Texas Tech University

APA Citations

Note: Always read your assignments carefully and defer to your instructors' guidelines if they differ from APA. Instructors may have their own preferences about citing and formatting. This page represents the standard APA style according to the APA Manual 7th Edition. A printable version of this information is available here.

If you need more help, schedule an appointment at your writing center!

Formatting APA Papers

How to set up the title page and first page for a student APA paper

Image of a title page for student A P A paper. The title, author, and university name are centered and halfway down the page. The page number is in the top right-hand corner. The running head is in all capital letters in the top left-hand corner in the document header. The page number it in the top-right corner.The running head is a shorter version of the full paper title. The actual paper title is written in title case. The words “Running head:” are removed from all papers. The shortened title in the header is not required for students according to APA. Refer to your instructor’s preferences.

The rest of the Title Page includes the Full Title, Author, and Institutional Affiliation in that order. They are centered on the Title Page from left to right and top to bottom. No date is needed unless your instructor specifies for it to be included.


Image of the second page of a student A P A paper.  If the running head is included, it is in the header of every page. The page number 2 is in the top right corner.

The title is repeated on page 2 before the body of the paper. If there is an abstract or author's note, it will come between the title page and main paper.The paper has 1” margins, excluding the header.The text should have double spacing with no extra lines between paragraphs.Indent paragraphs

How to make a Running Head

If your instructor still wants the words “Running head:” on the title page, here is how to make the first page with a different header:

  • Microsoft Word Software: Select the Insert tab. Click the Header dropdown menu, and choose your header. After doing so, Word will bring up the Header Design Tab. Check the Different First Page option.
  • Word Online: (TTU Student Version): Select the Insert tab. Click Header & Footer. While in the Header, click on Options dropdown menu to far right of screen. Select Different First Page.
  • Google Docs: Select Insert dropdown menu. Click Header & page number. Click Header. Click Different first page check box.

How to make a hanging indent for the References page

A hanging indent is when the first line of a paragraph is flush against the left margin and the following lines in the paragraph come in half an inch. For the References page, this means the authors' last names stick out and are easy to locate and read.

  • Microsoft Word Software: Select the sources you are ready to format. On your Home tab, click the arrow to the right of the word Paragraph (it is pointing down and to the right). This will open a new menu. Look for the Indentation section and the option Special. Click the Special dropdown, and select Hanging.
  • Word Online: (TTU Student Version): Click on downward-pointing triangle to the right of the icon that has horizontal lines and a backwards ‘P' (Paragraph icon). Click on Special Indent. Click on Hanging Indent.
  • Google Docs: Select the sources you are ready to format. Click on the Format menu at the top of the page, then Align & Indent, and click on Indentation options at the bottom of the menu. This will open a pop-up window. Click the selection bar under Special indent, and select Hanging. Click on Apply.

In-Text Citations

In-text citations, both narrative and parenthetical appear in the body of a paper.
For APA style, narrative means the author's name and year are part of sentence; however, the page number will still be in parentheses at the end of the sentence. Parenthetical means the author's name, year, and the page number are in parentheses at the end of the sentence but still inside the ending punctuation mark.
The two main components are the author's last name and publishing year.

One (1) author

Narrative example:

After 3 years of research, Rociano (2016) determined the base was ineffective in multiple settings (p. 65).

Parenthetical example:

The base was used in multiple experiments during a 3-year period, but it proved to be ineffective (Rociano, 2016, p. 65).

If there is no page number, leave it out.

Two (2) authors

For narrative citations, separate the authors' last names with the word "and." For parenthetical citations, separate the authors' last names with the & symbol.

Narrative example:

Yaiba and Gotouge (2022) found several examples of cooperation in the original texts (pp. 382-393).

Parenthetical example:

Most of the examples were included in the study (Yaiba & Gotouge, 2022, p. 382).

Three (3) or more authors

If there are three or more authors, you only list the first author's last name in text, followed by the Latin abbreviation et al. and the publication year.

Narrative example:

Additionally, Matanza et al. (1975) were the first to report the effects of porous materials added to volleyball court flooring (p. 3).

Parenthetical example:

The new material added buoyancy to the floor and decreased player injuries (Matanza et al., 1975, p. 3).

One (1) author with multiple last names

If an author has a hyphenated last name or two last names, include them both in the in-text citations.

Narrative example:

D. R. Torres-Beale (2021) found instability in building foundations often resulted from inferior aggregates in the cement.

Parenthetical example:

School nurses often leave their jobs after 4 years due to confusing guidelines from school districts (Harent Gallagher, S., 2018).

Abbreviations and particles in last names

If an author has an abbreviation (e.g., St. James) or particle (e.g., de la, von) in their name, include it in the in-text citations. Leave out suffixes such as Jr. or VIII.

Narrative example:

The parameters, as set by H. von Schmidt Schwarzt (1972), require 5 days for incubation (p. 12).

Parenthetical example:

If the parameters are not followed, the results cannot be compared to the standard markers (von Schmidt Schwarzt, 1972, p. 102).

Corporate, university, or government author

A business, university, or government agency can produce documents. If they have a common acronym, spell out their name the first time and use the acronym for subsequent references.

Narrative example:

Texas Tech University (TTU) (2007) increased student retention through two key initiatives (p. 2).

Parenthetical example:

The initiatives encouraged students to use the many resources available to them (TTU, 2007, p. 3).

Narrative example:

MagneBlock Inc. (2019) created the first toy building block that uses electromagnetic forces to hold the blocks together.

Parenthetical example:

Without increasing user difficulty, the blocks hold designs together even when met with greater forces (MagneBlock Inc., 2019, p. 5).

No author

For webpages without a specified author, some historical documents, or other artifacts that do not have an author, use the first couple of words in place of the author's name.

Narrative citations are not recommended when there is no author. Rewrite to use the parenthetical format instead.

Parenthetical example:

The UWC had a waiting list ("Frequently asked questions", n.d.).

Secondary author

Sometimes you find good information from an author who is quoting someone else. Ideally, you will find the original source and cite it yourself. When that is not possible, you can cite the secondary author without a publication year in the text and the primary author, for whom you have the source, parenthetically.


Linn said, "Without the fine arts program, half of the kids would have dropped out of school," (as cited in Richards, 1999, p. 331).

Videos or podcasts

Instead of referencing a page number, include a time stamp with an Hour:Minute:Second format, as needed.

Narrative example:

Becks (2020) explained, "No time might ever be exactly right, you just have do your best in any moment" (1:00:13).

Parenthetical example:

Being prepared for any situation is always beneficial (Beck, 2020, 27:30).

No date

Academic sources have a publication date. Other sources, like webpages, often do not. Use n.d. (i.e., no date) in place of the year.

Narrative example:

The UWC (n.d.) waiting list is built into the schedule.

Parenthetical example:

Appointments are available every day of the week except Saturday (UWC, n.d.).

Multiple sources, same idea (APA, p. 263)

If you have multiple sources stating the same general idea, you can put them all in the same in-text citation. List the authors alphabetically and separated by semicolons.

Parenthetical example:

This is a consistent problem in the field (Alle et al., 2019; Riley, 1999; Taylor & Gold, 2022).


General order of information, including punctuation

Author. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), page numbers. doi/URL

Style, formatting, and capitalization

  • Chapter titles, lecture titles, episode titles, etc., are not italicized. Titles of books, journals, magazine, websites, etc., are italicized.
  • For Chapter titles and Book titles, only the First word and Proper Names are capitalized. Journal Titles capitalize all IMPORTANT words (such as nouns, verbs, and words more than 4 letters long).
  • There is NO SPACE between the volume and issue numbers for journals. The volume number is italicized; the issue number is not [e.g., 11(4)].
  • There is NO punctuation at the end of the doi or URL.

Author names

  • Authors are listed alphabetically by last name and first initial(s) only, not full first names (e.g., Clay, R.).
  • If an author has a first and middle initial, put a space between the letters (e.g., Clay, R. D.).
  • If an author has a hyphenated last name or two last names, spell them both out (e.g., Torres-Beale, D. R.; Harent Gallagher, S.)
  • If an author has a last name with a particle (e.g., de, van, von), leave it lower case and alphabetize the author by the particle (e.g., von Schmit Schwarzt, H. would be alphabetized as a "V" name and not an "S" name).

Multiple Authors

Use the & symbol, not the word “and,” with multiple authors with a comma before the & (e.g., Clay, R., & Lopez, E.).

"Retrieved from"

The APA 7th edition does not require the words “Retrieved (insert date) from (insert URL),” unless citing a webpage that is occasionally updated making the date retrieved important. Defer to your instructor's preferences. See APA 7th ed., p. 290.


Undergraduate Writing Center. (n.d.). Hours and locations. Retrieved June 20, 2023 from https://www.depts.ttu.edu/provost/uwc/undergraduate/Hours_Location.php


Webpage, should not change, individual author (APA p. 351)

Zimmerman, K. (2020, June 27). Why are there always pigeons? Migration habits. Audubon Today. https://www.audubonandbirds.na.co



References (When creating your list, make sure all entries are use hanging indent. See above for instructions on how to do that.)

One Author
(APA p. 321)

Aplom, M. A. (1999). Computer problems? A study of computer dependency. Taylor & Francis.

Journal Article
2 to 20 Authors
(APA p. 317)

Berg-Damm, K. L., & Kulik, J. A. (2005). Volunteer support and the survival times of terminally ill patients. Health Psychology, 24(1), 225-229. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.24.2.225

Article number instead of page numbers
(APA p. 294-95)

Bingley, Q. (2023). CRISPR genome editing to cure sickle cell anemia.Cell Biology Today and Tomorrow, 1(1), Article e0509888.

Book Chapter
(APA p. 326)

Brayburn, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being. In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). Guilford Press.

Government Agency or Other Organization
(APA p. 329-331)


California Department of Health and Human Services. (2003). Managing asthma: A guide for schools (CDH Publication No. 02-2650). http://www.califhealth.gov/health/prof/lung/asthma/asth_sch.pdf

(APA p. 332)
(PowerPoint slides,
APA p. 347)

Curry, T. (2017, October 3). Why psychology matters today [Class lecture]. PSCH 2100, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, United States.

Online Newspaper or Magazine
(APA p. 320)

Donadio, R. (2019, September 1). The joys of a quiet Paris. The Pacific. https://www.thepacific.com/international/archive/2019/597163/

Conference Session
(APA pp. 297 & 332)

Douglas, C., Jones, K., & Ani, B. (2023, June 12-15). Building satellite locations: Making choices that last [Conference session]. National Writing Center Conference, Oklahoma City, OK, United States. https://www.nwc.com/conference/......./Session9517.html

Paper Presentation
(APA pp. 297 & 332)

Dwight, L. (2022, September 30-October 2). An argument for a car-free campus [Paper presentation]. Annual Meeting for Campus Safety, Tyler, TX, United States. https://amcs.edu/2022/archive/...../car-free/

YouTube and other videos
(APA p. 344)

Fogarty, M. [Grammar Girl]. (2020, January 23). How to write anything [Video]. YouTube. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YGOekZTdQ4g

Episode of TV series
(APA p. 343)

Fury, D. (Writer), & Yaitanes, G. (Director). (2005, January 19). Special (Season 1, Episode 14) [TV seriesepisode]. In J. J. Abrams (Executive Producer), Lost. Bad Robot.

Tweet and other Online Media, include first 20 words
(APA p. 348-350)

Gates, B. [@BillGates]. (2013, February 26). #Polio is 99% eradicated. Join me & @FCBarcelona as we work tofinish the job and #EndPolio. VIDEO: http://b-gat.es/X75Lvy [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/BillGates/status/30619534584

More than 20 authors, if 20 or fewer, list all with the same order as source.
(APA p. 317)

Gilbert, D. G., McClernon, J. F., Rabinovich, N. E., Sugai, C.,Plath, L. C., Asgaard, G., . . . Botros, N. (2004). Effects of quitting smoking on EEG activation and attention lastfor more than 31 days. Nicotine Research, 6(2), 249-267. https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200410001676305

Podcast, Song, etc. (APA pp. 344-345)

Martin, K. D. (Host). (2017-2019). Shadow frame [Audio podcast]. TalkTime. https://www.martinstalktime.co

Online E-Book
(APA p. 321-322)

Poe, Edgar Allan. (1902). The complete works of Edgar Allan Poe (J. A. Harrison, Ed.). Thomas Y. Crowell & Company. https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?d=coo.31924079574368&

Blog Entry (APA p. 320)

Shepler, J. (2018, March 4). The difference between blog and news. Mojo Media Labs. https://resources.mojomedialabs.com/blog/the-difference-between-blog-and-news

(APA p. 346)

Wyeth, A. (1948). Christina's world [Painting]. MoMA, Manhattan, NY, United States. https://www.moma.org/collection/works/78455?classifications

Webpage, content might change (APA p. 352)

Zoo to You. (n.d.). Summer rental prices. Retrieved June 3 2022, from https://zoo2u.ci.tx

Webpage, should not change, group author (APA p. 351)

Eastman Kodak Co. (2023, June 27). Kodak expands advanced materials & chemicals offering with textile test facility. https://www.kodak.com/en/company/press-release/textile-test-facility


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