Texas Tech University

Imprinting the West

 

Imprinting the West

Imprinting the West: Manifest Destiny, Real and Imagined – Westward expansion was one of the most transformational elements throughout the nineteenth century. Printed imagery played an important role in the dissemination of knowledge and understanding and those who inhabited it. Imprinting the West: Manifest Destiny, Real and Imagined features 48 hand-colored engravings that explore these depictions and the influence artist had on the perception of the wild west.


In 1803, President Thomas Jefferson purchased the expansive territory known as Louisiana from Napoleon, King of France, a transaction that extended the nation's boundaries by 828,000 square miles, including all present-day Arkansas, Missouri, Iowa, Oklahoma, and parts of Minnesota, North and South Dakota, New Mexico, Texas, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and Louisiana. This Louisiana Purchase set the stage for great exploration and discovery, migration, and settlement, in addition to struggle and conflict. Convinced that God wanted the country to extend to the Pacific coast – an idea called “Manifest Destiny” – scores of American citizens, including painters and printmakers, moved west.


The works featured in Imprinting the West explore the potent imagery of the time that shaped how the American Indians and the West were understood. Westward expansion in the nineteenth century was intertwined closely with the experiences of American Indian peoples. The Indian Removal Act of 1830 dislocated native populations in the east areas west of the Mississippi River and was justified by the self-serving claim that the so-called “savages” would wither in the presence of “civilization.” The migration westward and settlement of white Americans only accelerated territorial tensions, which often culminated in bloodshed.


Several artists, including George Catlin, aspired to document the appearance and was the so-called “vanishing race.” Artist also accompanied governmental geographical surveys of the West, making landscapes and portraits that illustrated official publications. Such images were available in a variety of printed formats; portfolios of lithographs, like those featured in Imprinting the West, were sold at higher prices. Paintings by well-known artists, such as western landscape painter Albert Bierstadt, were sometimes engraved for the mass market. Also, later in the century, art was engraved to illustration articles in popular periodicals, including Harper's Weekly and Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper. Much of this imagery was created with an international or eastern audience in mind, and it both drew from a promoted fantasies about Native Americans and the West as much as it documented reality.


Imprinting the West is curated by Dr. Randall Griffey, Associate Curator of Modern American Art on the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, NY. In 2011.