College of Arts and Sciences

Professor Jane L. Winer, Dean

The College of Arts and Sciences offers a broad spectrum of programs and courses in the arts, humanities, mathematics, and social, behavioral, and natural sciences. The primary function of the college is to impart to students the knowledge, the skills of thinking and communicating, and the values and attitudes that constitute a liberal education. The faculty of the college seek to instill in their students a humanistic spirit, an appreciation of creativity, a commitment to excellence and truth, an ability to think critically and to communicate effectively, and a desire for lifelong learning.

The courses and programs in Arts and Sciences also provide a base of knowledge and skills from which students may enter such professional fields of study as law and medicine.

The student should note carefully any particular requirements indicated by the department in which he or she plans to major or minor. For some departmental programs, suggested curricula have been designed and are presented in tables under the appropriate departmental heading. General degree requirements are listed on the following pages. There are also several interdepartmental degree programs that are described in a separate section below. Information regarding graduate programs offered by Arts and Sciences departments is available in the Graduate Catalog.

Courses are listed on the following pages by departments. Each course is listed by name and number, and most include brief descriptions. An examination of these course descriptions will reveal that many subjects are covered to meet different interests and purposes. Some courses are open to all students, some courses have prerequisites, others are only for the specialist in that area. Students thus have an opportunity to take courses that broaden their educational experience or that provide concentration in a particular subject. The wise student will include courses of both kinds.

Core Curriculum Requirements. The Core Curriculum requirements ensure breadth in each academic program.

These requirements have been incorporated into the college's various degree programs. Students have no need to refer to the Core Curriculum requirements unless so directed by their specific degree program.

Course Load. A normal full-time course load is 12-19 hours per semester. In calculating the course load, the dean will consider all active correspondence courses as a part of the course load. Course loads in excess of 19 semester hours require approval by the Associate Dean in the Student Division of the College of Arts and Sciences. The maximum course load for a student on probation is 16 hours.

The normal course load for a single summer term is 6-8 hours. To meet graduation requirements, a graduating senior may petition to take 9 hours one term or a total of 15 hours in both terms.

Catalog Selection. Students will use the catalog issued for the year in which they were first officially admitted to the College of Arts and Sciences, or a more recent catalog if approved. However, if they later transfer to another institution or another college at Texas Tech, they will use the catalog in effect when they are readmitted to the College of Arts and Sciences. For these purposes, a catalog expires after seven years at which time the current catalog becomes the catalog in effect.

Credit by Examination. A matriculated student may attempt credit by examination (described elsewhere in this catalog) by obtaining written approval from the academic dean's office.

Grades of D. Credits for a course in which a grade of D is earned may not be applied toward fulfillment of the major (sometimes including adjunct requirements), minor, or teaching field requirements for any degree program.

Grading Practices. The College of Arts and Sciences conforms to university grading practices as set forth in the major section entitled "Academic Regulations" in this catalog. In addition, the following regulations apply within the college.

Except for those courses designated "may be repeated for credit" in this catalog, no course may be used more than once on a degree plan unless it has been approved by the Associate Dean in the Student Division of the College of Arts and Sciences.

Second Bachelor's Degree. No second bachelor's degree is conferred until the candidate has completed at least 24 semester hours in residence in addition to the courses counted toward the first bachelor's degree. Credit by examination and correspondence courses will not satisfy the 24-hour residence requirement.

Freshman Year. Entering freshmen develop their programs in conference with an academic advisor. The students report to their advisors for such individual conferences or group meetings as are needed for the purpose of orienting themselves to academic regulations and procedures, curricula, and degree requirements in their various areas of interest.

Students are urged to take required freshman courses during the freshman year. During the sophomore year the student should complete the second year of English and all other freshman requirements. Normally, Core Curriculum requirements should be completed by the end of the sophomore year.

Freshmen should not enroll in junior-senior level courses.

Admission of Transfer Students. Students transferring from another academic institution must meet the university-wide admission requirements stated in an earlier section. Students requesting permission to transfer from another college at Texas Tech must have an adjusted cumulative GPA of at least 2.00. In addition, they must provide the Student Division office (Holden Hall 102) with a transcript of all academic work. Approval will be granted at the Student Division office. The College of Arts and Sciences will determine the applicability of any transferred credit to academic programs in the college. The last 30 hours prior to graduation must be completed while enrolled in the College of Arts and Sciences.

Arts and Sciences Undeclared. Freshmen or sophomores may be admitted with a general major known as "Arts and Sciences Undeclared" (ASUD) until they select the major degree program in which they intend to graduate. The College of Arts and Sciences offers a broad area of education that includes the social sciences, arts, and humanities, as well as the natural sciences and mathematics. Arts and Sciences Undeclared is only a temporary administrative designation where students cannot earn a degree. Students in the College of Arts and Sciences are urged to focus on fulfilling general degree requirements during their first two years. This alleviates the pressure to make an immediate decision on a major and career. Students can use their first two years to build a strong academic foundation. At the same time, students can investigate career alternatives and take elective courses in those professional fields or subject areas that are possible majors. Students listed as ASUD are advised by academic counselors in the University Transition Advisement Center in 79 Holden Hall to help with the selection of general degree requirements, electives, and choosing a major. After taking courses that are required for most majors (for example, English, American history, political science, and mathematics), the student has the flexibility to begin working toward any of the major fields offered within the College of Arts and Sciences. ONLY STUDENTS WITH FEWER THAN 60 HOURS MAY BE LISTED AS ARTS AND SCIENCES UNDECLARED. Students who have completed 60 or more hours will have a hold placed on their records until a major is declared.

Degree Plan and Intention to Graduate. Students are encouraged to file degree plans with the student division office as soon as their academic goals are clearly defined. Students must file degree plans upon completing 60 hours of course work and no later than the semester prior to the intended semester of graduation.

The Intention to Graduate form must be filed by the fourth Friday of the graduation term for May or December graduations, or by the second Friday of the first summer term for August graduation.

Teacher Education. The curricula of most of the Bachelor of Arts degree programs and some of the Bachelor of Science programs are sufficiently flexible to permit a student to major in an academic subject, yet meet the requirements for certification by taking the required courses in the College of Education. Prospective teachers should refer to the section of this catalog describing teacher education and consult the College of Education and the chairperson or undergraduate advisor of the department in which they wish to major.

General Degree Requirements

Requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Arts also apply to all other baccalaureate degrees offered through the College of Arts and Sciences unless specifically shown to the contrary. Not more than 24 hours in agriculture, architecture, business administration, education, engineering and/or human sciences may be counted (and not more than 6 hours additional if the minor is taken outside Arts and Sciences.)

Bachelor of Arts. The curriculum established for this degree is designed to provide the foundation of a liberal education through a well-rounded study of the humanities, arts, mathematics, and social, behavioral, and natural sciences. It also provides the factual basis and the insights requisite for specialized study and professional work in these fields.

General Requirements

(See section on Undergraduate Credit by Examination for information on credit provided by test scores for these requirements.) Students must take the specified number of hours in these areas. With a few exceptions, courses from the major and minor may be used to satisfy these requirements. Except for the multicultural requirement, a course may not be counted in two different General requirements areas. Nor may a course be counted in both the major and minor.

Semester Hours

1. English -- 12

The 12 hours of English must consist of ENGL 1301 and 1302 and two literature courses (including creative writing). CLAS 1310 or ENGL 2311 may be used to fulfill 3 hours of this requirement.

2. Oral Communication. -- 3

COMS 2300 or 3358, HDFS 2320, MGT 3373 (MGT 3373 may not be taken by correspondence), PETR 3308.

3. Foreign Language -- 6-16

A student must complete 6 hours at the sophomore level or above in a single language. If 4 or more semesters of high school foreign language are accepted for admission, the student should consult the information preceding the course listing for the foreign language department. A student enrolling in the first-year sequence will have a requirement of 12-16 hours. A student who enrolls in the second-year sequence will have a 6-hour requirement. International students whose native language is not English and who graduated from a secondary school in their native country may satisfy this requirement by bringing their certificate of graduation to the Student Division of the Arts and Sciences dean's office. However, international students may not receive credit for courses in their native language which are numbered below 4000. Students who petition to complete the foreign language requirement via study abroad through a non-Texas Tech affiliated program will agree to have foreign language credit applied to their degrees based on scores on a language placement test administered by the language laboratory, upon the student's return from the study abroad. Approval to do this must be granted in advance by the Associate Dean. For more information, consult the Department of Classical and Modern Languages and Literatures.

4. Mathematics and Logical Reasoning -- 6

All mathematics courses, 1320 and above (except 3430) may be used. PHIL 2310 or 4310 may be used to satisfy 3 hours of this requirement. Some other courses listed in the Core Curriculum requirements (e.g., MUTH 3303, PSY 3403, and SOC 3391) may not be used.

5. Natural Science -- 8-11

If 4 or more high school semesters of natural laboratory science (not including general, physical, or applied science) are accepted for admission, the requirement is 8 hours; if not, the requirement is 11 hours. The first 8 hours of a student's requirement must come from Core Curriculum-approved laboratory courses in the following areas: ANTH 2300 & 2100, astronomy, atmospheric science, biology, chemistry, geology, HONS 2305 and 2115, 2306 and 2116, physical geography, physics, plant and soil science, or zoology. Additional required hours must come from the above areas or from ANTH 3310, 3311, 4341, HONS 3302.

6. Technology and Applied Science -- 3

Courses must be selected from the Core Curriculum requirements approved list. Mass Communications majors may not use TELE 3300 or 3310 to satisfy this requirement.

7. Social and Behavioral Sciences -- 6

Three hours must come from courses in individual or group behavior approved for Core Curriculum requirements. The other 3 hours may come from the same list or from anthropology, economics, geography, political science, psychology, sociology, and social work but excluding courses cited as options for any other requirement. Mass Communications majors may not use ADV 4313, JOUR 4330, or MCOM 1300 to satisfy any part of this requirement.

8. American History -- 6

Students will normally enroll in HIST 2300 and 2301 although any American history courses will satisfy this requirement.

9. Political Science -- 6

Students will enroll in POLS 1301 and normally in 2302. For more information, see the political science section of this catalog. One course must be taken from a Texas college or university.

10. Humanities -- 6

Classical and modern languages, English (except technical writing), history, philosophy (except PHIL 1310, 2310, 3321, 3330, 3331, 4310), ANTH 3323, 3325, 3346, 3351, architecture history, CLAS 1320, 1330, 3320, 3330, 3350, C LT 2301, 3302, 3334, 4305, COMS 3311, 3318, 3319, HONS 3301, HUM 2301, 2302, JOUR 3350, LAIS 2300, 4300, LARC 3302, POLS 3330, 3331, 3332, 3333, 3334, THA 2310. Mass Communications majors may not use JOUR 3350 to satisfy any part of this requirement.

11. Visual and Performing Arts -- 6

Art (except ART 3311, 3362, 4315), ARCH 1312, 1441, 1442, DAN 1204, 3313, HONS 3304, LARC 3406, 3407, MUAP 1001, 1002, 1123, 1124, 2001, 2002, 2123, 2124, 2133, 2134, 3001, 3002, 3205, 4001, 4002, MUCP 1201, 1202, MUEN any course except 1103 or 3107, MUHL 1301, 1302, 1308, 2301, 2302, 2308, 2309, 3304, 3308, MUSI 2301, MUTH 1300, 1301 and 1101,1303 and 1103, 1304 and 1104, THA 2301, 2302, 2303, 2304, 2305, 3308, 3309, 3310, 4303.

12. Multicultural Requirement -- 0-3

3 hours of course work chosen from the Core Curriculum requirements approved list. This course may be used to satisfy another General Degree requirement (1-11 above).

13. Personal Fitness and Wellness -- 2

To satisfy the College of Arts and Sciences requirement of 2 hours of personal fitness and wellness, students are to complete successfully any two PF&W courses. For a specific physical activity, the completion of the course sequence is allowed if the sequence is taken in the appropriate order (i.e., beginning then advanced). Also accepted for fulfilling the requirement are AERS 1105, 1106, DAN 1107, 1304, 2100, 2102 (all with permission of instructor), MILS 1101, 1102, MUEN 1103,. Students over age 25 are exempt. Any student who has served honorably in the Armed Forces of the United States for a minimum of 90 days may receive credit for 2 semester hours in personal fitness and wellness. Application for this credit must be made in the first semester of attendance at the university. Students participating in varsity athletics may enroll in the PF&W course that corresponds to their varsity sport. A maximum of one credit hour per academic year per sport may be earned in this manner.

Major, Minor, and Electives

In addition to the above requirements, the student must take major, minor, and elective courses sufficient to total 125-132 semester hours.

The minor may be any departmental minor, an established interdisciplinary minor, or a student-initiated interdisciplinary minor (with approval of the Associate Dean in the Student Division of the College of Arts and Sciences).

Many departments and programs have residency requirements for the major and minor. See departmental or program listings for specific information.

Students should have selected their major and minor fields by the time they reach their junior year. For the major subject they will be required to complete a minimum of 30 semester hours including 6 hours of intensive writing courses. As indicated in the degree programs on the following pages, some majors require more than the 30 hour minimum. At least 18 hours of the major subject must be in courses at the junior-senior level. For the minor, a minimum of 18 semester hours must be completed (except in foreign languagesexplained under the department), at least 6 of which must be of junior or senior level. All courses in the major and minor must be approved by the appropriate academic unit. Students are expected to develop a degree plan no later than the first semester of the junior year. Forms and information are available in department offices.

A minimum of 40 semester hours of junior and senior work must be presented; not more than 8 hours may be counted in applied music and/or music ensemble, except for students offering music as a major or minor; not more than 8 hours of personal fitness and wellness, and exercise and sport sciences activity courses may be counted except for students offering exercise and sport sciences as a major, minor, or specialization.

Bachelor of General Studies. The B.G.S. is a challenging program for exceptional students. As an interdisciplinary degree, it is not based on a major and minor. Instead, the curriculum consists of courses from three areas of concentration (different departments, disciplines, or divisions), which are related to a single topic of studythe interdisciplinary focus. For example, a student might focus on human nature with areas of anthropology, behavioral sciences and humanities; or a focus on pre-law studies might involve the areas of political science, English, and business administration. Thus, emphasizing breadth as well as depth, general studies is flexible and adaptable: A well designed B.G.S. degree can prepare the student to pursue an intellectual interest, a professional ambition, or graduate study.

Admission Requirements

1. Sophomore or junior standing with a 2.50 GPA. (General Studies is for the mature student. Entering seniors are advised that, to complete an approved study plan, they may need to take more than the minimum 125 credit hours required for graduation.)

2. Completion of G ST 2300, Introduction to General Studies (research to develop a study plan, under the director's supervision, based on three "interdisciplinary areas").

3. Approval of the student's study plan proposal by the General Studies Advisory Council after an interview session.

Graduation Requirements

Requirements for the B.A. degree apply unless specifically shown to the contrary.

Semester Hours

1. English 1301-1302 -- 6

2. Oral Communication -- 3

3. Required Political Science and History -- 12

4. Mathematics and Logical Reasoning -- 6

5. Natural (Laboratory) Science -- 8

6. Technology and Applied Science -- 3

7. Social and Behavioral Sciences -- 3

8. Humanities -- 3

9. Visual and Performing Arts -- 3

10. Personal Fitness and Wellness -- 2

11. Foreign Language -- 0-10

Two years of a single language in high school or one year in college.

12. Multicultural Requirement -- 0-3

3 hours of course work chosen from the Core Curriculum requirements approved list. This course may be used to satisfy another General Degree requirement.

13. GST 2300, Introduction to General Studies -- 3

Prerequisite: Sophomore standing and director's consent. An individual studies course in which the student, supervised by the director, develops an interdisciplinary study plan.

14. Completion of all courses in the approved study plan (a minimum of 54 credit hours) with a grade of C or better.

15. GST 4300, Senior Thesis Project -- 3-6

An individual studies course in which the student, supervised by a thesis committee, develops a research project related to the study plan. The student must enroll in GST 4300 no later than the first long semester of the senior year.

16. All the course work in the Graduation requirements, in the study plan, in GST 2300 and 4300, and in elective courses must total a minimum of 125 semester hours, including at least 45 hours at the 3000-4000 level and at least 90 hours from the disciplines of Arts and Sciences.

The above requirements apply to the "traditional" General Studies track. The program provides an alternate track for "nontraditional" students, who have not attended a college or university for a period of no less than five years since graduation from high school or who return to campus after an absence of no less than five years or who are involved in other extraordinary and exceptional circumstances that, in the judgment of the director and council, extremely complicate their pursuit of a degree. Such students are subject to a 2.25 GPA and, with the director's permission, may elect not to take G ST 2300 and 4300 but to take, instead, two extra 3 hour courses, which must be "Writing Intensive" and approved by the General Studies advisor.

The General Studies program is supervised by a director and an advisory council of faculty members, appointed by the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. For more information, call the advisor(806) 742-2353or write to General Studies, Box 42191, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409-2191.

Bachelor of Fine Arts. The curriculum leading to the Bachelor of Fine Arts degree provides highly professional programs in theatre arts, visual studies, design communication, and studio areas. Requirements for the B. A. degree apply unless specifically shown to the contrary.

Semester Hours

1. English -- 12

2. Required Political Science and History -- 12

3. Oral Communication -- 3

4. Mathematics and Logical Reasoning -- 6

5. Natural (Laboratory) Science -- 8

6. *Technology -- 0-3

7. **Individual and Group Behavior -- 0-3

8. Humanities -- 3

May be satisfied within the English requirement.

9. Personal Fitness and Wellness -- 2

10. Foreign Language -- 0-10

11. Multicultural Requirement -- 0-3

3 hours of course work chosen from the Core Curriculum requirements approved list. This course may be used to satisfy another General Degree requirement. Consult the School of Art or the Department of Theatre and Dance.

12a. Theatre Arts -- 90

12b. Visual Studies leading toward teacher certification -- 73

12c. Design Communication -- 82

12d. Studio Art -- 82

Total for degree 125-153

*No additional hours required if satisfied within the requirements for the art and theatre majors.

**No additional hours required if ART 3311 or 4315 is included in upper-level art history requirements for art majors.

Entering students are expected to have had two years of a single foreign language in high school. Students who do not meet this requirement will be required to complete one year of a foreign language.

Bachelor of Science. The B.S. degree permits a greater degree of specialization than the B.A. It is currently offered by the following departments: Biological Sciences; Chemistry and Biochemistry; Economics and Geography; Geosciences; Health, Physical Education, and Recreation; Mathematics and Statistics; and Physics. Requirements for the B. A. degree apply unless specifically shown to the contrary.

The following are the requirements for this degree:

Semester Hours

1. English -- 12

2. Oral Communication -- 3

3. Foreign Language -- 6-16

4. Mathematics and Logical Reasoning -- 6

5. Required Political Science and History -- 12

6. Natural Science -- 8

7. Technology and Applied Science -- 3

8. Social and Behavioral Sciences -- 3

9. Humanities -- 3

3 hours of literature taken in the English requirement will also satisfy this requirement.

10. Visual and Performing Arts -- 3

11. Personal Fitness and Wellness -- 2

12. Multicultural Requirement -- 0-3

3 hours of course work chosen from the Core Curriculum requirements approved list. This course may be used to satisfy another General Degree requirement.

13. Major (including a minimum of 24 junior-senior hours) (min.) 36

14. Minor (including a minimum of 6 junior-senior hours) (min.) 18

The minor may be any departmental minor, or established interdisciplinary minor approved by the major department, or a student-initiated minor approved by the associate dean.

15. Adjunct Requirements As required

Requirements determined by the major department to be essential to supplement the major.

Total for degree (min.) 126

Specific curricula are provided for all programs leading to the Bachelor of Science degree. It is expected that students will follow the suggestions and recommendations contained in the department sections of this catalog.

Bachelor of Science in International Economics. The B.S.I.E. provides understanding of international economic and commercial relationships through concentrations of course work in international economics, international politics, and international business. This understanding is important for a variety of careers with either direct or indirect international aspects. Requirements for the B. A. degree apply unless specifically shown to the contrary.

The following are the requirements for this degree:

Basic and Core Curriculum Requirements Semester Hours

1. English (inc. ENGL 2311 & any ENGL literature course) -- 12

2. Foreign Language (6 hours at sophomore level or -- 6-16

higher)

3. Mathematics (MATH 1330 and 1331 or more advanced -- 6 courses)

4. Required Political Science and History -- 12

5. Personal Fitness and Wellness -- 2

6. Oral Communication -- 3

7. Natural (Laboratory) Science -- 8

8. Technology and Applied Science -- 3

9. Humanities -- 3

3 hours of literature taken in the English requirement will also satisfy this requirement.

10. Visual and Performing Arts -- 3

11. Individual or Group Behavior (may be satisfied with -- 3 courses taken in major)

12. Multicultural Requirement -- 0-3

3 hours of course work chosen from the Core Curriculum requirements approved list. This course may be used to satisfy another General Degree requirement.

Core Requirements

13. Economics and International Economics: 30
ECO 2301, 2302, 3311, 3312, 3330, 3333, 4331, 4332, 4333, and 4334

14. International Business, Managerial Economics -- 18-19
and Quantitative Tools: Basic Statistics AECO 3401 or ISQS 2445 or MATH 2300, five of the following: ACCT 2300 and 2301 (counted as one), MKT 4358, MGT 4375, ECO 3320, AAEC 4302, 4306, 4312, 4317, FIN 3320, 4328, ISQS 3343, 3344, FREN 3301, 4304, SPAN 3301, 3329, 4304, 4329.

15. International Political Science, three of the following: 9
POLS 3360, 3361, 3363, 3367, 3371, 3373, 3374, 3375, 3376, 3378, 4364.

Other Requirements

Elective Courses -- 5-14

Total for degree (min.) 126

For more information and academic advisement, contact the Department of Economics and Geography.

Bachelor of Music. Bachelor of Music degrees are offered with majors in Performance, Music Composition, Music Theory, and Music (leading toward teacher certification).

Semester Hours

1. English -- 6-12

MUCP, MUPF, MUTH majors -- 6

MUPF, MUTC majors -- 12

2. Oral Communication -- 3

3. Mathematics and Logical Reasoning -- 6 6 hrs math.; or 3 hrs math. plus PHIL 2310 or MUTH 3303

4. Foreign Language -- 0-16

Entering students are expected to have had two years of a foreign language in high school. Students who do not meet this requirement will be required to complete one year of a single foreign language.

5. Humanities -- 3

3 hours of literature taken in the English requirement will also satisfy this requirement.

6. Natural (Laboratory) Science -- 8

7. Technology and Applied Science -- 3

8. Required Political Science and History -- 12

9. Individual or Group Behavior -- 3

10. Personal Fitness and Wellness -- 2

11. Multicultural Requirement -- 3

3 hours of course work chosen from the Core Curriculum requirements approved list. This course may be used to satisfy another General Degree requirement.

12. Music Courses

MUPF -- 75-90

MUCP -- 94

MUTH -- 85

MUTC -- 67-73

13. Professional Education (teacher certification only) -- 18

Total for degrees

MUPF -- 126-137

MUCP -- 137

MUTH -- 134

MUTC -- 131-137

Interdepartmental, Interdisciplinary,
and Special Programs

Asian Studies. An interdisciplinary minor in Asian Studies for a baccalaureate degree is designed for students who are interested in cultures of Asia. Courses selected from various departments across campus will provide students with a deep and broad understanding of this increasingly important region. The program will prepare students with basic qualifications for a wide variety of future careers and academic pursuits that require knowledge or languages of Asia.

The required 18 hours of course work may be taken from designated courses in anthropology, architecture, Chinese, Japanese, and Vietnamese languages, economics, geography, history, philosophy, political science, and sociology. This 18 hour requirement may not include courses taken to fulfill requirements in the student's major field. Students can obtain further information from the program's director, Associate Professor William Lan, 214C Administration-Education, (806) 742-1997, ext. 284; Fax (806) 742-2179; e-mail <william.lan@ttu.edu>.

Community and Urban Studies. The College of Arts and Sciences offers an interdisciplinary minor in community and urban studies. The program consists of an integrated course of study which provides the student with a conceptual and theoretical foundation for recognizing and approaching urban problems. An opportunity is also provided for observation and analysis of community and urban affairs. The program includes core courses in architecture, economics, geography, history, political science, and sociology and elective courses in architecture, business administration, economics, geography, history, landscape architecture, political science, sociology, and social work. Additional information may be obtained from the director, Dr. Yung-mei Tsai, 162 Holden Hall, (806) 742-2416; FAX (806) 742-1088; e-mail <CTYMT@TTACS.TTU.EDU>.

Comparative Literature. The Department of Classical and Modern Languages and Literatures participates in a comparative literature minor for the Bachelor of Arts degree. The minor consists of 18 hours of courses, of which 3 hours must be at the 4000-level. Students may apply 6 hours of sophomore-level course work from either the Department of Classical and Modern Languages and Literatures or the Department of English if such course work is not in the student's major field. Students not majoring in a foreign language must complete at least 3 hours at the junior or senior-level in a foreign language. Comparative literature minors must take at least 6 hours from the following courses: CLAS 3350, C LT 2301, 3302, 3334, 4305, 4317, ENGL 4334, 4335, HUM 2301, 2302. Individual minor programs are arranged by the student and the Director of the Program on Comparative Literature. This minor may not include course work in the student's major field unless such course work is over and above the minimum catalog requirements for the major. Additional information may be obtained from the director, Dr. Sharon Diane Nell, Department of Classical and Modern Languages and Literatures.

Courses in Comparative Literature. (C LT)

2301. The Epic in the Western Tradition (3:3:0). Introduction to the epic genre by examining a range of western literature, including both primary and secondary epics.

3302. Literary Traditions (3:3:0). Students will examine the history of a given literary tradition in several national literatures, e.g., lyric, the novel, and tragedy.

3334. Literatures and Cultures of Africa, Asia, or Latin America (3:3:0). This course will examine the literatures and cultures of Africa, Asia, and/or Latin America.

4300. Individual Studies in Comparative Literature (3). Independent study in comparative literature under the guidance of a faculty member. May be repeated for credit with the consent of instructor.

4305. Contemporary Theories of Cultural Meaning (3:3:0). Introduction to the most important contemporary theories on the nature and origin of meaning in culture.

4317. Readings in Comparative Literature and Culture (3:3:0). Readings from a particular period or study of a literary theme or genre. May be repeated for credit with consent of instructor.

Dramatic Writing. The faculties of English, Mass Communications, and Theatre and Dance offer an interdisciplinary minor in dramatic writing. The program is designed to prepare students to write scripts for cinema, television, and stage productions. The minor consists of 21 hours12 in writing and 9 in analysis. The 12 hours in writing are to be chosen from the following courses, and the selection must include at least one course from each department: ENGL 3351, 4351, TELE 4370, 4375, and TH A 4303 (may be repeated for credit). The 9 hours in analysis will include TELE 3345, TH A 3335, and one of the following courses: ENGL 3320, 3321, 3380, or 4330. Courses in which the student earns less than a C may not be counted toward the minor. This 21 hour requirement may not include courses taken to fulfill requirements in the student's major field. Students may obtain additional information from the program's director, Dr. Norman Bert, University Theatre 125C.

Environmental Studies. The college offers an interdisciplinary minor in environmental studies. This minor is nontechnical in nature and is specifically designed for students seeking the Bachelor of Arts degree. Its focus is on the interaction of humans and the natural environment and the consequences of that interaction. The environmental studies minor does not seek to train professional environmentalists, but in combination with existing major programs it will give the student a broad foundation for more advanced environmental studies programs, professional work in law, regional planning or resource management, various environmental positions in government, business, or teaching. The plan will also provide students with a better understanding of basic ecology and the nature of environmental problems so that they can make more knowledgeable value judgments on environmental issues, a vital concern in the contemporary world. The minor consists of 18 hours of required and elective courses from such departments as Biological Sciences; Economics and Geography; Geosciences; Health, Physical Education, and Recreation; and History; and from some departments in Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources. Additional information concerning the environmental studies minor may be obtained from the director, Dr. Otis Templer, Department of Economics and Geography.

Ethnic Studies. The college offers an interdisciplinary minor in ethnic studies. The goals of the program are to increase students' understanding of the nature and development of race relations and to stimulate a greater sense of dignity for minority students. Students may, if they wish, specialize in African-American, Mexican-American, or Native-American studies. All students minoring in ethnic studies must complete at least 18 hours in ethnic content courses. No more than three courses may be taken in one department. Electives in the program include: ANTH 1301, 2301, 2302, 3325, 3331, 3345, 3347, 3371, 4372, ART 3311, 4315, COMS 3332, ENGL 3322, HIST 3311, 3312, 3318, 3324, 3325, 3326, 3395, 4326, 4383, MUHL 3304, PSY 3305, SOC 3324, 4362, SPAN 4320, 4360. Additional information may be obtained from the director, Dr. Jorge Iber, Department of History.

Family Life Studies. The colleges of Arts and Sciences and Human Sciences jointly offer an interdisciplinary minor in family life studies. The program involves an integrated course of study and provides the student with a variety of perspectives on the family. The minor consists of 18 hours chosen from several disciplines. No more than 6 hours may be taken from any one department. Courses counted toward the major will not count toward the minor. At least 6 hours must be at the junior-senior level.

Courses may be selected from the following: HLTH 1300, 1305, 1307, 2302, 3313, 3314, HIST 3322, 3323, 3341, 4325, PSY 3341, 4300, 4301, 4310, SOC 2331, 3325, 3331, 4373, SW 3311, 3312, HD 2303, 3301, FS 2322, 3320, 3321, 3322, 3324, 3326, 3328, 3332, HDFS 3331, 3350, FFP 1370, 3325, 3375. Additional information about the minor may be obtained from Dr. Charlotte Dunham, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work.

General Studies. For a description of the General Studies degree program, see "Bachelor of General Studies" in the College of Arts and Sciences General Degree requirements section.

Courses in General Studies. (GST)

2001. General Studies Abroad (V1-12). Individual studies in interdisciplinary, international, and multicultural experiences.

2300. Introduction to General Studies (3). Prerequisite: Sophomore standing and director's consent. An individual studies course to assist the student in developing an interdisciplinary plan of study for the Bachelor of General Studies degree.

4000. Internship in General Studies (V1-6). Supervised internship with government, profit, and nonprofit offices and agencies including congressional offices in Washington, D.C. Open to all undergraduate students at Texas Tech University.

4300. Senior Thesis or Project (3). Preparation of a senior thesis or project for the Bachelor of General Studies degree. Students should take the course the first long semester of the senior year. May be repeated for credit with the approval of Director of General Studies.

Humanities. The "humanities" include all academic disciplines that study the creative works of human beingsliterary, musical, philosophical, religious, theatrical, and artisticexpressing our visions of life and values for living, which offer us both delight and wisdom. For students who wish to combine and explore several humanities disciplines, the interdisciplinary humanities program offers a flexible and attractive minor.

In the humanities 18-hour minor, the student first takes the two 3-hour introductory courses: HUM 2301 and 2302 (see below). Under a Humanities advisor's counsel, the student then takes four advanced courses related to a period of his or her choice: Classical, Medieval, Renaissance, Enlightenment, Nineteenth Century, or Twentieth Century. For interdisciplinary richness, the student selects these four courses from the varied offerings of any three of these participating areas: anthropology, architecture, art, classical and modern languages and literatures, comparative literature, English, history, music, philosophy, and theatre arts.

For students majoring in the sciences or professions, the interdisciplinary humanities minor offers an enriching educational experience. For students already majoring in a single discipline among the humanities, this minor provides a broader awareness of the background of ideas and arts that shape our world. The introductory humanities courses also fulfill general requirements and provide elective credit.

For more information, contact the Director of Humanities: Dr. Kenneth Davis, 103 Holden Hall, 742-1828, e-mail: <honors@ttu.edu>.

Courses in Humanities. (HUM)

2301. Introduction to Humanities (3:3:0). An exploration of human values, primarily significant to western civilization, in great works of literature, philosophy, and the arts from the classical Greek and Roman eras to the Renaissance. [HUMA 1301]

2302. Introduction to Humanities (3:3:0). The exploration of contemporary human values through great works of literature, philosophy, and the arts from the Renaissance to the present. [HUMA 1302]

International Studies. An interdisciplinary minor in international studies is offered for students who wish to gain an understanding of how the nations of the world are economically, politically, socially, and culturally interdependent. The minor is made up of a 9-hour core of required courses and 9 hours of electives. The core courses are ECO 3333, International Economics; GEOG 2351, Regional Geography of the World; and POLS 3361, International Politics. An advisor may allow substitutions in the core when it can be shown that they fit in with the student's major program and academic objectives. Elective courses are selected from among courses that deal with international topics in departments in the College of Arts and Sciences. Courses from other colleges may be accepted if they have been previously approved by the program advisors. For further information, consult Dr. Gary Elbow, Department of Economics and Geography.

Latin American and Iberian Studies. A major in Latin American and Iberian Studies for a Bachelor of Arts degree consists of course work in several departments. It requires 30 semester hours, which must be completed in the three areas and five fields indicated below. Nine hours must be taken in each area, and at least 3 hours must be taken in each field. In addition, students must take one of the interdisciplinary Latin American and Iberian Studies courses: LAIS 2300 or 4300. If both LAIS 2300 and 4300 are taken, one of these courses may be substituted for a course in one of the five fields. A minimum of 9 hours of courses in the major and 6 hours in the minor must be taken in residence at Texas Tech University. Additional information and a list of courses approved for the major may be obtained from the program director, Dr. Alberto Julian Perez, CMLL (Spanish), Box 42071, 256 Foreign Language Building, 742-1562, e-mail: <Alperez@pop.ttu.edu>.

Area I (9 hours)

First field: Upper division Latin American and Iberian content courses in Spanish (Portuguese may be substituted for up to 6 hours of this requirement).

Area II (9 hours)

First field: Latin American anthropology; art, and theatre courses.

Second field: Latin American geography; economics courses.

Area III (9 hours)

First field: Latin American history courses.

Second field: Latin American political science courses.

Interdisciplinary Course (3 hours)

LAIS 2300 or 4300

With prior approval, students may plan programs at variance with the above requirements to meet their special interests.

A minor in Latin American and Iberian Studies consists of 18 hours of content courses taken from those approved for the major in this program. These 18 hours may not include work in the student's major field and must be taken in at least three of the five fields represented in the program. Either LAIS 2300 or 4300 is required.

In addition, the standard requirements for a Bachelor of Arts degree must be met.

Courses in Latin American and Iberian Studies. (LAIS)

2300. Latin America and Iberia: An Interdisciplinary Introduction (3:3:0). A basic survey of Latin American and Iberian culture and civilization.

4300. Seminar in Latin American and Iberian Studies (3:3:0). Interdisciplinary studies in selected Latin American and Iberian topics. Readings and lectures in English. May be repeated once for credit with permission of the director.

Linguistics. The Interdepartmental Committee on Linguistics offers a minor in linguistics for the B.A. degree. The minor consists of 18 hours of required and elective courses drawn from the departments of Classical and Modern Languages and Literatures; Communication Studies; English; Mass Communications; Philosophy; Psychology; Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work; and the Division of Curriculum and Instruction, College of Education. Additional information may be obtained from the committee chairperson, Dr. Rosslyn Smith, Department of Classical and Modern Languages and Literatures.

Linguistics is concerned with (1) the scientific description and analysis of languages; (2) the study of language in its social and cultural context; (3) the evolution and historical development of language; (4) the formal study of communication systems involving the acquisition and use of language; (5) the relation of language to literature, philosophy, and other fields in the humanities; and (6) human biology and neurology as they affect the use of language. Linguistics shares interests with speech science, psychology, anthropology, sociology, literature, philosophy, and other fields of study. It is, therefore, an interesting and useful minor area for students majoring in these fields and one that can, in many cases, help students in developing an area of academic or professional specialization.

The linguistics minor for the B.A. is made up of 18 hours of courses. Of these, it is required that 3 hours be drawn from Group A (general and introductory linguistics courses), 3 hours from Group B (courses dealing intensively with a single language or a restricted group of languages), at least 3 hours from Group C (courses dealing with applied uses of linguistics and historical linguistics), and 3 hours from group D (courses relating linguistics to other fields). The remaining 6 hours may be taken from any group.

Group A--ANTH 3305, ENGL 3371.

Group B--ENGL 3370, FREN 4302, 4306, GERM 4301, LAT 4302, SPAN 4302, 4303.

Group C--EDBL 3337, ENGL 4372, 4373, LING 4311, 4335.

Group D--ANTH 3351, COMS 3332, EDBL 3334, EDLL 3352, MCOM 3300, PHIL 4310, 4331, PSY 4324.

Prelaw. Interested students should be aware that Texas Tech University does not have a prelaw major program leading directly to law school. Schools of law do not specify particular majors or courses as part of their admission requirements. Instead, they expect applicants to be well-grounded in the fundamentals of a broad liberal education, to be intellectually mature, and to be able to read, write, and think analytically. Thus, students must choose a degree program and receive a bachelor's degree in one of the established degree programs in the College of Arts and Sciences or elsewhere in the university. Students should choose their major field as soon as possible in order to graduate on schedule.

Prelaw students should constantly keep in mind the various requirements for the bachelor's degree.

Dr. Otis W. Templer, Department of Economics and Geography, Dr. M. Catherine Miller, Department of History, and Dr. Roger C. Schaefer, Department of Political Science, are the prelaw advisors for students within the College of Arts and Sciences. Regardless of their major academic field, prelaw students should consult one of these advisors for counseling and guidance in planning their programs.

Preprofessional Health Careers. Professional health school programs include dentistry, medicine, nursing, optometry, pharmacy, and allied health sciences.

Most professional school programs in the field of health care require the completion of specific college level science and general education courses prior to admission. The Preprofessional Health Careers Office maintains a collection of professional school catalogs and related information on various health careers. The Preprofessional Health Careers Office is located in the Chemistry Building, Room 340; the telephone number is 742-3078.

Individual advising regarding the preparation of a student for admission to professional health schools is done by advisors in the Preprofessional Health Careers Office up to the time the student files a degree plan for his or her baccalaureate degree. Most professional health career schools do not specify particular majors as part of their admission requirements. Texas Tech University does not offer degrees in premedicine, predentistry, or other prehealth areas. Each preprofessional health career student who intends to earn a baccalaureate degree must choose a major by the junior year and complete the courses required for admission into the professional health school. Preprofessional health career students are advised to choose a major offered within any of the colleges at the university. The major should suit the student's individual interests and abilities and offer alternative career options in the event the initial career plans change.

Courses listed as prerequisites for professional school programs must be college-level courses taken for letter grades. However, credit by examination, using the standardized tests described in this catalog, is also acceptable for certain courses. Science courses required by professional health schools are those required of science majors. Each student is responsible for knowing any special requirements of the professional schools which he or she plans to attend.

The Preprofessional Health Careers Committee will assist Texas Tech university students in coordinating their evaluation packets for application to schools of dentistry, medicine, optometry, or podiatry. Evaluation forms are available in the Preprofessional Health Careers Office.

Predentistry

The minimum admission requirements for most dental schools in the United States are 16 semester hours of biology, 8 semester hours of general chemistry, 8 semester hours of organic chemistry, 8 semester hours of physics, and 6 semester hours of English. Applicants to dental schools are required to take the Dental Admission Test and submit their applications approximately one year prior to the planned matriculation. For admission requirements of a specific dental school, students should consult the latest edition of Admission Requirements of United States and Canadian Dental Schools or the dental school catalogs. A formal minimum of 90 semester hours is stated for some schools. However, students should plan to complete a baccalaureate degree in the field of their choice before entering dental school.

Premedicine

The minimum admission requirements for most medical schools in the United States are at least 90 semester hours in an accredited college or university including 6 semester hours of English, 3 semester hours of calculus, 14 semester hours of biology, 8 semester hours of general chemistry, 8 semester hours of organic chemistry, and 8 semester hours of physics.

All applicants to medical schools are required to take the Medical College Admission Test and submit their applications to the schools approximately one year prior to the date of the planned matriculation. For admission requirements of medical schools, students should consult the latest edition of Medical School Admission Requirements.

Students should plan to complete a baccalaureate degree in the field of their choice before entering medical school, although not all schools require a degree.

Premedical and predental students may obtain a baccalaureate degree in one of two ways.

A. The degree may be obtained by completing the requirements as stated in the catalog for the degree desired. The major selected depends on the interest of the student. This major will usually be in one of the sciences; however, other majors are acceptable and may be chosen in colleges other than the College of Arts and Sciences.

B. The Arts and Sciences B.A. or B.S. degree may be obtained by completing course work totaling a minimum of 100 semester hours in the College of Arts and Sciences and then graduating from an accredited U.S. or Canadian school of medicine, osteopathy, or dentistry. The following regulations apply:

1. Of the 100 semester hours of preprofessional work, at least the last 30 must be completed in residence at Texas Tech. This minimum will apply to transfer students from other colleges, provided they have satisfactorily completed the work outlined in the freshman and sophomore years or its equivalent.

2. The three years of work must satisfy all graduation requirements for the B.A. or B.S. degree at Texas Tech, with the exception of the requirements in the minor area of study.

3. The applicant for a degree under this plan must submit properly approved credentials from an accredited U.S. or Canadian school of medicine, osteopathy, or dentistry to the effect that the applicant has completed satisfactorily the work leading to a degree of Doctor of Medicine or Doctor of Dental Surgery. Evidence of the degree will substitute for the baccalaureate degree requirements in a major field.

Any student selecting option B should plan carefully in consultation with the associate dean at least one year prior to leaving the university to begin professional school.

Preoptometry

Admission requirements differ among the various professional schools. These courses fulfill requirements in general: 8 semester hours of biology, 8 semester hours of general chemistry, 8 semester hours of organic chemistry, 8 semester hours of physics, 4 semester hours of microbiology, 4 semester hours of physiology, 6 semester hours of mathematics including 3 semester hours of calculus, 3 semester hours of biochemistry, 3 semester hours of statistics, 3 semester hours of general psychology, 12 semester hours of English, 6 semester hours of U.S. history, and 6 semester hours of political science. Other recommended courses are cultural anthropology, logic, and ethics. Students should complete 90 or more semester hours and take the Optometry Admission Test before applying to the professional schools. Students should plan to complete a baccalaureate degree in the field of their choice before entering optometry school. Although a formal minimum of 90 semester hours is stated for some schools, preference is given to applicants with baccalaureate degrees. The University of Houston College of Optometry requires a baccalaureate degree of all entering students.

Prepharmacy

The specific admission requirements for schools of pharmacy differ, but most include 8 semester hours of biology; 8 semester hours of general chemistry; 8 semester hours of organic chemistry; 4 semester hours of physics; 4 semester hours of microbiology; 3 semester hours of calculus; 3 semester hours of statistical methods; 6 semester hours of English; 3 semester hours of literature; 3 semester hours of economics, 3 semester hours of public speaking; and 15 semester hours spread across humanities, social sciences, and visual and performing arts. Students should complete 70 or more hours of course work and take the Pharmacy College Admission Test before applying to the professional schools.

Allied Health

Preclinical laboratory science, precommunication disorders, preoccupational therapy, prephysical therapy, and prephysician assistant programs consist of the 60 to 90 semester hours of preprofessional course work required of a student before being admitted to the professional level in a school of allied health. Most programs require a minimum of 6 to 9 semester hours of English, 6 semester hours each of U.S. history and political science, and 8 semester hours each of biology, chemistry, and physics. Requirements for additional courses in advanced biology and chemistry, zoology, computer science, mathematics, anthropology, psychology, sociology, speech, and statistics vary with each program and with each school of allied health.

Prenursing

Students desiring admission to the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Nursing should apply directly to that program as well as to Texas Tech University. Application to the Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center School of Nursing is a separate application from the Texas Tech University application.

Students seeking admission to either diploma or collegiate programs in nursing other than at Texas Tech University Health Sciences Center may enroll in a prenursing curriculum at Texas Tech University. Course requirements vary among nursing schools, but most include English, psychology, sociology, chemistry, zoology, microbiology, statistics, and nutrition. Most collegiate programs also require credits in American history and political science.

In order to avoid complications in transferring, prenursing students should not take courses pass-fail.

Other Preprofessional Health Careers

Students who plan other preprofessional programs such as predental hygiene, preradiologic technology, and prerespiratory therapy should consult an advisor in the Preprofessional Health Careers Office for further information.

Religion Studies. A minor in religion studies for a baccalaureate degree is composed of courses drawn from several departments in the college. Students can obtain further information from the director of the program, Dr. D. Paul Johnson, Department of Sociology, Anthropology, and Social Work, 158 Holden Hall.

The minor is offered to students who wish to enhance their understanding of religion by studying it from a variety of academic perspectives. The program is intended to enable students to place their conception of religion in the broader frameworks of several academic disciplines.

Eighteen hours of course work are necessary to complete the minor, including courses from at least three disciplines. Four of the courses in the minor must be from the core courses and such courses must be taken from at least two disciplines. Courses taken must reflect the study of at least two religious traditions. The 18 hours may not include courses taken to fulfill requirements in the student's major.

Core Courses: ANTH 3323, CLAS 1320, 3350, ENGL 3332, 3333, HIST 3328, 3344, 4347, 4349, PHIL 3302, 3324, POLS 3339, SOC 4331.

Other Courses: ANTH 3325, 3346, ART 3317, 3318, ENGL 4306, HIST 3340, 3348, 3395, 3398, 4374, PHIL 2320, POLS 3330, 3332.

Departmental Independent Studies: Students may use one independent topics course for the minor when the topic is religion. Prior to registration, the student should consult the director of the program concerning availability of courses and the student's progress in the minor.

Russian Language and Area Studies. A major or minor in Russian Language and Area Studies for a Bachelor of Arts degree consists of integrated course work in several departments. Students can obtain further information from the directors of the program, Dr. Anthony Qualin and Dr. Erin Collopy, Department of Classical and Modern Languages and Literatures.

The degree is offered to students who wish to study the Russian language and aspects of culture, literature, history, politics, economic relations, and society in Tsarist Russia, the Soviet Union, and in post-Soviet Russia. The program is intended to give students qualifications for various types of professional work that require knowledge of Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States and to prepare motivated students for further study.

The major requires 33 semester hours of course work. RUSN 1501 and 1502 are prerequisites of, but do not count towards, the major or minor. RUSN 2301, 2302 (or their equivalents), and 2303 are required for all students seeking a major. In addition, majors need to take 24 hours of approved courses offered by the Departments of Classical and Modern Languages and Literatures, Economics and Geography, History, and Political Science. Prior to enrolling in the program and to registering for courses, students should consult one of the program directors.

For the minor, 18 hours of course work is necessary, taken from courses approved for the major. RUSN 2301 and 2302 (or their equivalents) are required for all students seeking a minor.

Courses taken for the Russian Language and Area Studies major or minor may not be used to satisfy the requirements for the student's other major or minor.

In addition, the standard requirements for a Bachelor of Arts degree must be met.

Substance Abuse Studies. The Colleges of Human Sciences and Arts and Sciences jointly offer an interdisciplinary minor in Substance Abuse Studies (SAS). This minor is designed for students with professional, academic, or personal interest in addictive disorders. It will provide students with an understanding of the physiological, psychological, societal, and familial factors contributing to addiction and the recovery from addiction.

For specific details, see the statement on Substance Abuse Studies in the College of Human Sciences section of this catalog. Additional information may be obtained from the program director, Dr. Carl Andersen, Department of Human Development and Family Studies, 742-2891.


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