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Research Articles on Wine Marketing Citations & Abstracts

Citation # 1

Dodd, T. H. (1999). Attracting repeat customers to wineries. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 11(2), 18 – 28.

This paper examined the value of the repeat visitor with respect to their spending decisions at the winery and discussed the role that the visitor plays encouraging others to come to the winery. Data were gathered in 1994 from six wineries in Texas and two other proprietary studies and ANOVA was used to examine differences between visitors who had been to the winery before and those who were visiting for the first time. The results indicated that repeat visitors spend more, taste less wine and generally have a more favorable impression of the winery than first-time visitors. In addition, a simple model to indicate the manner in which a first time visitor may share information about their visit and develop an ever-widening circle of influence was developed.

Citation # 2

Dodd, T. H. (1999). Attributes important to wine sales in on-premise markets (Research note). Journal of Food Distribution Research, 30(1), 168 – 169.

The growth of new wine industries in nontraditional wine-producing areas has necessitated that winery managers find ways to effectively distribute their wines to consumers. Attributes of a product or service can play a critical role in forming attitudes toward that product or service. Although there are dozens of potential attributes that could be included in this research project, it will be critical to determine the most important ones in the decision-making process. Winery managers can then concentrate on these as they develop appropriate strategies to sell to restaurants. Little research has been conducted that has asked restaurateurs about the attributes that influence their attitudes and decisions to purchase a particular winery’s products. The objective of this research is to contribute to a better understanding of this issue.

Citation # 3

Michaud, M., Segarra, E., & Dodd, T. H. (1998). From Texas vineyards to the final consumer: An economic impact analysis. Texas Journal of Agriculture and Resource Economics, 11, 31 – 40.

This study estimates the economic impacts of the Texas wine and wine grape industry on the Texas economy through each sector of commercialization from the vineyards to the final consumer. Survey data from the state’s vineyards and wineries for 1996 is used to construct an input-output model of the Texas economy and an industry impact framework using IMPLAN. Results show that the total core economic impacts of the Texas wine and wine grape industry were $85.8 million in output impacts, 1,157 jobs, $29.6 million in income impacts, and $46.6 million in total value added impacts in 1996. Much of these core economic impacts were attributable to the wine and wholesale trade sectors.

Citation # 4

Michaud, M., Segarra, E., & Dodd, T. H. (1998). The marketing channels of the Texas wine and wine grape industry and their economic impact. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 9(1), 18 – 30.

This study estimates the economic impacts of the Texas wine and wine grape industry by marketing channel. Survey data from the state’s vineyards and wineries for 1996 is used to construct an input-output model of the Texas economy and an industry impact framework using IMPLAN. Results show that the total core economic impacts of the Texas wine and wine grape industry were $85.8 million in output impacts, 1,157 jobs, $29.6 million in income impacts, and $46.6 million in total value added impacts in 1996. In each case, the industry’s largest core output impacts were through the retail and the restaurant channels at $50.7 and $12.9 million respectively or 59 percent of the total for the industry. The industry’s third leading marketing channel was that of wine grapes with a core output impact of $10.7 million or 12 percent of the total for the industry.

Citation # 5

Michaud, M., Dodd, T. H., & Segarra, E. (1998). The structure and economic impacts of the Texas vitivinicultural sector. Bulletin de l’O.I.V, 71, 284 – 305.

This study estimates the economic impacts of the Texas vitivinicultural sector on the Texas economy by winery size category. Survey data from the state’s vineyards and wineries for 1996 is used to construct an input-output model of the Texas economy and an industry impact framework using IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning). Results show that the total core economic impacts of the Texas wine and wine grape industry were $85.8 million in output impacts, 1,157 jobs, $29.6 million in income impacts, and $46.6 million in total value added impacts in 1996. Eighty percent of these core economic impacts were attributable to the state’s largest wineries.

Citation # 6

Dodd, T. H. (1998). Influences on search behavior of industrial tourists. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 5(2/3), 77 – 94.

People seek information concerning a vacation or pleasure trip before, during and following a vacation. Despite substantial research concerning the information sources used by many tourists, little is known about some of the influences upon the search behavior of industrial tourists. The study found that there were several main sources that were used by visitors. In addition, a number of previous visits, product involvement, and demographic variables influenced individual information sources and the total information sources used. Implications for managers include targeting specific demographic groups with certain types of information sources to reach industrial tourists.

Citation # 7

Dodd, T. H. (1997). Factors that influence the adoption and diffusion of new wine products. Hospitality Research Journal, 20(3), 123 – 137.

Several factors influence the adoption and diffusion of a new product into the marketplace. This paper uses previous research to develop a framework to analyze the introduction of new wine products. In addition, the results of a survey concerning a new wine product are analyzed. The results of the survey of wine consumers found that although there were similarities in the socio-demographic variables of innovators and noninnovators of a new wine product, the two groups differed with respect to their behavioral characteristics, and the sources from which they collected their information concerning wine. Implications for marketers are discussed.

Citation # 8

Dodd, T. H. (1997). Techniques to increase impulse wine purchases in a restaurant setting. Journal of Restaurant & Foodservice Marketing, 2(1), 63 – 73.

The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of menus and personal selling techniques by the wait-server staff on wine sales in a restaurant setting. The results of previous research, that found wine to be an impulse purchase, were supported by this research. The study found that placing wine on the food menu will have a significant impact on wine sales.

Citation # 9

Dodd, T. H., & Bigotte, V. (1997). Perceptual differences among visitor groups to wineries. Journal of Travel Research, 35(3), 46 – 51.

At present there is little information concerning the characteristics of people who visit wineries and how marketing programs should be organized to attract tourists in the most effective manner. A study of people who visit Texas wineries was conducted to examine the perceptions and behavior of segments of winery tourists. Findings indicate two distinct segments with different perceptions and wine consumption behavior.

Citation # 10

Dodd, T. H., & Gustafson, A. W. (1997). Product, environmental, and service attributes that influence consumer attitudes and purchases at wineries. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 4(3), 41 – 59.

Direct sales of wine and winery souvenirs to winery visitors is important in a number of regions throughout the United States and around the world. The attributes that influence winery visitors’ belief can have a significant impact upon wine purchases, repeat visits, positive word-of-mouth comments, and upon future purchases at restaurants and other retail outlets. A study of winery visitors found four underlying factors from a list of 17 attributes. Regression results indicated that several wine, environment, and service attributes have a significant impact upon consumer attitudes and purchases. Product and purchases involvement were also found to impact purchase behavior.

Citation # 11

Dodd, T. H., Pinkleton, B. E., & Gustafson, A. W. (1996). External information sources of product enthusiasts: Differences between variety seekers, variety neutrals, and variety avoiders. Psychology & Marketing, 13(3), 291 – 304.

The external information sources of enthusiasts are examined. Enthusiasts who frequently switch their purchases of wine from different regions are compared with those who switch their purchases less frequently. Findings indicate that variety-seeking enthusiasts use a significantly larger number of information sources than variety neutrals, and variety neutrals use a significantly larger number of sources than variety avoiders. Differences concerning wine consumption, the use of print media, interpersonal sources, and trial information sources are also noted.

Citation # 12

Dodd, T. H. (1995). Opportunities and pitfalls of tourism in a developing wine industry. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 7(1), 5 – 16.

This study is a first attempt to begin to examine who winery visitors are, what their buying behavior is, and what they want when they visit a winery. Data were collected in 1994 in a study on winery visitors in Texas among 16 wineries with tasting rooms. Visitors’ behavioral and attitudinal characteristics concerning wine and winery souvenirs were examined by using multivariate statistical techniques. For a new wine product it would be best to initially target existing wine consumers for tasting room visits rather than attempt to introduce the product to people who are not current consumers. Future research should broaden this study to other regions as well as to examine other aspects of winery visits.

Citation # 13

Dodd, T. H., & Morse, S. (1994). The impact of media stories concerning health issues on food product sales. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 11(2), 17 – 24.

The purpose of this article was to review the impact that media stories, which concern health issues, have on a variety of products. Specifically, the article examines the impact that the television story, The French Paradox, and subsequent media discussions, had on wine sales. Several possible explanations as to why red wine sales increased so dramatically following the screening of The French Paradox are presented. The main implications relate to contingency planning. Managers of food related companies should consider the actions they would take if either negative or positive health-related media statements are made concerning their product.

Citation # 14

Areni, C. S., Duhan, D. F., & Kiecker, P. (1999). Point-of-purchase displays, product organization, and brand purchase likelihoods. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(4), 428 – 441.

Can point-of-purchase (POP) displays cause a decrease in sales of the featured brand? In an actual test-market promotion, the use of special POP displays led to a decrease in sales of featured wines from a specific U.S. region. Moreover, sales of regularly shelved wines from competitive regions actually increased. The results of a laboratory experiment supported the explanation that the POP displays essentially reorganized the wines into region categories within the stores, making it easier for consumers to compare alternatives by region. As a result, sales of wines from preferred regions increased and sales of wines were displayed by variety categories on regular shelf space. Further evidence indicated that reorganizing products by levels of a given attribute influences purchase likelihoods mainly when the attribute is otherwise low rather than high in salience and when brands have normally high rather than low purchase likelihoods.

Citation # 15

Dodd, T.H., Laverie, D.A., Wilcox, J.G., & Duhan, D.F. (2005). Differential effects of experience, subjective knowledge, and objective knowledge on sources of information used in consumer wine purchasing. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 29(1), 3-19.

The decision to consume wine has been associated with variables such as product involvement, variety seeking, demographic characteristics, experience, and sources of information. The purpose of this study was to examine the decision process for wine selection in different situations. Data were collected from a sample of wine consumers in Texas and a total of 632 completed responses were obtained. The questionnaire was designed to determine consumer experience, knowledge, and use of differential sources of information to make a purchase decision on wine purchased in a store for home consumption and wine purchased in a restaurant. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that usage experience forms the basis for subjective and objective knowledge. High levels of objective knowledge are related to using impersonal sources of information (wine guides, reviews, and advertising) to make purchasing decisions. An additional finding was that high levels of subjective knowledge are positively related to impersonal sources and the self (one's own preferences) and negatively related to using personal sources (friends, acquaintances, and sales personnel). These results and their implications for wine marketers are discussed.

Citation # 16

Orth, U.R., Wolf, M., & Dodd, T.H. (2005). Dimensions of wine region equity and their impact on consumer preferences. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 14(2), 88-97.

Purpose - The purpose of the study is to identify dimensions of wine equity in terms of benefits sought by consumers in wine. Design/methodology/approach - This study examines dimensions of wine region equity, measured in terms of benefits sought by consumers in wine. A survey was conducted in several US states to identify drivers of preferences and to determine relationships that may exist between those drivers, preferences for wine from a number of origins, and consumer lifestyles. Findings - The findings suggest that wine region equity originates in six consumer motivational factors. Quality, price, social acceptance, emotional, environmental value, and humane value were found to be strong and significant predictors of consumer preferences for wine from three US states (California, Oregon, Washington) and six countries (Australia, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Spain). Linking those dimensions of region equity to consumer lifestyle, demographic and behavioral variables allows for tailoring marketing communications strategies closely to markets. Originality/value - Practical applications of this study extend beyond the wine industry and include generalizations for the identification of markets and market segments that react more favorably to specific origins, the identification of equity dimensions to be included in regional umbrella brands, and the identification of lifestyle-based persuasive communication means and executional cues for specifically targeting selected audiences.

Citation # 17

Gultek, M.M., Dodd, T.H., & Guydosh, R.M. (2006). Attitudes towards wine-service training and its influence on restaurant wine sales. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25, 432-446.

The success of wine sales in restaurants partly depends on the knowledge level of employees and managers. In order to effectively purchase and market wine, the restaurant employees and the managers need to possess the necessary knowledge about their products. For this reason, wine-service training is an important part of the entire process of purchasing and marketing wine at restaurants. This study investigated the influence of wine-service training on wine sales, and restaurateurs' attitudes toward wine-service training. A number of attributes were found to influence attitudes toward wine-service training. In addition, the amount of wine training offered by restaurants was related to the quantity of wine sold in the restaurant.

Citation # 18

Dodd, T.H, Yuan, J., Adams, C., & Kolyesnikova, N. (2006). Motivations of young people for visiting wine festivals. Event Management, 10, 23-33.


ABSTRACT.This article investigates the motivations of young visitors (35 years old and under) at two wine festivals in Texas and Indiana. Fourteen motivational items were identified in which tasting wine, being entertained, and being with friends were perceived to be important motives for young visitors. In addition, differences were compared between older visitors. Young people were found to attach more importance to enjoying entertainment, finding thrills and excitement, and being with friends. Interestingly, young visitors also viewed tasting wine more importantly than their older counterparts. The findings are discussed in comparison with those of the extant literature on event motivations and young visitors to wineries. Practical implications of the study’s findings are presented.

KEYWORDS. Festival motivations; Young wine consumers; Wine festival

Citation # 19

Kolyesnikova, N.; Dodd, T. & Laverie, D. A. (2007). Gratuity purchasing at wineries: An investigation of the determining factors. International Journal of Wine Business Research. 19,(4), 239-256.

Purpose – Wine and accessories bought partly or fully out of a perceived need to repay services received at a winery are defined here as gratuity purchasing. The purpose of the research is to identify factors that predict gratuity purchasing at wineries. Specifically, the study investigates the role of gratitude and obligation, along with other consumer characteristics, in purchasing. Methodology/Approach – Winery visitors were sampled from six Texas wineries. A total of 357 questionnaires were analyzed. Hierarchical multiple regression, correlation and factor analyses were employed. Findings – Gratitude and obligation were found strong predictors of purchasing at wineries. Visitors who feel grateful to personnel and/or obliged to buy wine are likely to spend more money at wineries. Involvement and knowledge also appear to be related to purchasing. Practical Implications – Since gratitude and obligation appear strong predictors of buying decisions, winery managers need to find ways to enhance visitor feelings of appreciation. Although developing a sense of obligation may have an impact on sales, obligation may also create feelings of not wishing to return. It is important for managers to consider the extent to which they would like to have people feeling obligated or guilty about making a purchase. Originality/Value –The research offers new insights into an understudied area of consumer behavior - the role of reciprocity in purchasing behavior. An innovative feature of this study is the development of a new instrument to measure gratitude and obligation.

Citation # 20

Kolyesnikova, N., & Dodd, T.H. (2008). Effects of winery visitor groups size on gratitude and obligation. Journal of Travel Research, 47(1), 104-112


ABSTRACT. Building on reciprocity theory, the current study explores whether wine tourists feel a need to buy wine at tasting rooms due to a perceived need to reciprocate for services received. In this research, wine and souvenirs bought fully or partly out of the desire to repay hospitality and services received are defined as gratuity purchasing. Specifically, the study investigates the role of gratitude and obligation in wine tourist purchasing behavior. The results indicate that the higher visitor feelings of gratitude and obligation while at a winery, the bigger the expenditures. In addition, the research examines the effect of visitor group size on purchasing. It appears that visitors who travel to wineries in smaller groups experience higher levels of gratitude and obligation than visitors of larger groups. Consequently, visitors who come to wineries in smaller groups tend to spend more money on wine and/or souvenirs than larger groups. Managerial implications are discussed.

Keywords: wine tourism, travel party size, gratitude, obligation

Citation # 21

Wilcox, J.B., Laverie, D.A., Kolyesnikova, N., Duhan, D.F., & Dodd, T.H. (2008). Facets of brand equity and brand survival: A longitudinal examination. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 20(3), 202-214.



Purpose - This study explores how brand equity influences brand survival in the wine industry. Specifically, the influence of two key facets of brand equity (brand awareness and perceived quality) on brand survival was investigated.

Methodology/Approach - Two types of data were used: consumer survey data and longitudinal data on brand survival over a sixteen year period. Perceptions of quality and brand recognition data were collected via survey at the beginning of the time frame (1991), longitudinal data regarding the brand survival were obtained for the years through 2006 and survey data were again collected in 2006. Twenty-seven brands from wineries of a specific region were used for the study. Brand survival (measured in years) was analyzed using logistic regression with brand recognition and perceived quality as the predictors.

Findings - A slightly positive relationship between consumer ratings of perceived quality and the probability of brand survival was found. However, a strong positive relationship was found between brand recognition and probability of brand survival.

Practical Implications - The results offer insights into long-term brand management and what marketers can do over time to reinforce brand equity and brand survival. Specifically, brand awareness is a better predictor of brand survival than perceived quality for these emerging brands.

Originality/Value - This study is based on data from a 16-year longitudinal study, using a relatively large sample for brand studies (27 brands) in a market with a high brand mortality rate (over 50%). In addition, two surveys, one at the beginning and one at the end of the longitudinal time frame, were used as sources of data.

Keywords: brand survival, brand equity, brand awareness, perceived quality

Paper type: Research paper

Citation # 22

Barber, N., Taylor, C. & Dodd, T. (2009). Twisting tradition: Consumers’ perceptions of alternative closures. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 15(1), 80-103.

Consumer evaluations of products are not entirely based on the absolute attributes or value of the product, but rather on the discrepancy between the products attributes and the expectations consumers have for that product. Following the Dowling and Staelin model on perceived risk, an evaluation was made of how alternative product closures interplay with consumers’ situational use, subjective knowledge, level of self confidence and gender to influence the purchase decision.

The results provide support for the importance of such factors as situational use, the consumer’s gender, level of self confidence, and subjective knowledge, and how the style of closure affects the purchase decision.

Key Words: Wine Packaging, Wine Marketing, Cork Closure

Citation # 23

Barber, N., Dodd, T. & Ghiselli, R. (2009) Capturing the younger wine consumer. Journal of Wine Research, 19(2), 123-141.

This study examines the importance of market segmentation and consumer characteristics, such as product knowledge, purchase confidence, and generational differences during the purchase decision. By segmenting consumers in this manner, it is possible to better understand their concerns and motivations aiding wine producers and retailers in directing their marketing and advertising efforts.

The results of this study indicate that they are differences in how the younger generations view information sources and that marketing to the Generation X would require direct and to the point advertisements that create a product image closest to this group’s views and for Millennial, reflecting on images of friends sharing wine.

Keywords: Market segmentation, Self confidence, Generation X, Wine, Millennial

Citation # 24

Barber, N., Meagher, M. & Kolyesnikova, N. (2008). A new twist on tradition: Selling the experience to United States wine consumers. Journal of Culinary Science and Technology, 6(4), 325-342.

The design of the wine package is considered by most consumers to be a direct reflection of the quality of the wine. The emergence of alternative wine closures has grown mainly in response to quality control efforts by winemakers to protect against cork failure. However, with the introduction of screw cap closures nearly forty years ago, the wine world has experienced an upheaval in what is the appropriate style of closure to use. Telephone interviews assessing attitudes to alternative closures amongst winemakers and sommeliers were conducted. The results indicated that many winemakers are not yet comfortable with screw caps and sommeliers are reluctant to create a disturbance that consumers might not completely understand.

Key Words: sommeliers, screw cap, natural cork

Citation # 25

Kolyesnikova, N., Dodd, T.H., & Duhan, D.F. (2008). Consumer attitudes towards local wines in an emerging region: A segmentation approach. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 20(4), 321 – 334.

Purpose – The current study is an initial attempt to segment the wine market in an emerging region and examine local residents’ attitudes towards local wines.

Design/ Methodology/Approach – The study was conducted using data collected from U.S. households through a telephone survey. Consumer attitudes towards local wines were operationalized through (1) assessment of local wines; (2) recommendation of local wines to others; and (3) rating of quality of local wines. The K-means clustering algorithm was applied to classify the respondents into clusters.

Findings – The developing wine market was segmented into four clusters: (1) “local enthusiasts”; (2) “local detractors”, (3) “local advocates” (4) “local non-advocates”. Socio-demographic and wine consumption profiles for each segment are developed. Of particular interest was the difference in recommendation behavior between two of groups of consumers with similar relatively high quality ratings and assessments of the local wines. Despite the similarity in attitudes, local advocates are willing to recommend the regional wines to other people, while non-advocates would not recommend them.

Originality/Value – The market segmentation approach taken in this study is based on local residents’ attitudes towards local wines. The study sets the starting point in investigating new markets consumer characteristics and reasons for their behavior. Of particular interest for future research is consumer recommendation behavior.

Practical Implications – By better understanding how information is transferred from one person to the next will assist marketers in their efforts to establish new products or introduce new brands or regional wines.

Keywords – market segmentation, attitudes towards local products, advocates

Citation # 26

Kolyesnikova, N., Dodd, T.H., & Wilcox, J.B. (2009). Gender differences as antecedents to reciprocal consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(3), 200-213

Purpose – Purchasing behavior is approached as customer perceived need to reciprocate for services received. The study examines involvement, knowledge, and identity as predictors of reciprocal consumer behavior. Two components of reciprocity - gratitude and obligation – are expected to mediate the relationships. The effect is expected to be different for men and women.

Methodology/Approach – Wine was chosen as a product category to test the relationships in the models. Data collection was conducted via distribution of surveys to tasting room visitors at six wineries. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.

Findings – The impact of knowledge, identity, and involvement were important findings from this research. The differences between males and females with regard to their feelings of gratitude and obligation and the impact on purchasing are pronounced. Obligation to make a purchase had a stronger effect on purchasing behavior of women. In contrast, gratitude (feeling appreciation and thankfulness to personnel) was a stronger reason for men to make a purchase.

Originality/Value – The market segmentation approach taken in this study is based on local residents’ attitudes towards local wines. The study sets the starting point in investigating new markets consumer characteristics and reasons for their behavior. Of particular interest for future research is consumer recommendation behavior.

Practical Implications – Knowledge about different ways in which men and women reciprocate could be useful for researchers and practitioners. Free samples provided to potential buyers, tours of industrial factories where products are also sold, and a variety of service situations are all possible contexts where gratitude and obligation may occur. Purchases are likely to be the result at least in part because of these feelings.

Originality/Value - The major contribution of this research is to highlight the role of gender in reciprocity research and to demonstrate the application of this effect in consumer behavior.

Keywords – gender differences, reciprocity, gratitude, obligation

Paper type - Research paper

Citation # 27

Barber, N., Dodd, T.H., & Kolyesnikova, N. (2009). Gender differences in information search: Implications for retailing. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(6), 415–426

Purpose - The purpose of this study was to examine the influence on search behavior of gender, purchase confidence, and internal knowledge during different purchase situations. It is expected that there will be gender differences on search behavior, particularly given different purchase situations.

Design/methodology/approach - Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze the main and interaction effects of the independent categorical variables on multiple dependent interval variables. An on-line survey was distributed to employees in different geographic locations in the U.S.

Findings - The results of situational use indicate sources of information are perceived differently by males and females depending on their levels of purchase confidence and internal knowledge, suggesting when consumers consider sources of information, such as retail clerk, family/friends or themselves, the purchase situation influences that decision.

Research limitations/implications - The measure of the situational influence through brief descriptions of hypothetical consumption situations was required. Such descriptions could not include every possible feature of a natural setting resulting in subjective interpretation by respondents of what are socially acceptable, possibly confounding results.

Practical implications - Consumers bring to the buying decision different types of experiences and expectations. Understanding how males and females seek varied sources of external information is relevant to the service industry in designing promotional plans whether the product of choice is a restaurant, vacation resort, and hotel or tourism destination such as a winery.

Originality/value - The contribution of this research is to broaden the understanding of search behavior and the role gender plays, particularly during different purchase situations.

Keywords - purchase confidence, consumer behavior, search behavior

Paper Type - research paper

Citation # 28

Kolyesnikova, N., & Dodd, T.H. (2009). There is no such thing as a free wine tasting: The effect of a tasting fee on obligation to buy. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 26(8), 806–819

Building on reciprocity theory, the current study suggests that, at least to some extent, consumers purchase goods and services in response to sampling due to a perceived need to reciprocate for trying the products/services. In addition, the study explores the effect of charging for sampling (i.e., wine tasting) on tourist behavior. The sample (N = 357) was drawn from visitors to six wineries in an emerging wine region. Three of the sampled wineries charged a small fee for tasting, while the other three wineries offered complimentary wine tasting. The study examined whether differences exist in a perceived need to buy wine between visitors who paid a tasting fee and those who tasted wine for free. The results indicated that visitors who had complimentary wine tasting spent significantly more money at the wineries than visitors who paid a fee for tasting. Furthermore, visitors who tasted wine for free felt significantly more appreciative of the personnel than did visitors who paid a tasting fee. Also, visitors who had complimentary wine tasting reported significantly higher levels of obligation to make a purchase at the end of their visits to the wineries. Managerial implications are discussed.

Key words - wine tourism, charging, tasting, gratitude, obligation, reciprocity

Citation # 29

Kolyesnikova, N., Laverie, D.A, Duhan, D.F., Wilcox, J.B., & Dodd, T.H. (2010). The influence of product knowledge on purchase venue choice: Does knowing more lead from bricks to clicks? Supply Chain Forum: An International Journal, 11(1), 28–40

This study examines consumer choice of purchase venues. Specifically, the study explores consumer characteristics (product knowledge, product involvement, and age) as they relate to the choice of purchase venue: physical venues (restaurants, bars, grocery stores, or liquor stores) versus virtual venues (mail order or Internet). The results indicate that subjective product knowledge is positively related to the use of virtual purchase venues. Conversely, objective knowledge is positively related to the use of physical purchase venues and negatively related to the use of virtual venues. Product involvement and age are positively related to both subjective and objective knowledge. In addition, both product involvement and age have indirect and positive relationships with purchase-venue choices.

Key words - purchase venues, knowledge, involvement, wine consumers