Department of Biological Sciences

Professor Michael R. Willig, Chairperson.

Horn Professors Baker and Jackson; Professors Burns, Drew, Haigler, Heintz, Jones, Parker, Rylander, and Schmidly; Associate Professors Allen, Bilimoria, Blanton, Carr, Collie, Coulter, Densmore, Held, Holaday, Houck, Jeter, Lefkowitz, McGinley, Moorhead, Owen, Patiño, San Francisco, Strauss, Werth, and Zak; Assistant Professors Bradley, Deslippe, Dini, Gollahon, Tissue, and Zhang.

This department supervises the following degree programs: BIOLOGY, Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, Doctor of Philosophy; CELL AND MOLECULAR BIOLOGY, Bachelor of Science; MICROBIOLOGY, Bachelor of Science, Master of Science; ZOOLOGY, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master of Science, Doctor of Philosophy.

Students majoring in biology for the B.S. degree must complete a minimum of 36 semester hours from this department: BIOL 1403, 1404, 3102, 3301, 3320, 3120 plus at least one course from each of the following groups of courses. Group IBIOL 3302, BOT 3401, 3409, MBIO 3401, ZOOL 4409; Group IIBIOL 3307, 3309; Group IIIBOT 3303, 3404, ZOOL 3406, 4407; Group IVat least one junior/senior level botany and zoology course must be included in the program; plus additional hours at the junior or senior level in the Department of Biological Sciences for a minimum of 36 semester hours.

Students majoring in biology for the B.S. degree may gain a specialization in ecology and environmental biology by completing a minimum of 38 semester hours from this department: BIOL 1403, 1404, 3102, 3301, 3309, 4305, at least one course from Group A (BOT 3401, MBIO 3401, ZOOL 4409, or BIOL 3320 and 3120), at least one course from Group B (BOT 3404, ZOOL 3406, 4407), three courses from Group C (BIOL 3307, 4301, 4306, 4310, MBIO 4401), or Group D (BOT 3404, MBIO 4309, ZOOL 3303, 3406, 4306, 4308, 4310, 4312, 4407), including at least one course from each of Group C and Group D, and one additional course from any of the groups (A-D).

Students majoring in cell and molecular biology for the B.S. degree must complete a minimum of 39 hours from this department: BIOL 1403, 1404, 2120, 3301, 3302, 3320, 3120 (or 3310), 4320, MBIO 3401; plus three of the following courses, at least one of which must include a laboratory: BIOL 3102, 3406, 4300 (counts as a laboratory course), BOT 3401, 3409, MBIO 4303, 4310, 4402, 4406, ZOOL 3401, 4304, 4409; plus additional junior or senior level courses in the department (may include the courses above) to complete a 39-semester hour major. Enrollment in BIOL 3310 or 4300 is strongly encouraged. This degree requires a chemistry minor, including CHEM 3311, 3312.

Students majoring in microbiology for the B.S. degree must follow the curriculum approved by the American Society for Microbiology (ASM). This includes a minimum of 36 hours of core courses and additional courses. Required core courses include: BIOL 1403, 1404, MBIO 3401, 4303, 4402, 4406, and 4101; plus one of the following courses: BIOL 3406, MBIO 4309, 4401 or 4404. Additional courses must be taken from the following to make a total of 36 hours: BIOL 4100 and 4300 (limited to 4 hrs.), MBIO 4307, 4310, 4400, ZOOL 3303 and FDT 3301. BIOL 3406, MBIO 4101, 4309, 4401, and 4404 may be taken to satisfy the additional course requirements if they were not taken to satisfy the core requirements. Microbiology majors must also take the following courses: CHEM 1307, 1308, 1107, 1108, 2401, 3305, 3306, 3105, 3106, 3311, 3312; PHYS 1306, 1307, 1103, 1104; either MATH 1351 or 2300; any advanced 3 or more credit hour course in computer science.

Students majoring in zoology for the B.S. degree must complete a minimum of 36 hours of the following courses from this department: BIOL 1403, 1404, 3102, 3301, 3320, 3120; plus at least one course from each of the following pairs of courses: ZOOL 3405 or 4407; ZOOL 3406 or 3303, BIOL 3302 or ZOOL 4409, BIOL 3307 or 3309; plus additional courses at the junior or senior level in the Department of Biological Sciences, for a total of 36 semester hours.

The Department of Biological Sciences encourages undergraduate students to work with professors in research laboratories and projects to obtain first-hand information about research in the life sciences. Opportunities are available in many fields including systematics and evolutionary biology, ecology and environmental biology, cell and molecular biology, and in several areas of biotechnology. These research programs have been well received in the past and have proved beneficial to both students and faculty. Students who have been involved in the research projects have received competitive grants, presented papers at scientific meetings, authored papers published in scientific journals, and have gone on to become successful medical doctors, college professors, etc. Interested students should contact faculty members with whom they will conduct research prior to advisement. Brochures describing research interests of the faculty are available from advisors or the department chairperson.

Students majoring in biology or zoology may minor in any other field (major and minor may not be in the same field). Other recommended minors, subject to approval by the department, are in such areas as chemistry, geosciences, physics, mathematics, entomology, animal science, plant and soil science, and range and wildlife management. A chemistry minor is required of cell and molecular biology majors.

For microbiology majors, the chemistry courses required for ASM approval satisfy the requirements for a minor in chemistry.

Two semesters of organic chemistry are required of all majors within this department except for biology majors under teacher education who must have at least one semester of organic chemistry. It is urged that organic chemistry be taken during the second year of study. Students whose area of interest requires a strong background in chemistry should complete a chemistry minor.

All majors must take one semester of either calculus or statistics. Cell and molecular biology majors must take one semester of calculus (MATH 1351). Microbiology majors must take either MATH 1351 or AAEC 3401.

Students majoring in biology, cell and molecular biology, or zoology must complete PHYS 1306, 1103, 1307, 1104, or PHYS 1308, 1105, 2301, 1106. Students majoring in biology with a specialization in ecology and environmental biology may substitute another environmental science for the second physics class.

All majors in the department must include 3 hours of multicultural course work to fulfill their General Education Requirement, and 6 hours of course work taken in this department for use toward the major must be writing intensive (BIOL 1403, 1404, 3102, 3307, 4304, 4305, 4320; BOT 3401, 4409; MBIO 4303, 4402; ZOOL 4310, 4409).

Courses with a grade of D cannot be counted toward fulfillment of requirements for a major or minor (including adjunct requirements and minors from other departments) in any program in this department.

Departmental Residency Requirement. At least 10 hours of upper division courses for all majors in this department; at least 6 hours of upper division courses for biology minors.

Suggested sequences of courses for the Bachelor of Science degree programs in biology, cell and molecular biology, microbiology, and zoology are set forth in the accompanying table.

Minors. Students from other departments may minor in biology, cell and molecular biology, microbiology, or zoology. Such students must complete 18 hours in biological sciences, at least 6 hours of which are at the junior or senior level. The minor advisor in biological sciences should be consulted no later than the beginning of the junior year.

Teacher Education. Students who complete a major in biology and satisfy other requirements for the B.S. degree, including 18 hours of professional educational courses, will be qualified to teach high school biology in the public schools of Texas. The following courses are required to meet both the major and the certification requirements in biology: BIOL 1403 and 1404 or 1401 and 1402, 3301, 3102, and 3320, 3120; MBIO 3400 or 3401; BOT 3303, 3404 or 3401; ZOOL 2403 or 3405; ZOOL 3406 or 4407, and at least one of the following: BIOL 3309, 3307, 4305, or ZOOL 4312. Also required are PHYS 1306, 1103, 1307, and 1104; CHEM 1307, 1107, 1308, 1108, and one semester of organic chemistry, which may be satisfied with CHEM 3305 and 3105, or Chem 3303 and 3103.

Students who major in another field and wish to qualify to teach biology in the high schools of Texas must complete (in addition to other degree requirements including 18 hours of education courses) BIOL 1401 or 1403, 1402 or 1404, and 3301; MBIO 3400; BOT 3303 or 3404; ZOOL 2403, 4407, and one of the following: BIOL 3303, 4305, 3320; ZOOL 3406. Also required are CHEM 1307, 1308, 1107, and 1108.

Students may also satisfy the requirements for the teaching of high school biology under the Multidisciplinary Science Major, with an emphasis in biology. This major is administered by the College of Education. All students must take CHEM 1107, 1108, 1307, and 1308; PHYS 1103, 1104, 1306, and 1307; GEOL 1101, 1102, 1303, and 1304; BIOL 1403 and 1404; ATMO 1300 and 1100; ASTR 1300 and 1100. Also required under the biology emphasis are ZOOL 2403; BIOL 3301; MBIO 3400, one of BOT 3303, 3404, or 3401, together with 6 to 8 hours from the following: BOT 3303, 3404, or 3401; ZOOL 3406 or 4407; BIOL 3303, 3311, 3320, or 4305.

Other degree options administered by the College of Education include the following:

Secondary Option for Life-Earth Science. Designed to satisfy requirements for science teachers at the junior high school level. Required courses include BIOL 1401, 1402, and 3301; MBIO 3400; ZOOL 2403, 4407, or BOT 3304; GEOL 1303, 1101, 1304, 1102, 2405, and 4323; ATMO 1300, 1100, and one of GEOL 3450, 4318, 4322, 4323, 3301.

Elementary Option for Biology. Required courses include BIOL 1401, 1402, and 3301; MBIO 3400; ZOOL 2403 plus BOT 3404 or ZOOL 4407.

Elementary Option for Life-Earth Science. Required courses include BIOL 1401, 1402, and 3301; MBIO 3400; GEOL 1303, 1101, 1304, 1102, 3450, and one of the following: GEOL 3301, 4318, 4322, or 4323.

Courses in Biology. (BIOL)

Either BIOL 1401 or 1402 or BIOL 1403 and 1404 will satisfy the laboratory science requirements for the College of Arts and Sciences and the introductory biology prerequisites for other courses in the Department of Biological Sciences. BIOL 1403 and 1404 are required for all majors in the department, but BIOL 1401 and 1402 will be accepted as the equivalent for transfer students and students that have taken BIOL 1401 and 1402 prior to declaring their major in one of the areas of biology. Students can test out of BIOL 1401 and 1402 by having taken the AP biology test in high school and achieving a score of at least three (3). Alternatively, students can test out of BIOL 1401 and 1402 by taking the CLEP-S test administered by the University's Testing and Evaluation Center. Students can test out of BIOL 1403 and 1404 by having taken the AP biology test in high school and achieving a
score of five (5). Alternatively, students can test out of BIOL 1403 and/or 1404 by passing departmentally administered tests.

1401. Biology of Plants (4:3:3). An introductory coverage of plant-environment interactions and plant structure and function as they relate to our understanding of the plant world. Expressly designed for students not majoring in a biological science. Will fulfill laboratory science requirements. BIOL 1401 and 1402 may be taken in any sequence or simultaneously. [BIOL 1411]

1402. Biology of Animals (4:3:3). An introductory coverage of animal-environment interactions and animal structure, function, and behavior as they relate to our understanding of the animal world. Expressly designed for students not majoring in a biological science. BIOL 1401 and 1402 may be taken in any sequence or simultaneously. [BIOL 1413]

1403. Biology I (4:3:3). Prerequisite: one year of high school biology. Recommended: 6 hours of college chemistry. Fundamentals of molecular biology, cell biology, genetics, and evolutionary theory. First semester of an integrated course recommended for students majoring in biological sciences or related disciplines. [BIOL 1406]

1404. Biology II (4:3:3). Prerequisite: BIOL 1403. Fundamentals of organismal biology, population biology, and biological diversity. Second semester of an integrated course recommended for majors in biological and related sciences. [BIOL 1407]

2000. Biological Research (V:1:4). Prerequisite: BIOL 1404 or equivalent or consent of instructor. Selected research problems according to needs of students. May be repeated for credit in another field or with new materials in the same field.

2113. Environmental Problems Laboratory (1:0:3). Prerequisite: BIOL 2313 (or concurrent enrollment) or permission of instructor. Laboratory and field studies of environmental problems. Some weekend field trips required. Not for major credit.

2120. Introductory Cell and Molecular Biology (1:1:0). An introduction to current areas of research and to recent technological advances in the field of cellular and molecular biology.

2310. Field Tropical Biology (3:1:5). Prerequisite: One course in introductory biology or consent of instructor. Field class in tropical location, exploring biodiversity, ecology, and conservation biology of tropics. Travel required.

2313. Ecology and Environmental Problems (3:3:0). Prerequisite: One semester of high school biology. An introduction to ecological principles and the analysis of environmental problems from an ecological perspective. Not for major credit.

3102. Experimental Genetics (1:0:3). Prerequisite: One year of introductory biology; prerequisite or parallel: BIOL 3301. A survey of the techniques of experimental inquiry of the materials, methods, and the terminology used in genetics.

3120. Cell Biology Laboratory (1:0:3). Prerequisite or corequisite: BIOL 3320. A survey of the experimental techniques used to study cells and cellular processes.

3301. Genetics (3:3:0). Prerequisite: One year of introductory biology. Genetic principles with emphasis on mechanisms and problem solving. [BIOL 2316]

3302. Developmental Biology (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Introductory biology and genetics; cell biology recommended. A synthesis of animal and plant development, stressing the basic principles of molecular, cellular, and organismic development.

3304. Human Genetics (3:3:0). Prerequisite: One semester of general genetics (BIOL 3301) or equivalent. A study of the frequency and transmission of human genetic and chromosomal mutations and the application of this information to individual cases.

3307. Population Biology (3:3:0). Prerequisite: BIOL 3301 required; BIOL 3309 recommended. Introduction to population biology theory with emphasis on interaction between genetics and ecology.

3309. Populations, Communities, and Ecosystems (3:3:0). Prerequisite: an introductory course in biology. An examination of ecological systems emphasizing populations, communities, and ecosystems.

3310. Experimental Cell Biology (3:1:6). Prerequisite: Declared major in cell and molecular biology, or consent of the instructor, and prior or concurrent enrollment in BIOL 3320. An introduction to the modern research techniques used to study cellular and molecular processes in eukaryotic cells.

3320. Cell Biology (3:3:0). Prerequisite: BIOL 3301 and one semester of organic chemistry. An integrated study of the basic principles of cell structure and function.

3406. Cell Culture and Laboratory Virology (4:2:4). Prerequisite: BIOL 3320, 3120 or MBIO 3401 or consent of instructor. An introduction to the principles and methods of cell culture and practical virology including the cultivation, characterization, and replication of viruses.

4100. Undergraduate Research in Biology (1). Prerequisite: 15 hours of biology, junior or senior standing, and consent of instructor. Selected research problems according to the needs of the students. May be repeated or taken parallel for credit in another field or with new materials in the same field.

4101. Biology Seminar (1:1:0). Prerequisite: Senior standing in biology, botany, or zoology. Critical reviews of classical and recent literature and reports of original investigations. May be repeated for credit.

4110. Topics in Biology (1). Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Special areas of current interest not commonly included in other courses. Content normally different each time offered. May be repeated for credit up to 3 hours.

4300. Undergraduate Research in Biology (3). Prerequisite: 15 hours of biology, junior or senior standing in biology, and consent of instructor. Selected research problems according to the needs of the students. May be repeated or taken parallel for credit in another field or with new materials in the same field.

4301. Topics in Biology (3). Prerequisite: Consent of instructor. Special areas of current interest not commonly included in other courses. Content normally different each time offered. May be repeated for additional credit.

4303. Population Genetics (3:3:0). Prerequisite: BIOL 3301 or equivalent course in genetics; MATH 1320 or equivalent course in algebra recommended. The origin, maintenance, and significance of genetic variation in natural and artificial populations.

4305. Organic Evolution (3:3:0). Prerequisite: BIOL 3301 or equivalent course in genetics. The principles and processes of evolution and how they relate to the ecology, physiology, behavior, morphology, and systematic classification of organisms.

4306. Biogeography (3:3:0). Prerequisite: One year of introductory biology. Characterization and analysis of the geographic distribution of organisms, emphasizing patterns, process, and biographic reconstruction.

4310. Community Ecology (3:3:0). Prerequisite: a course in ecology or consent of instructor. An investigation of theoretical and experimental approaches to understanding the composition, diversity, and structure of plant, animal, and microbial communities.

4320. Molecular Biology (3:3:0). Prerequisite: BIOL 3302, 3320. Includes the study of molecular processes involved in cellular functioning of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells and viruses together with recent technological advances in molecular biology research.

Courses in Botany. (BOT)

3302. Plant Pathology (3:2:3). Prerequisite: One year of introductory biology; prerequisite or parallel, MBIO 3400 or equivalent. Principles underlying the cause, identification, and control of plant diseases.

3303. Plant Morphology (3:2:3). Prerequisite: Introductory botany. The form and reproduction of plants. Field trips may be required.

3401. Plant Physiology (4:3:3). Prerequisite: Introductory botany and one semester of organic chemistry. The physiology of plants with an emphasis on relationships of structure to function in vascular plants.

3404. Taxonomy of the Flowering Plants (4:3:3). Prerequisite: One year of introductory biology. Principles and practices in classification of flowering plants. Field trips required.

3409. Developmental Plant Anatomy (4:3:3). Prerequisite: One year of biology. Introduction to plant cells, tissues, and organs with emphasis on structural and functional relationships, control of development, evolutionary history, and environmental adaptation.

Courses in Microbiology. (MBIO)

3400. Microbiology (4:3:4). Prerequisite: 3 hours of biology. Morphology, physiology, and activities of bacteria, molds, and viruses. Primarily for students of agriculture, secondary education, human sciences, nursing, and others seeking an advanced science elective. [BIOL 2420]

3401. Principles of Microbiology (4:3:4). Prerequisite: One year of introductory biology; prerequisite or parallel: CHEM 3305. Morphology, physiology, and classification of microorganisms. [BIOL 2421]

4101. Microbiology Seminar (1:1:0). Prerequisite: Senior standing in microbiology. Critical reviews of classical and recent literature and reports of original investigations. May be repeated for credit.

4303. Physiology of Bacteria (3:3:0). Prerequisite: MBIO 3401. Anatomy and physiology of the bacterial cella molecular approach.

4307. Industrial Microbiology (3:3:0). Prerequisite: MBIO 3401. An introduction to fermentation techniques, food microbiology, production of various microbial products, microbial transformations, sewage disposal, and microbiological control.

4309. Medical Mycology (3:2:3). Prerequisite: MBIO 3401 or equivalent. This course is concerned with medically important fungi and the mycoses caused by these organisms. Laboratory sessions will emphasize identification methods.

4310. Introduction to Virology (3:3:0). Prerequisite: MBIO 3401 or BIOL 3320 or consent of instructor. An introduction to basic concepts in the structure, replication, and ecology of viruses from animals, plants, and procaryotes.

4400. Practicum in Applied Microbiology (4:0:12). Prerequisite: Consent of instructor at least one month prior to registration. Practical experience in affiliated governmental, industrial, and medical microbiology laboratories. May not be repeated for credit. Not for major or minor credit.

4401. Microbial Ecology (4:3:3). Prerequisite: A course in microbiology, mycology, ecology, or related area, or consent of instructor. An examination of the population and community ecology of bacteria and fungi, and the roles of these organisms in ecosystem processes.

4402. Immunology and Serology (4:3:4). Prerequisite: MBIO 3401 or BIOL 3320; 10 hours of chemistry. Theories of infection and resistance, the production and demonstration of antibodies, the action of antigens, and diagnostic tests.

4404. Pathogenic Microbiology (4:3:4). Prerequisite: MBIO 3401. A detailed study of pathogenic microorganisms. Laboratory procedures in the isolation and identification of etiological agents.

4406. The Genetics of Microorganisms (4:3:3). Prerequisite: MBIO 3401 or consent of instructor. The principles of genetic systems existing among microorganisms, with emphasis upon bacteria and bacteriophages.

Courses in Zoology. (ZOOL)

2403. Human Anatomy and Physiology I (4:3:3). Prerequisite or parallel: 6 hours of chemistry recommended. Structure and function of cells and body systems. This is a nonmajors course that is open to students in human sciences, medical technology, physical education, prenursing, preoccupational therapy, preoptometry, and the biology teaching field. [BIOL 2401]

2404. Human Anatomy and Physiology II (4:3:3). Prerequisite: ZOOL 2403, CHEM 1301 or equivalent. In-depth coverage of topics introduced in ZOOL 2403, with emphasis on physiology and its relationship to disease. [BIOL 2402]

2406. Comparative Anatomy of Game Animals (4:3:3). Prerequisite: BIOL 1402 or 1404 or equivalent. A comparative study of game and other wild animals, with emphasis on embryology, functional anatomy, and evolution. Not for major or minor credit in the biological sciences.

3303. Parasitology (3:2:3). Prerequisite: Introductory zoology. Morphology, life cycles, and physiology of protozoan and helminth parasites, with emphasis on broad aspects of parasitism and examples with medical and economic interest.

3401. Animal Histology (4:2:6). Prerequisite: ZOOL 3405. The study of normal tissues of the human and other mammals. An introductory course recommended for students of pathology, medical sciences, and biomedical sciences.

3405. Vertebrate Structure and Development (4:3:3). Prerequisite: Introductory zoology. The comparative study of vertebrate structure and embryological development. [BIOL 2428]

3406. Comparative Invertebrate Zoology (4:3:3). Prerequisite: One year of introductory biology or consent of instructor. Structure, life history, and evolution of the invertebrates.

4302. Principles of Systematic Zoology (3:3:0). Prerequisite: BIOL 3301 or equivalent; BIOL 4305 recommended. Theory and practice of evaluating zoological diversity and evolutionary relationships, with emphasis on speciation and phylogeny reconstruction.

4304. General Endocrinology (3:3:0). Prerequisite: BIOL 3320 or ZOOL 4409, organic chemistry. Hormones as chemical coordinators of bodily functions.

4306. Introduction to Mammalogy (3:2:3). Prerequisite: Introductory zoology or junior standing in wildlife management; ZOOL 4407 recommended. Study of the classification, natural history, and ecology of mammals.

4308. General Ornithology (3:2:3). Prerequisite: Junior standing. Emphasis on laboratory and field work in systematics, ecology, and anatomy of birds. Local field trips.

4310. Introduction to Ichthyology (3:2:3). Prerequisite: Introductory zoology or equivalent. Diversity, evolutionary relationships, ecology, and anatomy of fishes.

4312. Animal Behavior (3:3:0). Comparative study of animal behavior; its genetic basis, expression through neurophysiological mechanisms, function in the environment, and adaptive role during evolutionary history.

4407. Natural History of the Vertebrates (4:3:3). Prerequisite: One year of introductory biology. Evolutionary relationships, identification, and ecology of vertebrates. Local fauna emphasized.

4409. Comparative Animal Physiology (4:3:3). Prerequisite: ZOOL 3405 or 3406, CHEM 1307, 1308; BIOL 3320, 3120 recommended. A comparison of physiological functions of animals in the major phyla.


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