation. When archaeological context is disturbed by people or natural means, information becomes irretrievable for scholars and ultimately for everyone.

As an archaeological preserve, the Landmark is government-protected from destruction due to widespread population growth, urbanization, and vandalism. According to the Office of the Texas State Archaeologist, over 6,000 Texas sites fall victim to some sort of disturbance every year, and only a handful receive professional attention.