Department of Economics and Geography

Professor Joseph E. King, Interim Chairperson.

Professors Davidson, Elbow, Hill, Jonish, Steinmeier, Templer, and Troub; Associate Professors Becker, Gilbert, Kruse, Lee, McComb, and Rahnama; Assistant Professor von Ende; Instructors Davidson and Jones; Emeritus Faculty: Rouse, Walker, and Wittman.

This department supervises the following degree programs: ECONOMICS, Bachelor of Arts, Bachelor of Science, Master of Arts, Doctor of Philosophy; INTERNATIONAL ECONOMICS, Bachelor of Science in International Economics; GEOGRAPHY, Bachelor of Arts. The economics faculty supervises the professional requirements of the economics major for the Bachelor of Business Administration degree offered through the College of Business Administration. The geography faculty participates in the Latin American Area Studies program leading to the Bachelor of Arts degree and in the Asian Pacific Rim Area Studies, environmental studies, international studies, and community and urban studies programs.

Economics Programs. The undergraduate program leading to the Bachelor of Arts degree is offered to students who want to pursue a broad liberal education while, at the same time, studying the complex interrelationships between consumers, producers, and governments in an economic system. A minimum of 30 semester hours in economics courses (including ECO 2301, 2302, 3311, 3312, 4314, and AECO 3401 or its equivalent), and 18 semester hours in a minor field are required for the B.A. degree. The minimum number of hours required for majors in economics is a total of 126. Candidates for the B.A. degree in economics are encouraged to consult with their advisors and to select from the wide range of possibilities a complementing set of economics and noneconomics electives in accordance with their developing interests. Other requirements are specified in the General Degree Requirements section of the College of Arts and Sciences.

The undergraduate program leading to the Bachelor of Science degree combines a broad liberal education with rigorous and extensive training in theoretical and mathematical economics. The program is highly structured and technically oriented. Students in this major must include ECO 2301, 2302, 3311, 3312, AECO 4312, and 21 hours of advanced economics electives. The mathematics minor consists of 18 hours of mathematics subject to the approval of the Mathematics Department. The basic requirements are listed in the General Degree Requirements of the College of Arts and Sciences. The adjunct requirements include two-semester course sequences in statistics and in computer scienceboth of which are subject to the approval of the economics faculty advisor.

The B.S. in international economics degree program provides correlated emphasis on international economics, international politics, and international business. The minimum number of hours required for majors in international economics is a total of 126. Course requirements for this degree are specified in the General Degree Requirements section of the College of Arts and Sciences.

Students majoring in economics must complete a minimum of 12 semester hours of their economics courses in residence at Texas Tech University. Students minoring in economics must complete a minimum of 6 semester hours of their economics courses in residence at Texas Tech.

At least a C in all economics courses in all programs is required of majors and minors. Moreover, a minimum grade of C is required in all core courses in the B.S. degree in international economics. Courses specifically required in the core by course number for the B.S. degree in international economics may not be taken pass-fail. Courses required for the major or minor in the B.A. or B.S. degree in economics may not be taken pass-fail. Courses taken pass-fail by a student before declaring a major or minor will be evaluated by the curriculum committee of the department and a decision rendered as to whether they will satisfy the degree requirements.

Geography Program. Geography, the spatial science, offers both variety and specialization, with opportunities in many different occupations. The discipline is most appealing to students who enjoy travel and field work, who are observant and curious about the world, and who wish to apply their knowledge and training to working on challenging problems such as developing or implementing community improvement plans, managing natural resources, planning for urban or regional development, and designing or evaluating international development projects. Undergraduate majors will find interesting careers in the public sector with local, state, and federal government agencies and the military. In the private sector, there are increasing demands by business and industry for employees who are trained in field research methods, statistical analysis, cartography, remote sensing, and other skills that may be acquired by geography students. The undergraduate program is also intended to give students a foundation for graduate study, whether in geography or in some related professional field such as urban or regional planning, environmental and resource management, law, or education.

Students majoring in geography must complete 30 hours in geography, including at least one course in each of the following areas: human geography, physical geography, regional geography, and geographic tools or techniques. As an alternative to the general major in geography, a student may select a specialization in community planning, environmental studies, physical geography, remote sensing-cartography, or geography education. Minors are required to complete 18 hours in geography, including at least one course in three of the four general areas cited above for majors. The minimum number of hours required for majors in geography is a total of 125.

Students majoring in geography must complete a minimum of 12 semester hours of their geography courses in residence at Texas Tech University. Students minoring in geography must complete a minimum of 6 semester
hours of their geography courses in residence at Texas Tech.

Teacher Education. In the teacher certification programs, geography may be used as a teaching field at the secondary level and as an 12- or 18-hour area of specialization at the elementary level. Geography course work is also included in the social science composite field certification program in secondary education. Specific course requirements for each of these programs may be obtained from the Department of Economics and Geography.

Courses in Economics. (ECO)

2301. Principles of Economics I (3:3:0). Emphasis on theories of the firm, value and price determination, and functional distribution, with the application of these theories to the problems of particular firms, industries, and markets. [ECON 2302]

2302. Principles of Economics II (3:3:0). An introduction to modern economic society and theories of production and exchange. Emphasis upon monetary and fiscal policy and macroeconomics. [ECON 2301]

2305. Principles of Economics (3:3:0). An abridged course for students not majoring in economics or business. Covers the most significant portions of ECO 2301 and 2302, with emphasis upon monetary and fiscal policy. Credit will not be given for both ECO 2305 and 2302.

3311. Intermediate Macroeconomics (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 2302. Analysis of the determinants of aggregate demand and supply with special emphasis on macroeconomic problems such as unemployment and inflation and on techniques used to forecast macroeconomic variables.

3312. Intermediate Economic Theory (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 2301. Intermediate price theory and introduction to welfare theory. Includes theory of demand, theory of the firm, and welfare theory.

3320. Managerial Economics (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 2301. The application of economic theory to problems of business enterprise.

3322. Economics of Labor (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 2301. The theory of wages, the problems of unemployment, economic insecurity, industrial disputes, industrial accidents, development and aims of labor unions, and employers' associations.

3323. Principles of Money, Banking, and Credit (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 2301 and 2302. A basic course which deals with the commercial banking system, the Federal Reserve System, and other matters associated with money, prices, and credit control.

3324. Government Finance (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 2302. Analysis of economic aspects of government finance; principles and problems of taxation, public expenditures, budgetary controls, and debt management.

3330. Economic Systems (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 2301 and 2302 or consent of instructor. Study of different economic systems, with attention given to selected ones or types (e.g., market economies, Yugoslavia's co-participation, corporate statism, Scandinavian socialism, Soviet central planning)

3333. International Economics (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 2301 and 2302 or consent of instructor. Principles of international trade, balance of payments, trade policies, and agreements.

3334. The Latin American Economies (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 2301 and 2302 or consent of instructor. Survey of the development problems confronted by Latin America, the economic policy responses and performance.

4300. Economic Research (3). Prerequisite: ECO 3311 and 3312. Economics major, or consent of instructor or chairperson. Directed undergraduate student research in selected areas under the supervision of selected departmental faculty.

4314. Development of Economic Doctrines (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 2301 and 2302. The basis, nature, and effects of economic doctrines from ancient times through the nineteenth century.

4323. Monetary Theory (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 3311. Analysis of money supply, money demand, interest rates, income and price level determination, and transmission mechanisms. Emphases include monetary policies in an open economy context.

4331. Economics of Multinational Enterprise (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 2301 or consent of instructor. Examination of the economics of international enterprise, associations with the major dimensions of the international economy, and with international political economy.

4332. International Finance (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 3323 or 3333 or consent of instructor. Analysis of international monetary system theory, policy, and institutions. Includes attention to foreign exchange markets and roles of international banking and international managerial finance.

4333. International Economic Relations (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Senior B.S.I.E. major (preferably in last semester) or equivalent background in international economics, business, and politics. Study of past, present, and possible future nature of international economic relations, with attention to interaction of economic, political, business, and sociocultural factors.

4334. Economics of Growth and Development (3:3:0). Prerequisite: ECO 2302 or consent of instructor. A survey of the theories of economic growth and development including an evaluation of policies intended to achieve growth as well as to maintain a high rate of growth.

Courses in Geography. (GEOG)

Courses marked with an asterisk provide laboratory and nonlaboratory science credit.

*1101, *1102. Physical Geography Laboratory (1:0:2 each). Optional laboratories for GEOG 1301, 1302. GEOG 1101 accompanies GEOG 1301 and GEOG 1102 accompanies GEOG 1302.

*1301, *1302. Introduction to Physical Geography (3:3:0 each). Study of the physical world including the characteristics, processes of formation, distribution, and interrelationships of land and water, climate, vegetation, and soils. Both courses fulfill the science requirement and either may be taken first. GEOG 1301 focuses on climate and the biosphere; GEOG 1302 focuses on landforms, soils, and the hydrosphere.

2300. Geography for a Changing Society (3:3:0). Introduction to human geography including demographic change, migration, cultural diffusion, ethnic patterns, and spatial characteristics of political and economic systems with emphasis on international topics.

2310. Geography of World Trade (3:3:0). Survey of world trade with emphasis on geographic factors which contribute to developing international business and trade relations.

2351. Regional Geography of the World (3:3:0). An introduction to the geography of world regions for students who have had no previous geography courses.

3300. Introduction to Mapping (3:1:4). An introduction to cartography, including map design, current mapping techniques, and cartographic drafting.

3303. Principles of Map Reading and Interpretation (3:3:0). An introduction to the principles of map reading, interpretation, and application.

*3335. Field Seminar in Physical Geography (3:3:0). Seminar conducted in field setting to provide students with first-hand opportu
nity for observing actual physical and human aspects of study area. Specific region and topic may vary. May be repeated for credit with change of subject matter.

3337. Man's Economic Environment (3:3:0). Consideration of the characteristics and distribution of man's production and consumption of goods and services, and of variation and interaction of economic activities among areas of the earth's surface.

3351. Geography of Urban Places (3:3:0). An analysis of the location, distribution, function, and spread of urban places, including a study of current urban problemssprawl, city decline, and metropolitan transportation.

3352. Geography of the United States and Canada (3:3:0). Study of the physical and cultural geography of the United States and Canada, including geographical aspects of the development of Texas.

*3353. Man, Resources, and Environment (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Introductory physical geography or consent of instructor. Study of the interrelated problems of population growth, efficient use of natural resources, and human disruption of the earth's environment.

3354. Historical Geography of the United States (3:3:0). Survey of the settlement geography of the United States in the 18th and 19th centuries with special emphasis on Texas.

3355. Field Methods in Community Studies (3:2:3). An introduction to the techniques and tools used by geographers in gathering and presenting data from the field.

3356. Contemporary Texas and the American Southwest (3:3:0). Study of the physical and contemporary cultural geography of Texas and the American Southwest.

3358. Geography of Asia's Pacific Rim (3:3:0). Study of the physical and human geography of Asia's Pacific Rim, emphasizing environmental problems relating to rural and urban land use, resource exploitation, and economic development.

3359. Geography of the Middle East (3:3:0). Study of the physical and human geography of the Middle East, with emphasis on land use, natural resource, and environmental problems of this largely arid region.,

3360. Technology and the Human Landscape (3:3:0). Study of relationship of technological development and energy use with human use of the earth from pre-humans to the present.

3363. Geography of South America (3:3:0). Study of the physical and human geography of South America, with special emphasis on contemporary issues.

3364. Geography of Middle America (3:3:0). Study of the physical and human geography of Mexico, Central America, and the West Indies, with emphasis on contemporary issues.

3403. Principles of Remote Sensing (4:3:2). An introduction to the principles and applications of remote sensing. Systems include aerial photographs, false color infrared, microwave, Landsat, thermal infrared, and side-look radar.

*3410. Environmental Change (4:3:2). Prerequisite: GEOG 1301 and 1302, or equivalent natural science courses. Investigates changes in climate, hydrology, soils, biota and landforms since the start of the Ice Ages, and the effects of these environmental changes on humans.

4305. Geography of Trade and Regional Integration in the Western Hemisphere (3:3:0). The geographic bases of regional integration in the Western Hemishpere and the relationship of the free trade movement to the internal development of Western Hemisphere countries, with emphasis on Latin America and the Caribbean.

*4321. Physical Geography: Biogeography (3:3:0). Prerequisite: Introductory physical geography or consent of instructor. Study of plants and animals in their spatial context, their functional interaction, and applied aspects of biogeography, especially as related to man's impact on the biosphere.

4357. Geography of Arid Lands (3:3:0). Systemic and regional inquiry into the physical nature and the problems of human utilization of the arid and semiarid lands of the earth.

4369. Readings in Geography (3). Conference course. May be repeated for credit.

*4401. Geomorphology in Environmental Management (4:3:2). Prerequisite: GEOG 1302 or GEOL 1303 or consent of instructor. Evaluation and analysis of earth-forming processes and terrain features in relation to human activities. Course emphasizes analytical techniques.

4403. Geographic Information Systems (4:3:2). Prerequisite: GEOG 3300 or 3303 or consent of instructor. Review of the principles and applications of geographic information systems. Methods of data collection, entry, and interpretation are covered.

4600. Internship in Geography (6). Prerequisite: Minimum of 12 hours in geography, minimum 3.25 GPA in geography, and consent of instructor. Supervised activity in a nonacademic setting. Students gain experience in the working world while having the opportunity to utilize accumulated geographic concepts and tools.

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