Texas Tech University

Paul B. Ingram, Ph.D.

Associate Professor
Psychological Sciences, Counseling Program

Email: paul.ingram@ttu.edu

Phone: (806) 834-3354

CV: Click here
Lab: 401

Lab Site: https://drpaulingram.com/

Google Scholar: https://scholar.google.com/


B.A., University of North Carolina at Asheville
M.A., Western Carolina University (Clinical)
Ph.D., University of Kansas (Counseling)
Internship, Eastern Kansas Veteran Affairs

Dr. Ingram will be taking one student for the 2024-2025 academic year.


Research Interests

My research focuses on two general areas. First, my research emphasizing diagnostic efficiency. Much of this work centers on individuals who served in the military using personality assessment inventories like the MMPI-2-RF/MMPI-3 or PAI. At times my research extends beyond military/veteran populations; however, the focus remains on diagnostic issues particularly prevalent within these populations. Specifically, I focus on improving diagnostic understanding of trauma/PTSD, detection of symptom misrepresentation, and depression. Broadly speaking, the goal of that work is to effectively identify individuals with substantive clinical concerns that may necessitate additional services. Secondly, I conduct research on treatment utilization with a goal of improving prediction on who initiates or drops-out of clinical services. My work on therapy utilization encompasses factors influencing mental health attitudes, as well as predicting actual treatment outcomes (e.g., early termination or symptom reduction patterns while in therapy). Relatedly, my research in this area also encompasses the effectiveness of psychological treatments, particularly those related to trauma or depression.

Are you taking graduate students this fall?

Please visit my lab website for an up-to-date status on graduate student applications to my lab.

Undergraduate Research Assistant

Below is a link to my research lab. If you are interested in being part of my team here at Tech, take the time to carefully fill out this application so that you may be considered. I have an amazing team of graduate and undergraduate students and I am regularly looking for more highly qualified students who want to join us. 


Selected Research Articles

Additional information about papers and projects are available on my personal website. Underlined are TTU graduate students working with me. Those with a * are my advisees.
  • Morris, N.M.*, Ingram, P.B., & Armistead-Jehle, P. (In Press). Relationship of Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) over-reporting scales to Performance Validity Testing in a military sample. Journal of Military Psychology.
  • Morris, N.M.*, Mattera, J., Golden, B.L*., Moses, S.*, & Ingram, P.B. (In Press). Evaluating the performance of the MMPI-3 Over-reporting Scales: Sophisticated simulators and the effects of comorbid conditions. The Clinical Neuropsychologist. Advanced Online Publication.
  • Ingram, P.B.Golden, B.L.*, & Arminstead-Jehle. (2020). Evaluating the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) over-reporting scales in a military neuropsychology clinic. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
  • Ingram, P.B., Tarescavage, A.M., Ben-Porath, Y.S., & Oehlert, M.E. (2019). Comparing MMPI-2-Restructured Form Scores by Service Era for Veterans assessed within the Veteran Affairs Healthcare System. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings. 
  • Ingram, P.B., Tarescavage, A.M., Ben-Porath, Y.S., & Oehlert, M.E. (2019). Descriptive characteristics of the MMPI-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF) substantive scores across a national sample of four Veteran Affair treatment settings. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment41, 329-340. 
  • Ingram, P.B.,Bergquist, B.K., Currin, J.M., & Schmidt, A.T. (In Press). Applicant Factors contributing to Interview Selection, Ranking Determination, and Judgement of “Fit” Among Health Service Psychology Internship Training Programs. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 77(11), 2491-2506. 
  • Ingram, P.B., Tarescavage, A.M., Ben-Porath, Y.S., & Oehlert, M.E. (2019). Validity scales: Patterns observed across Veteran Affairs settings [Measurement-Based Care and Psychological Assessment in Mental Health Services]. Psychological Services, 17(3), 355-362.