Research Articles on Wine Marketing Citations & Abstracts
Citation # 1
Dodd, T. H., & Morse, S. (1994). The impact of media stories concerning health issues on food product sales. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 11(2), 17 – 24.
The purpose of this article was to review the impact that media stories, which concern health issues, have on a variety of products. Specifically, the article examines the impact that the television story, The French Paradox, and subsequent media discussions, had on wine sales. Several possible explanations as to why red wine sales increased so dramatically following the screening of The French Paradox are presented. The main implications relate to contingency planning. Managers of food related companies should consider the actions they would take if either negative or positive health-related media statements are made concerning their product.
Key Words: Advertising; Consumer attitudes; Diseases; Drinks industry; Food industry; Health; Media Restaurants
Citation # 2
Dodd, T. H. (1995). Opportunities and pitfalls of tourism in a developing wine industry. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 7(1), 5 – 16.
This study is a first attempt to begin to examine who winery visitors are, what their buying behavior is, and what they want when they visit a winery. Data were collected in 1994 in a study on winery visitors in Texas among 16 wineries with tasting rooms. Visitors’ behavioral and attitudinal characteristics concerning wine and winery souvenirs were examined by using multivariate statistical techniques. For a new wine product it would be best to initially target existing wine consumers for tasting room visits rather than attempt to introduce the product to people who are not current consumers. Future research should broaden this study to other regions as well as to examine other aspects of winery visits.
Citation # 3
Dodd, T.H., Pinkleton, B., & Gustafson, A.W. (1996). External information source of product enthusiasts: Differences between variety seekers, variety neutrals, and variety avoiders. Psychology and Marketing, 13(3), 291-304.
The external information sources of enthusiasts are examined. Enthusiasts who frequently switch their purchases of wine from different regions are compared with those who switch their purchases less frequently. Findings indicate that variety-seeking enthusiasts use a significantly larger number of information sources than variety neutrals, and variety neutrals use a significantly larger number of sources than variety avoiders. Differences concerning wine consumption, the use of print media, interpersonal sources, and trial information sources are also noted.
Key Words: Consumers behavior; Advertising; Marketing; Wine & Wine making; Consumption
Citation # 4
Dodd, T. H. (1997). Factors that influence the adoption and diffusion of new wine products. Hospitality Research Journal, 20(3), 123 – 137.
Several factors influence the adoption and diffusion of a new product into the marketplace. This paper uses previous research to develop a framework to analyze the introduction of new wine products. In addition, the results of a survey concerning a new wine product are analyzed. The results of the survey of wine consumers found that although there were similarities in the socio-demographic variables of innovators and noninnovators of a new wine product, the two groups differed with respect to their behavioral characteristics, and the sources from which they collected their information concerning wine. Implications for marketers are discussed.
Key Words: New Products And Concepts; Wine Merchandising And Marketing; Food Preferences And Trends; Wines and spirits
Citation # 5
Dodd, T. H. (1997). Techniques to increase impulse wine purchases in a restaurant setting. Journal of Restaurant & Foodservice Marketing, 2(1), 63 – 73.
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of menus and personal selling techniques by the wait-server staff on wine sales in a restaurant setting. The results of previous research, that found wine to be an impulse purchase, were supported by this research. The study found that placing wine on the food menu will have a significant impact on wine sales.
Citation # 6
Dodd, T. H., & Bigotte, V. (1997). Perceptual differences among visitor groups to wineries. Journal of Travel Research, 35(3), 46 – 51.
At present there is little information concerning the characteristics of people who visit wineries and how marketing programs should be organized to attract tourists in the most effective manner. A study of people who visit Texas wineries was conducted to examine the perceptions and behavior of segments of winery tourists. Findings indicate two distinct segments with different perceptions and wine consumption behavior.
Citation # 7
Dodd, T. H., & Gustafson, A. W. (1997). Product, environmental, and service attributes that influence consumer attitudes and purchases at wineries. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 4(3), 41 – 59.
Direct sales of wine and winery souvenirs to winery visitors is important in a number of regions throughout the United States and around the world. The attributes that influence winery visitors’ belief can have a significant impact upon wine purchases, repeat visits, positive word-of-mouth comments, and upon future purchases at restaurants and other retail outlets. A study of winery visitors found four underlying factors from a list of 17 attributes. Regression results indicated that several wine, environment, and service attributes have a significant impact upon consumer attitudes and purchases. Product and purchases involvement were also found to impact purchase behavior.
Citation # 8
Michaud, M., Segarra, E., & Dodd, T. H. (1998). From Texas vineyards to the final consumer: An economic impact analysis. Texas Journal of Agriculture and Natural Resources, 11, 31 – 40.
This study estimates the economic impacts of the Texas wine and wine grape industry on the Texas economy through each sector of commercialization from the vineyards to the final consumer. Survey data from the state’s vineyards and wineries for 1996 is used to construct an input-output model of the Texas economy and an industry impact framework using IMPLAN. Results show that the total core economic impacts of the Texas wine and wine grape industry were $85.8 million in output impacts, 1,157 jobs, $29.6 million in income impacts, and $46.6 million in total value added impacts in 1996. Much of these core economic impacts were attributable to the wine and wholesale trade sectors.
Key Words: Economic impacts; Input-output; IMPLAN; Wine; wine grapes
Citation # 9
Michaud, M., Segarra, E., & Dodd, T. H. (1998). The marketing channels of the Texas wine and wine grape industry and their economic impact. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 9(1), 18 – 30.
This study estimates the economic impacts of the Texas wine and wine grape industry by marketing channel. Survey data from the state’s vineyards and wineries for 1996 is used to construct an input-output model of the Texas economy and an industry impact framework using IMPLAN. Results show that the total core economic impacts of the Texas wine and wine grape industry were $85.8 million in output impacts, 1,157 jobs, $29.6 million in income impacts, and $46.6 million in total value added impacts in 1996. In each case, the industry’s largest core output impacts were through the retail and the restaurant channels at $50.7 and $12.9 million respectively or 59 percent of the total for the industry. The industry’s third leading marketing channel was that of wine grapes with a core output impact of $10.7 million or 12 percent of the total for the industry.
Citation # 10
Michaud, M., Dodd, T. H., & Segarra, E. (1998). The structure and economic impacts of the Texas vitivinicultural sector. Bulletin de l’O.I.V, 71, 284 – 305.
This study estimates the economic impacts of the Texas vitivinicultural sector on the Texas economy by winery size category. Survey data from the state’s vineyards and wineries for 1996 is used to construct an input-output model of the Texas economy and an industry impact framework using IMPLAN (Impact Analysis for Planning). Results show that the total core economic impacts of the Texas wine and wine grape industry were $85.8 million in output impacts, 1,157 jobs, $29.6 million in income impacts, and $46.6 million in total value added impacts in 1996. Eighty percent of these core economic impacts were attributable to the state’s largest wineries.
Citation # 11
Dodd, T. H. (1998). Influences on search behavior of industrial tourists. Journal of Hospitality & Leisure Marketing, 5(2/3), 77 – 94.
People seek information concerning a vacation or pleasure trip before, during and following a vacation. Despite substantial research concerning the information sources used by many tourists, little is known about some of the influences upon the search behavior of industrial tourists. The study found that there were several main sources that were used by visitors. In addition, a number of previous visits, product involvement, and demographic variables influenced individual information sources and the total information sources used. Implications for managers include targeting specific demographic groups with certain types of information sources to reach industrial tourists.
Citation # 12
Dodd, T. H. (1999). Attracting repeat customers to wineries. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 11(2), 18 – 28.
This paper examined the value of the repeat visitor with respect to their spending decisions at the winery and discussed the role that the visitor plays encouraging others to come to the winery. Data were gathered in 1994 from six wineries in Texas and two other proprietary studies and ANOVA was used to examine differences between visitors who had been to the winery before and those who were visiting for the first time. The results indicated that repeat visitors spend more, taste less wine and generally have a more favorable impression of the winery than first-time visitors. In addition, a simple model to indicate the manner in which a first time visitor may share information about their visit and develop an ever-widening circle of influence was developed.
Citation # 13
Dodd, T. H. (1999). Attributes important to wine sales in on-premise markets (Research note). Journal of Food Distribution Research, 30(1), 168 – 169.
The growth of new wine industries in nontraditional wine-producing areas has necessitated that winery managers find ways to effectively distribute their wines to consumers. Attributes of a product or service can play a critical role in forming attitudes toward that product or service. Although there are dozens of potential attributes that could be included in this research project, it will be critical to determine the most important ones in the decision-making process. Winery managers can then concentrate on these as they develop appropriate strategies to sell to restaurants. Little research has been conducted that has asked restaurateurs about the attributes that influence their attitudes and decisions to purchase a particular winery’s products. The objective of this research is to contribute to a better understanding of this issue.
Citation # 14
Areni, C. S., Duhan, D. F., & Kiecker, P. (1999). Point-of-purchase displays, product organization, and brand purchase likelihoods. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 27(4), 428 – 441.
Can point-of-purchase (POP) displays cause a decrease in sales of the featured brand? In an actual test-market promotion, the use of special POP displays led to a decrease in sales of featured wines from a specific U.S. region. Moreover, sales of regularly shelved wines from competitive regions actually increased. The results of a laboratory experiment supported the explanation that the POP displays essentially reorganized the wines into region categories within the stores, making it easier for consumers to compare alternatives by region. As a result, sales of wines from preferred regions increased and sales of wines were displayed by variety categories on regular shelf space. Further evidence indicated that reorganizing products by levels of a given attribute influences purchase likelihoods mainly when the attribute is otherwise low rather than high in salience and when brands have normally high rather than low purchase likelihoods.
Key Words: Point-of-sale advertising; Brand choice; Consumers; Consumerism; Brand name products; Business enterprises; Attitudes; Point-of-sale systems
Citation # 15
Blum, S.C., Dodd, T.H., & Goh, B.K. (2000). The development of a graduate distance education program in hospitality management. Hospitality and Tourism Education, 12(1), 21-24.
The Internet is increasingly being employed to provide educational programs to a diverse student population. Many hospitality programs are using this technology to offer graduate curriculum to individuals currently working in the industry. Most of these students could not attend a conventional graduate program and an Internet-based program allows them the convenience and flexibility they desire. This article examines some of the reasons why hospitality education programs should establish graduate distance programs. A timeline of activities required to develop a graduate distance education program is presented, and a summary is provided for those hospitality educators interested in developing a graduate distance education program of their own.
Citation # 16
Nicholson, J. D., Adams C., & Dodd, T. H. (2001). Strategic initiatives in the Argentina wine industry. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 13(2), 18-31.
France and Italy account for more than the 40% of the world's wine production and continue to dominate the industry. However, during the past decade a number of "New World" nations have taken some significant steps to develop their industries and capitalise on the competitive strengths they have. Nations such as Australia, South Africa, New Zealand, Chile, and Argentina have all developed a growing reputation for producing quality wine. This growth in wine production and quality of wine has created a number of export opportunities and caused changes in the types of wines being produced and the marketing practices of the various companies in each region. For example, producers are now using varietal labelling because of the US and UK market. The purpose of this article is to provide a summary of the changes that have occurred in the Argentine economy, examine the changes to the Argentine wine industry, and assess strategic changes with respect to domestic and export consumption.
Citation # 17
Blum, S. Dodd, T. H. & Goh, B. (2001). Graduate Student perceptions of an Internet based program. Florida International University Hospitality Review, 14(3), 3-14.
Citation # 18
Dodd, T. H., & Beverland, M. (2001). Winery tourism life cycle development: A proposed model. Tourism Recreation Research, 26(2), 11-22.
This paper examines whether the concept of 'organizational life-cycles' is useful when assessing wine tourism activities, what type of activity may be more useful at each life-cycle stage, and how the tourism activity will change over time, using an organizational life-cycle model. A grounded theory approach is used to build a 5-stage wine tourism life-cycle (winery establishment, winery recognition, regional prominence, maturity, and decline) based upon 3 in-depth case studies of New World wineries (in Texas, USA, Australia and New Zealand) and a review of the general wine tourism literature. It is suggested that the model can provide a road map for wine tourism stakeholders to plan future strategies and developments.
Citation # 19
Revilla, L., Dodd, T. H., & Hoover, L. (2001). Environmental Tactics Used by Hotel Companies in Mexico. International Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration, 1(3/4), 111-128.
The impact which environmental law and management has had in the hospitality industry is substantial. Hotels have begun conservation and recycling programs as a means of reducing energy cost and solid waste. A significant number of environmentally related regulatory and consumer pressures are being imposed upon the hospitality industry. The purpose of this study is to begin to explore the environmental programs that hotel corporations in Mexico are adopting. Eight managers at eight hotel corporations in Mexico were included in the study. The corporation hotels located in Mexico started to implement environmental strategies in 1995, and the most common reason was because of the legal pressures they faced. Efficient use of lighting and eliminating use of diesel in the boiler were the most frequently sited strategies. Seven hotel managers benefitted from the application of these strategies, while one indicated he did not benefit. The hotel managers feel social, legal, and political pressure in Mexico to implement environmental strategies but consider consumer pressure unimportant. They believe these strategies are not very important when facing competitors, and only one manager mentioned that in the future the competitive threat will be important in developing environmental consciousness.
Citation # 20
Lin, F.Y., Blum, S., & Dodd, T. H. (2002). Fast food television advertisement formats: Communicating with the customer effectively. Journal of Food Service Business Research, 5(4), 27-44.
The purpose of the study was to examine favorite formats in hamburger television advertisements in order to assist companies in effectively communicating with their target audiences and to motivate those audiences to purchase products. The main findings of the study are that college students appear to prefer the special-effects format for presenting hamburgers in television advertisements. In addition, the testimonial format in television advertisements seems to motivate college students' purchase intentions for hamburgers more than other formats. Implications of the study regarding segmentation information usage, establishment of business image and individual purchase motivation, and the relationship between brand and format effects are discussed.
Citation # 21
Revilla, G. & Dodd, T. H. (2003). Authenticity Perceptions of Talavera Pottery. Journal of Travel Research, 42(1), 94-99.
Talavera pottery is a unique art form produced in Puebla, Mexico. Although it has a long history, little is known concerning the aspects that contribute to perceptions of authenticity. A study of people who purchase Talavera found that authenticity encompasses five main factors: Appearance/ Utility, Tradition and Certification, Difficult to Obtain, Locally Produced, and Low Cost. ANOVA indicates that there are differences with respect to the perception of authenticity with regard to appearance/utility and locally produced. Local tourists view authenticity through appearance and utility while international visitors are more concerned with the pottery being locally produced by local residents. The challenge for the people of Puebla is to continue to encourage interest in Talavera production while attempting to maintain its perception of authenticity and uniqueness among local residents and visitors to the region.
Key words: Authenticity; Talavera; Tourist perceptions; Local art
Citation # 22
Dodd, T.H., Laverie, D.A., Wilcox, J.G., & Duhan, D.F. (2005). Differential effects of experience, subjective knowledge, and objective knowledge on sources of information used in consumer wine purchasing. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Research, 29(1), 3-19.
The decision to consume wine has been associated with variables such as product involvement, variety seeking, demographic characteristics, experience, and sources of information. The purpose of this study was to examine the decision process for wine selection in different situations. Data were collected from a sample of wine consumers in Texas and a total of 632 completed responses were obtained. The questionnaire was designed to determine consumer experience, knowledge, and use of differential sources of information to make a purchase decision on wine purchased in a store for home consumption and wine purchased in a restaurant. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Results indicate that usage experience forms the basis for subjective and objective knowledge. High levels of objective knowledge are related to using impersonal sources of information (wine guides, reviews, and advertising) to make purchasing decisions. An additional finding was that high levels of subjective knowledge are positively related to impersonal sources and the self (one's own preferences) and negatively related to using personal sources (friends, acquaintances, and sales personnel). These results and their implications for wine marketers are discussed.
Key Words: Wine; objective knowledge; Subjective knowledge; Information sources; Purchase situations; Restaurants
Citation # 23
Orth, U.R., Wolf, M., & Dodd, T.H. (2005). Dimensions of wine region equity and their impact on consumer preferences. Journal of Product and Brand Management, 14(2), 88-97.
Purpose - The purpose of the study is to identify dimensions of wine equity in terms of benefits sought by consumers in wine. Design/methodology/approach - This study examines dimensions of wine region equity, measured in terms of benefits sought by consumers in wine. A survey was conducted in several US states to identify drivers of preferences and to determine relationships that may exist between those drivers, preferences for wine from a number of origins, and consumer lifestyles. Findings - The findings suggest that wine region equity originates in six consumer motivational factors. Quality, price, social acceptance, emotional, environmental value, and humane value were found to be strong and significant predictors of consumer preferences for wine from three US states (California, Oregon, Washington) and six countries (Australia, Chile, France, Italy, New Zealand, Spain). Linking those dimensions of region equity to consumer lifestyle, demographic and behavioral variables allows for tailoring marketing communications strategies closely to markets. Originality/value - Practical applications of this study extend beyond the wine industry and include generalizations for the identification of markets and market segments that react more favorably to specific origins, the identification of equity dimensions to be included in regional umbrella brands, and the identification of lifestyle-based persuasive communication means and executional cues for specifically targeting selected audiences.
Key words: Brand equity; Lifestyles; Consumer behavior; Quality; Wines; Value analysis
Citation # 24
Dodd, T. H., Gultek, M., & Guydosh, R. (2005). Restaurateurs perceptions of wine supplier attributes. Journal of Food Business Research, 7(3), 73-92.
Wine is an important profit center for many restaurants and the relationship with a wine supplier can be crucial. Restaurant managers need a good wine supplier to make sure their wine is delivered in good condition and that a good relationship is established. The purpose of this study is to examine the attributes considered most important in their attitudes towards their suppliers. A study of 152 licensed restaurants in Texas found that restaurant managers consider the reliability of the supplier, the knowledge they possess, and the possibility of discounts to be the most important attributes. The research can help suppliers such as distributors and wineries focus on the special needs of restaurants.
Key Words: Wine; Restaurant; Distributions, Suppliers; Attitudes
Citation # 25
Gultek, M. Dodd, T. H., & Guydosh, R. (2005). Restaurateurs attitudes towards local wines and its influence on local wine purchases. International Journal of Wine Marketing, 17(3), 5-24.
Restaurants represent a significant sales potential tor the wine industry and wineries attempt to develop this market in various ways. The two industries can effectively complement each other through combining their efforts. Wine producers can benefit from direct selling to restaurants because the process of direct selling can help wineries, especially newly developing local wineries, promote their wines and establish brand recognition. This research explores restaurateurs' attitudes toward local wines based on the investigation of the wine product attributes and types of restaurants that offer better opportunities for local wines. Findings indicated that attitudes of restaurateurs have a significant impact on purchases of local wine. Independently owned restaurants were also found to provide better opportunities for local wineries.
Citation # 26
Gultek, M.M., Dodd, T.H., & Guydosh, R.M. (2006). Attitudes towards wine-service training and its influence on restaurant wine sales. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 25, 432-446.
The success of wine sales in restaurants partly depends on the knowledge level of employees and managers. In order to effectively purchase and market wine, the restaurant employees and the managers need to possess the necessary knowledge about their products. For this reason, wine-service training is an important part of the entire process of purchasing and marketing wine at restaurants. This study investigated the influence of wine-service training on wine sales, and restaurateurs' attitudes toward wine-service training. A number of attributes were found to influence attitudes toward wine-service training. In addition, the amount of wine training offered by restaurants was related to the quantity of wine sold in the restaurant.
Key Words: Attitude; Restaurateur; Wine-service training; Wine sales; Restaurants
Citation # 27
Dodd, T.H, Yuan, J., Adams, C., & Kolyesnikova, N. (2006). Motivations of young people for visiting wine festivals. Event Management, 10, 23-33.
This article investigates the motivations of young visitors (35 years old and under) at two wine festivals in Texas and Indiana. Fourteen motivational items were identified in which tasting wine, being entertained, and being with friends were perceived to be important motives for young visitors. In addition, differences were compared between older visitors. Young people were found to attach more importance to enjoying entertainment, finding thrills and excitement, and being with friends. Interestingly, young visitors also viewed tasting wine more importantly than their older counterparts. The findings are discussed in comparison with those of the extant literature on event motivations and young visitors to wineries. Practical implications of the study’s findings are presented.
Key Words: Festival motivations; Young wine consumers; Wine festival
Citation # 28
Kolyesnikova, N., Dodd, T., & Laverie, D. A. (2007). Gratuity purchasing at wineries: An investigation of the determining factors. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 19(4), 239-256.
Purpose – Wine and accessories bought partly or fully out of a perceived need to repay services received at a winery are defined here as gratuity purchasing. The purpose of the research is to identify factors that predict gratuity purchasing at wineries. Specifically, the study investigates the role of gratitude and obligation, along with other consumer characteristics, in purchasing. Methodology/Approach – Winery visitors were sampled from six Texas wineries. A total of 357 questionnaires were analyzed. Hierarchical multiple regression, correlation and factor analyses were employed. Findings – Gratitude and obligation were found strong predictors of purchasing at wineries. Visitors who feel grateful to personnel and/or obliged to buy wine are likely to spend more money at wineries. Involvement and knowledge also appear to be related to purchasing. Practical Implications – Since gratitude and obligation appear strong predictors of buying decisions, winery managers need to find ways to enhance visitor feelings of appreciation. Although developing a sense of obligation may have an impact on sales, obligation may also create feelings of not wishing to return. It is important for managers to consider the extent to which they would like to have people feeling obligated or guilty about making a purchase. Originality/Value –The research offers new insights into an understudied area of consumer behavior - the role of reciprocity in purchasing behavior. An innovative feature of this study is the development of a new instrument to measure gratitude and obligation.
Citation # 29
Kolyesnikova, N., & Dodd, T.H. (2008). Effects of winery visitor groups size on gratitude and obligation. Journal of Travel Research, 47(1), 104-112.
Building on reciprocity theory, the current study explores whether wine tourists feel a need to buy wine at tasting rooms due to a perceived need to reciprocate for services received. In this research, wine and souvenirs bought fully or partly out of the desire to repay hospitality and services received are defined as gratuity purchasing. Specifically, the study investigates the role of gratitude and obligation in wine tourist purchasing behavior. The results indicate that the higher visitor feelings of gratitude and obligation while at a winery, the bigger the expenditures. In addition, the research examines the effect of visitor group size on purchasing. It appears that visitors who travel to wineries in smaller groups experience higher levels of gratitude and obligation than visitors of larger groups. Consequently, visitors who come to wineries in smaller groups tend to spend more money on wine and/or souvenirs than larger groups. Managerial implications are discussed.
Keywords: Wine tourism; Travel party size; Gratitude; Obligation
Citation # 30
Wilcox, J.B., Laverie, D.A., Kolyesnikova, N., Duhan, D.F., & Dodd, T.H. (2008). Facets of brand equity and brand survival: A longitudinal examination. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 20(3), 202-214.
Purpose - This study explores how brand equity influences brand survival in the wine industry. Specifically, the influence of two key facets of brand equity (brand awareness and perceived quality) on brand survival was investigated.
Methodology/Approach - Two types of data were used: consumer survey data and longitudinal data on brand survival over a sixteen year period. Perceptions of quality and brand recognition data were collected via survey at the beginning of the time frame (1991), longitudinal data regarding the brand survival were obtained for the years through 2006 and survey data were again collected in 2006. Twenty-seven brands from wineries of a specific region were used for the study. Brand survival (measured in years) was analyzed using logistic regression with brand recognition and perceived quality as the predictors.
Findings - A slightly positive relationship between consumer ratings of perceived quality and the probability of brand survival was found. However, a strong positive relationship was found between brand recognition and probability of brand survival.
Practical Implications - The results offer insights into long-term brand management and what marketers can do over time to reinforce brand equity and brand survival. Specifically, brand awareness is a better predictor of brand survival than perceived quality for these emerging brands.
Originality/Value - This study is based on data from a 16-year longitudinal study, using a relatively large sample for brand studies (27 brands) in a market with a high brand mortality rate (over 50%). In addition, two surveys, one at the beginning and one at the end of the longitudinal time frame, were used as sources of data.
Keywords: Brand survival, Brand equity, Brand awareness, Perceived quality
Paper type: Research paper
Citation # 31
Barber, N., Meagher, M., & Kolyesnikova, N. (2008). A new twist on tradition: Selling the experience to United States wine consumers. Journal of Culinary Science and Technology, 6(4), 325-342.
The design of the wine package is considered by most consumers to be a direct reflection of the quality of the wine. The emergence of alternative wine closures has grown mainly in response to quality control efforts by winemakers to protect against cork failure. However, with the introduction of screw cap closures nearly forty years ago, the wine world has experienced an upheaval in what is the appropriate style of closure to use. Telephone interviews assessing attitudes to alternative closures amongst winemakers and sommeliers were conducted. The results indicated that many winemakers are not yet comfortable with screw caps and sommeliers are reluctant to create a disturbance that consumers might not completely understand.
Key Words: Sommeliers, Screw cap, Natural cork
Citation # 32
Kolyesnikova, N., Dodd, T.H., & Duhan, D.F. (2008). Consumer attitudes towards local wines in an emerging region: A segmentation approach. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 20(4), 321 – 334.
Purpose – The current study is an initial attempt to segment the wine market in an emerging region and examine local residents’ attitudes towards local wines.
Design/ Methodology/Approach – The study was conducted using data collected from U.S. households through a telephone survey. Consumer attitudes towards local wines were operationalized through (1) assessment of local wines; (2) recommendation of local wines to others; and (3) rating of quality of local wines. The K-means clustering algorithm was applied to classify the respondents into clusters.
Findings – The developing wine market was segmented into four clusters: (1) “local enthusiasts”; (2) “local detractors”, (3) “local advocates” (4) “local non-advocates”. Socio-demographic and wine consumption profiles for each segment are developed. Of particular interest was the difference in recommendation behavior between two of groups of consumers with similar relatively high quality ratings and assessments of the local wines. Despite the similarity in attitudes, local advocates are willing to recommend the regional wines to other people, while non-advocates would not recommend them.
Originality/Value – The market segmentation approach taken in this study is based on local residents’ attitudes towards local wines. The study sets the starting point in investigating new markets consumer characteristics and reasons for their behavior. Of particular interest for future research is consumer recommendation behavior.
Practical Implications – By better understanding how information is transferred from one person to the next will assist marketers in their efforts to establish new products or introduce new brands or regional wines.
Keywords: Market segmentation; Attitudes towards local products; Advocates
Citation # 33
Taylor, D. C., Dodd, T. H., & Barber, N. (2008). Impact of wine education on developing knowledge and preferences: An exploratory study. Journal of Wine Research, 19(3), 193-207.
Wine is challenging and, at times, intimidating for consumers. Their lack of knowledge in making wine choices may result in less wine consumption and very little experimentation. This study explores wine education courses and whether these courses change consumers' knowledge and preferences about wine. The results showed that what participants actually knew about wine increased after completing a wine education course, but what participants' believe they knew, or self-assessed, did not. Furthermore, the anticipated change in participants' preferences for particular wine styles after completion of the course did not occur. The consumers' rankings of the wines did, however, decrease after their completion of the wine education course.
Keywords: Wine & Wine making; Consumers behavior; Alcoholic beverages; Consumers education; Theory of knowledge; Intellectualization; Qualitative Research; Correlation, Study & teaching
Citation # 34
Barber, N., Dodd, T. H., & Ghiselli, R. (2008). Capturing the younger wine consumer. Journal of Wine Research, 19(2), 123-141.
This study examines the importance of market segmentation and consumer characteristics, such as product knowledge, purchase confidence, and generational differences during the purchase decision. By segmenting consumers in this manner, it is possible to better understand their concerns and motivations aiding wine producers and retailers in directing their marketing and advertising efforts. The results of this study indicate that they are differences in how the younger generations view information sources and that marketing to the Generation X would require direct and to the point advertisements that create a product image closest to this group's views and for Millennial, reflecting on images of friends sharing wine.
Keywords: Wine industry; Consumers preferences; Wine& Wine making; Information resources; Grape products; Retail stores; Market segmentation, Generation X
Citation # 35
Barber, N. Almanza, B., & Dodd, T. H. (2008). Relationship of wine consumers’ self-confidence, product involvement, and packaging cues. Journal of Food Service Business Research, 11(1), 45-65.
Demand for table wine in the US is stronger than any time since the 1970s, driven mainly by news relating moderate wine consumption to positive health benefits and more highly evolved marketing campaigns by major brand marketers. Yet, wine consumers continually make choices among products without adequate information. In many cases the purchase can be overwhelming and full of anxiety or intimidation. Therefore, segmenting the wine consumer is an important first step in understanding the consumers' needs.
This study examined how consumers' levels of self-confidence and product involvement relate to certain attributes of wine packaging. Multivariate analysis indicates a significant interaction between certain wine packaging cues, gender, levels of self-confidence, and product involvement.
Keywords: Wine packaging; Self-confidence; Product involvement
Citation # 36
Barber, N., & Dodd, T. H. (2008). An analysis of U.S. direct wine shipment laws. Enometrica. 1(1), 69-83.
U.S. Prohibition was repealed in 1933 placing control of alcohol to the fifty states. This resulted in explosive growth of wholesalers creating a highly competitive environment. In contrast, small wineries increased dramatically. States allowed wine producers to ship directly to consumers within and without their states. Wholesalers demanded states enforce their laws prohibiting importation of alcohol. The U.S. Supreme Court ruled in 2005 the Twenty- first Amendment and the Commerce Clause should be read together. State laws discriminating against interstate commerce in alcohol were unconstitutional. State laws are changing. The problem is not one of protectionism towards abuses of alcohol, but rather towards intra-state commerce based on the legacy of Prohibition.
Citation # 37
Barber, N., Donavon, J., & Dodd, T. H. (2008). Differences in tourism marketing strategies between wineries based on size or location. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 25(1), 43-57.
While the number of United States wineries has doubled and wine production tripled, only three states represent the majority of wineries and wine production. Yet, small wineries must contend with similar production issues that larger wineries face: cultivation of grapes, fermentation of juice, and finally bottling of the product. By comparison small wineries face an even tougher challenge—attracting consumers' attention to their products, much of which must be sold directly to consumers at the winery. These cellar door sales account for substantial dollar and case volume and are particularly lucrative. This study examined the relationship in off‐site and on‐site marketing strategies based upon winery size and location. The results indicated differences in tourism marketing strategies particularly with wine education at rural wineries and food/wine pairing techniques at larger wineries.
Citation # 38
Barber, N., Ismail I., & Dodd, T. H. (2008). Purchase attributes of wine consumers with low involvement. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 14(1), 69-86.
The past decade has seen a dramatic increase in wine consumption. With this increase comes the need to understand how consumers choose wine. Wine consumers have different types of experiences and expectations, and a one bottle fits all method of catering to wine consumers is not an appropriate marketing strategy. Consumer segmentation based upon involvement with wine is critical to understanding buying behaviors. This study used factor analysis and logistic regression to identify the wine novice and what marketing cues they use to purchase wine. The results identified key marketing cues wine novices use to purchase wine and revealed yet another involvement category: the emerging wine learner.
Citation # 39
Barber, N., Dodd, T., & Ghiselli, R. (2008). Capturing the younger wine consumer. Journal of Wine Research, 19(2), 123-141.
This study examines the importance of market segmentation and consumer characteristics, such as product knowledge, purchase confidence, and generational differences during the purchase decision. By segmenting consumers in this manner, it is possible to better understand their concerns and motivations aiding wine producers and retailers in directing their marketing and advertising efforts.
The results of this study indicate that they are differences in how the younger generations view information sources and that marketing to the Generation X would require direct and to the point advertisements that create a product image closest to this group’s views and for Millennial, reflecting on images of friends sharing wine.
Keywords: Market segmentation, Self-confidence, Generation X, Wine, Millennial
Citation # 40
Barber, N., Taylor, C., & Dodd, T. (2009). Twisting tradition: Consumers’ behavior toward alternative closures. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 15(1), 80-103.
Consumer evaluations of products are not entirely based on the absolute attributes or value of the product, but rather on the discrepancy between the products attributes and the expectations consumers have for that product. Following the Dowling and Staelin model on perceived risk, an evaluation was made of how alternative product closures interplay with consumers’ situational use, subjective knowledge, level of self-confidence and gender to influence the purchase decision.
The results provide support for the importance of such factors as situational use, the consumer’s gender, level of self-confidence, and subjective knowledge, and how the style of closure affects the purchase decision.
Key Words: Wine Packaging; Wine Marketing; Cork Closure
Citation # 41
Kolyesnikova, N., Dodd, T.H., & Wilcox, J.B. (2009). Gender as a moderator to reciprocal consumer behavior. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(3), 200-213.
Purpose – Purchasing behavior is approached as customer perceived need to reciprocate for services received. The study examines involvement, knowledge, and identity as predictors of reciprocal consumer behavior. Two components of reciprocity - gratitude and obligation – are expected to mediate the relationships. The effect is expected to be different for men and women.
Methodology/Approach – Wine was chosen as a product category to test the relationships in the models. Data collection was conducted via distribution of surveys to tasting room visitors at six wineries. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling.
Findings – The impact of knowledge, identity, and involvement were important findings from this research. The differences between males and females with regard to their feelings of gratitude and obligation and the impact on purchasing are pronounced. Obligation to make a purchase had a stronger effect on purchasing behavior of women. In contrast, gratitude (feeling appreciation and thankfulness to personnel) was a stronger reason for men to make a purchase.
Originality/Value – The market segmentation approach taken in this study is based on local residents’ attitudes towards local wines. The study sets the starting point in investigating new markets consumer characteristics and reasons for their behavior. Of particular interest for future research is consumer recommendation behavior.
Practical Implications – Knowledge about different ways in which men and women reciprocate could be useful for researchers and practitioners. Free samples provided to potential buyers, tours of industrial factories where products are also sold, and a variety of service situations are all possible contexts where gratitude and obligation may occur. Purchases are likely to be the result at least in part because of these feelings.
Originality/Value - The major contribution of this research is to highlight the role of gender in reciprocity research and to demonstrate the application of this effect in consumer behavior.
Keywords: Gender differences; Reciprocity; Gratitude; Obligation
Paper type - Research paper
Citation # 42
Barber, N., Dodd, T.H., & Kolyesnikova, N. (2009). Gender differences in information search: Implications for retailing. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 26(6), 415–426.
Purpose - The purpose of this study was to examine the influence on search behavior of gender, purchase confidence, and internal knowledge during different purchase situations. It is expected that there will be gender differences on search behavior, particularly given different purchase situations.
Design/methodology/approach - Multivariate analysis of variance was used to analyze the main and interaction effects of the independent categorical variables on multiple dependent interval variables. An on-line survey was distributed to employees in different geographic locations in the U.S.
Findings - The results of situational use indicate sources of information are perceived differently by males and females depending on their levels of purchase confidence and internal knowledge, suggesting when consumers consider sources of information, such as retail clerk, family/friends or themselves, the purchase situation influences that decision.
Research limitations/implications - The measure of the situational influence through brief descriptions of hypothetical consumption situations was required. Such descriptions could not include every possible feature of a natural setting resulting in subjective interpretation by respondents of what are socially acceptable, possibly confounding results.
Practical implications - Consumers bring to the buying decision different types of experiences and expectations. Understanding how males and females seek varied sources of external information is relevant to the service industry in designing promotional plans whether the product of choice is a restaurant, vacation resort, and hotel or tourism destination such as a winery.
Originality/value - The contribution of this research is to broaden the understanding of search behavior and the role gender plays, particularly during different purchase situations.
Keywords: Purchase confidence; Consumer behavior; Search behavior
Paper Type - research paper
Citation # 43
Kolyesnikova, N., & Dodd, T.H. (2009). There is no such thing as a free wine tasting: The effect of a tasting fee on obligation to buy. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 26(8), 806–819.
Building on reciprocity theory, the current study suggests that, at least to some extent, consumers purchase goods and services in response to sampling due to a perceived need to reciprocate for trying the products/services. In addition, the study explores the effect of charging for sampling (i.e., wine tasting) on tourist behavior. The sample (N = 357) was drawn from visitors to six wineries in an emerging wine region. Three of the sampled wineries charged a small fee for tasting, while the other three wineries offered complimentary wine tasting. The study examined whether differences exist in a perceived need to buy wine between visitors who paid a tasting fee and those who tasted wine for free. The results indicated that visitors who had complimentary wine tasting spent significantly more money at the wineries than visitors who paid a fee for tasting. Furthermore, visitors who tasted wine for free felt significantly more appreciative of the personnel than did visitors who paid a tasting fee. Also, visitors who had complimentary wine tasting reported significantly higher levels of obligation to make a purchase at the end of their visits to the wineries. Managerial implications are discussed.
Keywords: Wine tourism; Charging; Tasting; Gratitude; Obligation; Reciprocity
Citation # 44
Barber, N., & Dodd, T. (2009). The mediating effect of self-confidence on knowledge during a consumer’s decision to purchase. FIU Hospitality Review, 27(4), 42-60.
Citation # 45
Barber, N., Taylor, D.C., & Dodd, T. (2009). The importance of wine bottle closures in retail purchase decisions of consumers. Journal of Hospitality Marketing and Management, 18(4). 597-614.
This study examines the importance of different wine bottle closures, such as natural cork, synthetic cork, and screw tops, in the retail purchase decision of wine by millennials and baby boomers. By segmenting consumers in this manner, it is possible to better understand their preferences and aid wine producers and retailers in directing their marketing and advertising efforts. The results of this study indicate that the type of bottle closure impacts the consumers purchase decision differently, depending on the type of purchase—whether for personal consumption, gift giving, or special occasion. Wineries and retailers of wine will find that closure type does impact consumer perceptions and its relevancy to market segmentation.
Keywords: Bottle corks; Stoppers; Wine service; Market segmentation; Consumers preferences; Wine bottles; Screw caps.
Citation # 46
Kolyesnikova, N., Laverie, D.A, Duhan, D.F., Wilcox, J.B., & Dodd, T.H. (2010). The influence of product knowledge on purchase venue choice: Does knowing more lead from bricks to clicks? Supply Chain Forum: An International Journal, 11(1), 28–40.
This study examines consumer choice of purchase venues. Specifically, the study explores consumer characteristics (product knowledge, product involvement, and age) as they relate to the choice of purchase venue: physical venues (restaurants, bars, grocery stores, or liquor stores) versus virtual venues (mail order or Internet). The results indicate that subjective product knowledge is positively related to the use of virtual purchase venues. Conversely, objective knowledge is positively related to the use of physical purchase venues and negatively related to the use of virtual venues. Product involvement and age are positively related to both subjective and objective knowledge. In addition, both product involvement and age have indirect and positive relationships with purchase-venue choices.
Keywords: Purchase venues, Knowledge, Involvement, Wine consumers
Citation # 47
Charters, S., Kolyesnikova, N., Ritchie, C., Fountain, J., Thach, L., Dodd, T., Fish, N., Herbst, F., & Terblanche, N. (2011). Generation Y and sparkling wines: A cross-cultural perspective. International Journal of Wine Business Research, 23(2), 161-175.
Purpose – The aim of this study is to investigate and compare the engagement of Generation Y consumers with champagne and sparkling wine across five Anglophone countries.
Design/methodology/approach – A qualitative approach was adopted using focus groups with young consumers, including images and wine tasting as projective stimuli.
Findings – There were significant trans‐cultural similarities between consumption behaviour (sparkling wine is a women's drink, and a separate category from still wine, and that they will “grow into” drinking it) but also noticeable differences (responses to images and colours varied substantially, as did attitudes to price and the particular status of champagne).
Research limitations/implications – Research into the behaviour of Generation Y as a cohort needs to take account of cultural as much as generational context. However, as a qualitative study the findings need further quantitative validation.
Practical implications – Marketers cannot view Generation Y as a single group; even within countries marketing strategies may need to be refined depending on where a product is being sold.
Originality/value – No trans‐cultural study on Generation Y has been carried out to date, nor has their engagement with sparkling wine been specifically explored.
Citation # 48
Kolyesnikova, N., Sullivan Dodd, S.L., & Callison, C. (2011). Consumer affective responses to direct mail messages: The effect of gratitude and obligation. Journal of Marketing Communications, 17(5), 337-353.
The research opens new ways of utilizing emotional content in direct mail messages. The study considered the capacity of gratitude (e.g. to personnel for services received) and obligation (e.g. to make a purchase) to act as separate affective influences upon consumer purchase intent and attitudes toward the company. Participants (N = 120) were exposed to direct mail copy text in mock postcards sent from a hypothetical winery to its visitors. A total of six postcards were used (two gratitude-inducing, two obligation-inducing, and two neutral controls). The study offers strong evidence that gratitude and obligation operate differently in their impact on consumer attitudes and behaviors. Gratitude exerts a more positive influence than does obligation. Communicating through gratitude, and even neutral, messages was found to be more persuasive than those messages conveying obligation.
Keywords: Direct mail messages; Reciprocity; Affective responses
Citation # 49
Murova, O., Kolyesnikova, N., & Dodd, T. (2012). The wine distribution system in the Dominican Republic: A qualitative approach. International Journal of Managing Value and Supply Chains. 3(3), 1-12.
This research presents a case study of the wine distribution system of the Dominican Republic (DR). It focuses on the emerging wine market which is not a wine producing region, however represents a large and growing market for export of wine. Data were collected though in-depth interviews with major representatives of the DR wine distribution system–importers, retailers, managers of restaurants, allinclusive resorts, and hotels. In addition, field observations were used as a mechanism of qualitative data collection. The findings show that almost all available wine in the DR is controlled by importers. Importers negotiate promotional costs, slot fees, and promotional budgets with the producers and provide credit to retailers. The Dominican Republic wine market operates in a highly competitive environment; Spain, Chile, Italy, and the United States are primary competitors on this market. Retail represents the biggest channel for sales of imported wines.
Keywords: Wine supply chain; Dominican Republic; Emerging markets
Citation # 50
Chen, Y.C., Reed, D.B., Velikova, N. & Wang, S. (2012). University student sample is unable to accurately assess their calorie needs: Implications for weight management and menu labeling. Food and Nutrition Sciences, 3, 505-510.
National surveys have shown that over 80% of adults do not know their recommended calorie levels. Lack of knowledge about calorie needs could be contributing to the high prevalence of obesity in the US. Young adulthood is a crucial period for the development of dietary behaviors that continue into later adulthood and influence the risk of obesity and chronic disease. This study examined university students’ knowledge of their recommended calorie needs. Subjects (N = 153) were students at Texas Tech University in Fall 2010. Students were given a survey to assess perceived daily calorie need (PDCN) and perceived daily calorie intake (PDCI). Their recommended daily calorie needs (RDCN) and actual calorie intakes (ACI) were determined using MyPyramid.gov. PDCN, PDCI, RDCN, and ACI were compared to determine students’ ability to accurately estimate and consume recommended daily calorie levels. The range of their PDCN was 120 kcal to 10,000 kcal. Only 19.7% of students estimated their RDCN accurately. There were significant differences between PDCN and RDCN (t  = ?3.223, P = 0.002); PDCI and ACI (t  = 3.246, P = 0.002); and ACI and RDCN (t  = ?5.6, P = 0.000). Nearly 40% of these university students were overweight. BMI had a significant effect (P = 0.001) on students’ estimation of their RDCN as students with underweight/normal BMI were more accurate. Nutrition education programs focused on calorie needs should be implemented with university students so they will be able to effectively use calorie information on food labels and menus for weight management.
Keywords: University Students; BMI; Knowledge of Calorie Needs
Citation # 51
Hammond, R., Velikova, N., & Dodd. T.H. (2013). Effects of processing styles on the preference of restaurant menu type: How do Millennials compare to other segments? Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 16(1), 20-39.
Employing an online survey, U.S. Millennials' wine consumers processing styles (cognitive versus affective) were identified and restaurant menu information preferences (visual versus verbal) were examined. Participants' processing styles were established then presented graphics of hypothetical restaurant menus, one visually oriented (symbols) and one verbally oriented (text). No significance was found in processing style across generational segments. Verbal was chosen over visual by those identified as Thinkers (high cognition / low affect). Feelers (low cognition / high affect) and Combiners (high cognition / high affect) were expected to choose visual menu yet also chose the verbal menu. The results support the continued use of traditional verbal menus used in restaurants.
Keywords: Millennials; Processing styles; Wine information preference
Citation # 52
Hammond, R., Velikova, N., & Dodd. T.H. (2013). Information sources used by Millennial restaurant wine consumers. Journal of Foodservice Business Research, 16(5), 468-485.
An on-line survey was used to identify information sources used by U.S. Millennials for restaurant wine purchases based on experience, involvement, and subjective and objective wine knowledge. The most to least used information sources include wine list, server, self, and friends, respectively. Standard multiple regression determined that level of experience influenced the use of personal information sources. More experience and higher levels of subjective knowledge and objective knowledge all pointed to the use of self as an information source. No significant differences were found among generational segments.
Keywords: Millennial; Services marketing theory; Wine; Restaurant; Information sources
Citation # 53
Velikova, N., Murova, O., & Dodd, T.H. (2013). Emerging wine market in the Dominican Republic: Consumer market analysis. Wine Economics and Policy, 2, 76-84.
Existing wine literature focuses largely on developing wine producing countries, often, overlooking markets that are not wine producing regions. These markets, however, may comprise, lucrative markets for export. The current study seeks to gain insights into one such market. Specifically, the study focuses on wine consumer behavior and wine market analysis in the Dominican, Republic. Quantitative methodology incorporated a consumer survey conducted through supermarkets, and liquor stores intercepts in the Dominican Republic. Additionally, secondary data were used for market analysis.
Keywords: Emerging wine market; Dominican Republic; Consumer analysis
Citation # 54
Rinaldo, S.B., Duhan, D.F., Trela, B.C., Dodd, T.H., & Velikova, N. (2013). Evaluating tastes and aromas of wine: A peek inside of the “Black Box.” International Journal of Wine Business Research, 26(3), 208-223.
Purpose – Wine tasting is an integral method for engaging consumers. Producers go to great lengths to educate consumers on evaluating quality based on taste and aroma. Understanding the sensory and perceptual processes of wine tasting may offer insight into how consumers at different levels of wine expertise use their senses to evaluate wine.
Design/methodology/approach – This study used functional near-infrared spectroscopy to examine processing in the frontal lobe of the brain during wine tasting and aroma evaluation. Sixty subjects evaluated the tastes and aromas of wine samples with various levels of sweetness, whereas 16 defined areas of their frontal lobes were measured with functional near infrared measurement.
Findings – The subjects’ orbitofrontal cortices were activated during both olfaction (smelling) and tasting. Further, larger areas of the frontal lobes showed significant activation during the olfaction task than during the tasting task. The level of the subjects’ wine knowledge did not predict differences in neural processing when participants evaluated aroma of wine; however, subjects with higher wine knowledge did show significantly higher activation in specific frontal lobe regions when tasting. Differences in levels of product involvement among the subjects were not significant for the tasting task, but were significant for the olfaction task.
Originality/value – Developing a better understanding of the biological processes involved in tasting may lead to understanding the differences in consumer preferences for wine. This, in turn, may assist tasting room managers to adjust their tasting procedure to be tailored to consumer-specific needs.