- How is extra time justified for students with learning disabilities?
- Should I refer a student to Student Disability Services?
- How do I verify the eligibility of a student who simply tells me that he or she is disabled and requires accommodations?
- How are accommodations determined for a student with a disability?
- Do I have the right to know the nature of a student's disability?
- What is a disability?
- What is meant by "is regarded as having such an impairment" in the definition of disability?
- Are "disability" and "handicap" the same thing?
- What is a reasonable accommodation?
- How does a person become eligible to receive accommodations?
- Who determines the accommodation?
- Won't providing accommodations on examinations give an unfair advantage to a student with a disability?
- What do I do when a student discloses a disability?
- What if a student doesn't tell me about a disability until late in the semester?
- Can I review the student's documentation of the disability?
- What if I suspect that a student has a disability?
- What if a student with a disability is failing?
- What if a student with a disability is often absent?
- What is a note taker?
- How can I assist a student with getting notes?
- What should I do if a student who is deaf or hard of hearing shows up in my class without an interpreter?
- Who is responsible for requesting an interpreter?
- Do I need to alter my teaching style with an interpreter?
- What can I expect if there is an interpreter in my classroom?
- What should I do if my class needs to evacuate the building due to an emergency?
- What if a student has a seizure in my classroom?
Other students could improve test scores if they were allowed additional time as well.
Various factors account for the need for extra time on tests for students with learning disabilities. These include: a) speed of processing; b) visual perceptual deficits; c) difficulty with mechanics of syntax, spelling and punctuation; and d) reading comprehension deficits. Research (at UC Berkeley, 1991 and the University of Toronto, 1993) on the effects of extended time on exams has shown dramatic improvements for students with learning disabilities, but only marginal improvement for students without learning disabilities. Rather than providing an unfair advantage in the class, extended time for exams allows these students to demonstrate their level of mastery of the course objectives, rather than reflecting the deficits innate to their learning disabilities. In other words, it "levels the playing field."
Faculty members are encouraged to refer students to Student Disability Services if the student has disclosed that they have a disability.
How do I verify the eligibility of a student who simply tells me that he or she is disabled and requires accommodations?
On the Texas Tech University campus Student Disability Services is regarded as the authority to verify disabilities and determine whether a student qualifies for academic accommodations. All students eligible for accommodations have presented the necessary documentation and been verified by the SDS staff.
Reasonable accommodations are determined on an individual basis after considering the specific disability and documentation of functional limitations in accordance with the Americans with Disabilities Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973. See the Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) for more information regarding documentation guidelines. Accommodations are designed to provide an equal educational opportunity not to give the student a competitive edge.
The information regarding a student's disability should be shared only when there is a compelling reason for disclosure. The U. S. Department of Justice has indicated that a faculty member generally does not have a need to know this information, only that it has been appropriately verified by the office assigned this responsibility on behalf of the institution. Students may submit their verification to Student Disability Services without disclosing to their instructors the specific nature of their disability. Upon a student's request for accommodations, the university and the instructor are required by law to appropriately accommodate the student in a timely manner. While students are not required to share their specific disability information, students are encouraged to discuss their specific needs with their instructors.
An individual with a disability is defined as any person who:
- "has a physical or mental impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities (including walking, seeing, hearing, speaking, breathing, learning, working, caring for oneself, or performing manual tasks),
- has a record of such an impairment, or
- is regarded as having such an impairment."
For example, a person with a facial disfigurement may not have an impairment which substantially limits one or more major life activities, but others may regard him or her has having one due to how he or she appears.
A "disability" is a condition caused by accident, trauma, genetics or disease that may limit a person's
mobility, hearing, vision, speech, or mental function. A person may have more than
A "handicap" is a physical or attitudinal constraint imposed upon a person; for example, stairs, narrow doorways, and curbs are handicaps imposed upon people with disabilities who use wheelchairs.
A reasonable accommodation is a modification or adjustment to a course, program, service, job, activity, or facility that enables a qualified individual with a disability to have an equal opportunity to attain the same level of performance or to enjoy equal benefits and privileges as are available to an individual without a disability. Some common academic accommodations include extended time on tests, use of peer note takers, use of computer with spell check, and provision of sign language interpreters.
To become eligible, a person must have a documented disability and inform the University
that he or she is requesting accommodations based on that disability.
A student must:
1. Contact Student Disability Services;
2. Provide specific documentation of the disability from a qualified professional;
3. Consult with an advisor in Student Disability Services to determine appropriate accommodations.
Student Disability Services staff determine the accommodations using:
- Documentation of the disability from qualified professionals provided by the student,
- Information gathered from an intake process, and information from history of the disability.
The determination of reasonable accommodations considers the following:
- Classroom or physical barriers,
- The array of accommodations that might remove the barriers,
- Whether or not the person has access to the course, program, service, job, activity, or facility without accommodations, and
- Whether essential elements of the course, program, service, job, activity, or facility are not compromised by the accommodations.
Won't providing accommodations on examinations give an unfair advantage to a student with a disability?
"Accommodations don't make things easier, just possible; in the same way eyeglasses do not improve the strength of the eyes, they just make it possible for the individual to see better. Accommodations are interventions that allow the learner to indicate what they know. Without the accommodations, the learner may not be able to overcome certain barriers."(Samuels, M. 1992 - Asking the Right Questions. The Learning Center, Calgary)
Accommodations are designed to lessen the effects of the disability and are required to provide fair and accurate testing to measure knowledge or expertise in the subject. Careful consideration must be given to requests for accommodations when the test is measuring a skill, particularly if that skill is an essential function or requirement of passing the course, such as typing at a certain speed or turning a patient for an x-ray. In such cases, please contact a Student Disability Services staff member for guidance.
The purpose of academic accommodations is to adjust for the effect of the student's disability, not to dilute academic requirements. The evaluation and assigning of grades should have the same standards for all students, including students with disabilities. For many test takers, the most common accommodation is extended time. In specific circumstances, students may also require the use of readers and/or scribes, a modification of test format, the administration of examinations orally, or an alternative time for testing. For out-of-class assignments, the extension of deadlines may be justified, especially if the student is relying heavily on support services (readers for term papers, etc.).
Ask for the Letter of Accommodation from the student; this letter describes the accommodations that faculty are legally mandated to provide. During an office hour or at another convenient time, discuss the letter and the accommodations with the student. Students MUST present a letter from Student Disability Services to receive accommodations. If the student does not have a letter, he or she should be referred to the appropriate staff member at Student Disability Services to request services. Student Disability Services staff will determine the appropriate accommodations after reviewing documentation of the disability provided by the student.
Students have a responsibility to give instructors and Student Disability Services
adequate time to arrange accommodations. All Student Disability Services staff encourages
students to identify early in the semester. Instructors can help by extending an invitation
in class and in the syllabus an invitation for students to identify themselves early
in the semester: "Any student who may need an accommodation due to a disability, please make an appointment
to see me during my office hours. A letter from Student Disability Services authorizing
your accommodations will be needed."
Once a student has identified to the instructor and requests disability-related accommodations authorized by Student Disability Services, the University has a legal responsibility to make reasonable attempts to accommodate the need, even late in the semester. There is no responsibility to provide accommodations prior to identification; for example, allowing the student to re-take exams with extended time.
Student Disability Services is the office designated to receive and interpret documentation of the disability. Student Disability Services staff certifies eligibility for services and determines accommodations. Disability information is confidential and students are not required to disclose this information to instructors.
Talk with the student about your concerns regarding his or her performance. If the
concern seems disability-related, ask if he or she has ever received assistance for
a disability. If it seems appropriate, refer the student to Student Disability Services
to apply for services. Whether to self-identify to Student Disability Services is
the decision of the student; however, to receive accommodations, disclosure to Student
Disability Services with proper documentation is required.
If the student has never been evaluated for a learning disability and/or Attention Deficit Disorder/Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Student Disability Services will provide a list of local resources where the student may be screened or tested. Some of the resources offer a sliding fee schedule.
Treat the student as you would any student who is not performing well in your class. Invite the student to your office hour to discuss reasons for the failing performance and what resources the student may use to improve. Encourage the student to see the Student Disability Services staff to discuss some additional strategies to improve his or her grades. Contact the Student Disability Services staff member who initialed the Instructor's Letter to discuss any additional concerns.
Talk with the student to discuss your concerns that absences are affecting class performance. Remind him or her of your policy on class absences. Determine with the student whether the missed work can be made up and make arrangements with the student to do so. Refer the student to Student Disability Services if too much class work has been missed.
A note taker is usually another student in class who agrees to provide copies of lecture notes taken during class. The note taker may make copies of notes at Student Disability Services or use carbonless note taker paper available at no charge from Student Disability Services.
The Letter of Accommodation will document the need for note takers. Students who cannot take notes or have difficulty taking notes adequately due to the effects of their disability can be accommodated in a number of ways including: allowing them to tape record lectures, assisting them in obtaining an in-class volunteer note taker, and providing them with an outline of lecture materials and copies of overhead transparencies.
What should I do if a student who is deaf or hard of hearing shows up in my class without an interpreter?
In the unlikely event that a student shows up for the first day of class without an interpreter, the student should be referred to Student Disability Services. Student Disability Services will then attempt to schedule an interpreter or work with the student to rearrange his or her schedule into classes where an interpreter is already provided.
To receive interpreter services the student must contact the Interpreter Coordinator at least two weeks before the semester begins, place a request for interpreting services for the upcoming semester, and provide a current schedule. This process must be followed so that we can efficiently provide services and accommodations on the first day of class. If a student makes any changes to his/her course schedule, he/she must notify the Interpreter Coordinator immediately. The Interpreter Coordinator will have one week from the date of written notification to provide services for any changes to class schedules already in place.
For outside class requirements, such as field trips or other assigned activities, as well as meeting with professors during office hours, students should request an interpreter from Student Disability Services. The interpreter request form is for students who are currently registered with Student Disability Services (SDS) and is intended for academic purposes on the main Texas Tech University campus only.
Interpreter requests for events lasting less than 3 hours require at least 72 hours
advance notice. Requests submitted with less than 72 hours notice cannot be guaranteed.
Interpreter requests for events lasting longer than 3 hours (e.g. conferences, training, etc.) require at least 3 weeks advance notice in order for
our office to determine the appropriate accommodations. Events outside of Lubbock
will be considered on a case-by-case basis contingent on availability of interpreter
services in the area. Remember the no-call /no-show policy applies to Interpreter
Request assignments as well.
*Note: In the event that interpreters are not available, other appropriate services will be considered (e.g. RCART, UbiDuo, FM System, or other supportive technology).
Interpreters are professionals who facilitate communication between hearing individuals
and people who are deaf or hard of hearing. The role of the interpreter is similar
to that of a foreign language translator: to bridge the communication gap between
Some adaptations in presentation style may be helpful when using a sign language interpreter. The interpreter will let you know if you need to slow down your rate of speaking or if they need you to repeat any information. A desk copy of the book is especially helpful for the interpreter when the class is using examples or doing exercises from the text. Please realize that if students are looking at the interpreter, they cannot be reading a book, writing, or taking notes; a pause for the students to finish their task may be required before continuing the lecture.
Interpreters are bound by the code of ethics developed by the National Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf, which specifies that interpreters are to serve as communication intermediaries who are not otherwise involved.
When an interpreter is present, speak directly to the deaf or hard of hearing person rather than to the interpreter, and avoid using phrases such as "tell him" or "ask her."
Speak normally, noting that there may be a lag time between the spoken message and the interpretation.
When referring to objects or written information, allow time for the translation to take place. Replace terms such as "here" and "there" with more specific terms, such as "on the second line" and "in the left corner."
In a conference room or class environment, the deaf student and interpreter will work out seating arrangements, with the interpreter usually located near the speaker.
Inform the interpreter in advance if there is an audiovisual element in a presentation, so arrangements can be made for lighting and positioning.
In sessions that extend longer than one hour, the interpreter may require a short break to maintain proficiency in interpreting.
Students should let you know at the beginning of the semester if they will need assistance during an emergency.
Students who are blind or have low vision may need a "buddy" to assist them exit the building.
Some students with head injuries or psychiatric disabilities may become confused or disoriented during an emergency and may also need a "buddy."
Students who use wheelchairs should NOT use the elevator but should wait for Security to safely assist them to exit the building. Security has the schedules of students who will need emergency evacuation. To prevent injuries, instructors or other untrained personnel should NOT attempt to evacuate a student who uses a wheelchair. Please wait for trained emergency personnel.
Student Disability Services encourages students with seizure disorders to inform their instructors about what should be done if a seizure occurs during class time. Some students request that Security be called immediately; others request action as listed below. Seizures happen when there is a sudden electrical discharge in the brain. Each individual has a unique reaction. A seizure can result in a relatively slight reaction, such as a short lapse in attention, or a more severe reaction known as a grand mal, which involves convulsions. Seizure disorders are generally controlled by medication, so the possibility of a seizure in the classroom is rare. If one does occur, the following actions are suggested:
- Keep calm. Ease the student to the floor and open the collar of the shirt. You cannot stop a seizure. Let it run its course and do not try to revive the student.
- Remove hard, sharp, or hot objects that may injure the student, but do not interfere with his or her movements.
- Do not force anything between the student's teeth. Turn the student's head to one side for release of saliva.
- Place something soft under the head. Make sure that breathing is unobstructed, but do not be concerned if breathing is irregular.
- When the student regains consciousness, let him or her rest as long as desired.
- To help orient the student to time and space, suggest where he or she is and what happened. Speak reassuringly to the student, especially as the seizure ends.
- The student may be agitated or confused for several minutes afterward. Don't leave the student alone until he or she is clearheaded. Ask whether you can call a friend or relative to help the student get home.
- If the seizure lasts beyond a few minutes, or if the student seems to pass from one seizure to another without regaining consciousness, contact the campus Safety and Security office. This rarely happens, but when it does, it should be treated immediately.